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HISTORY OF BUFFALO> ^ 

DELINEATING THE EVOLUTION OF THE CITY 
B-i- J. N. Larned 



THE CITY OF ROCHESTER 

Built in 1890 and remodelled in 1901. Now under the 
management of Woolley &AGerrans, also managers of the 
Grand Union Hotel at Saratoga Springs, New York, and 
the Ma$e{4ifoin^4 |l f ro^fd^Nfy ^id-jf^l^^^S^eet, New 
York City. 

My The Hon. Ellis H Roberts 



VOL. II 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE PROGRESS OF THE EMPIRE STATE COMPANY 
. N E W Y O R K 



1911 



A 
HISTORY OF BUFFALO,77 



DELINEATING THE EVOLUTION OF THE CITY 

By J. N. Larned 



WITH SKETCHES OF 

THE CITY OF ROCHESTER 

By The Hon. Charles E. Fitch 

AND 

THE CITY OF UTICA 

By The Hon. Ellis H. Roberts 



VOL. II 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE PROGRESS OF THE EMPIRE STATE COMPANY 
NEW YOR K 



1911 



1^14066 
CONTENTS OF VOLUME II 

INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION — Continued 

Chapter Page 

IV. Metal Working and Machinery . . i 

V. Miscellaneous Industries . . i8 

CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

I. Protestant Churches and Jewish Religious 

Societies . . . .31 

II. The Roman Catholic Church . . 68 

III. Institutions of General Benevolence . 82 

IV. Institutions of Specialized Benevolence 108 
V. Education ..... 130 

VI. Literary Institutions and Organizations 157 

VII. Scientific Institutions . . . 176 

VIII. Local Literature — The Newspaper Press 188 

IX. Art . . . , . . 204 

X. Social Organization . . . 222 

Rochester, Past and Present . . 228 

Utica, its History and Progress . 257 

Index ...... 293 



INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 



CHAPTER IV 
METAL WORKING AND MACHINERY 

THE earliest of the Buffalo manufactures of machinery 
which grew to importance and has had a continuous 
existence to the present time appears to have been 
that of flour-mill machinery, founded in 1834 by Elisha 
Hayward and now represented by the works of the Noye 
Manufacturing Company. Mr. John T. Noye came into 
partnership with Mr. Hayward at an early stage of the 
business, bringing to it a practical knowledge of the milling 
business and an energy of character which pushed it rap- 
idly to an increasing success. It was the only manufacture 
of the kind west of Utica and north of Cincinnati and Bal- 
timore; and the development of the wheat-lands of the 
Northwest opened an always widening market for the ma- 
chinery it produced. The increase of business was constant 
until about 1882, when the sales of the establishment ex- 
ceeded $1,400,000, and it employed about 400 men. West- 
ern competition since that time, at Indianapolis, Milwaukee, 
Leavenworth, St. Louis, Moline, 111., Richmond, Ind., and 
other points, has narrowed its field. Within recent years a 
department of steam engines and another of automobile 
specialties have been introduced in the works. At succes- 
sive periods in the seventy-four years of its existence, the 
business has been carried on in the names of Elisha Hay- 
ward, Hayward & Noye, John T. Noye, The John T. Noye 
Manufacturing Company, and the present Noye Manufac- 
turing Company, of which Richard K. Noye, son of John 
T. Noye, is the president. Its plant was on the Hamburg 
Canal between Main and Washington streets till 1886, when 
it was removed to its present site on Lake View Avenue. 



2 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

The manufacture of edged tools was introduced in Buf- 
falo as early as 1837, by L. and I. J. White, under whose 
name it has been carried on continuously to the present time. 
The business has grown to large dimensions, operating an 
extensive plant on Perry and Columbia streets, and selling 
its product in all parts of the world. For some years past 
incorporated, as the L. & I. J. White Company, of which 
John G. H. Marvin is president, M. White vice-president, 
and J. W. White general superintendent. 

Next in date of origin, among the manufactories that have 
had importance in the industrial history of the city and a 
continuous career, is that which bears now the name of the 
Buffalo Pitts Company. Its founders were John A. and 
Hiram Pitts, twin brothers, of Winthrop, Maine, who were 
the first American inventors of threshing machinery, and 
who patented, in 1837, the first successful threshing and 
separating machine combined. Prior to this they had made 
improvements on the old style of thresher, which turned out 
grain, chaff and straw together, to be separated by another 
operation. In combining the thresher and the fanning mill, 
producing the "endless apron" or "grain belt" separator, 
they opened a new era in that line of invention, and the 
principles covered by their original patents have been fol- 
lowed in all improvements since. In 1840 John A. Pitts 
came to Buffalo and established the manufacture of the new 
threshing machine here, at the corner of Fourth and Caro- 
lina streets, from which place the shops have never been 
changed, though enlarged till they contain many acres of 
floor space. 

On the death of Mr. Pitts, in 1859, the management of 
the business passed to James Brayley, who conducted it for 
many years. In 1877 the proprietors were incorporated, 
under the name of The Pitts Agricultural Works, James 
Brayley president, Thomas Sully secretary. This title was 



AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY 3 

changed to that of Buffalo Pitts Company in 1897, when 
Carleton Sprague became president of the company. Re- 
cently Mr. Sprague retired, and the present officers of the 
company are C. M. Greiner, president and treasurer; 
William G. Gomez, vice-president; John B. Olmsted, 
secretary. 

Under all administrations the business has expanded con- 
tinually, its products going to all parts of the world. Those 
products are not only the threshing machinery for all kinds 
of grain, flax, rice, beans, etc., but traction and portable 
engines, that burn wood, coal, straw or oil for fuel; special 
steam traction engines for plowing, hauling and grading; 
road locomotives and road freight cars for hauling ore, 
timber, logs, etc., and special cars for carrying and spread- 
ing crushed stone. The development of the steam traction 
engine is due to this company. 

The plant of the company is operated by electric power 
from Niagara Falls, and is equipped with the latest and 
most complete system of electric and pneumatic machinery. 
It employs a large force of men, and the shops are run 
throughout the year. The company maintains important 
branches at Minneapolis, Fargo, Portland, Oregon, Spo- 
kane, Wichita, Houston, and other points east and west. 

The old Buffalo Steam Engine Works, founded in 1841, 
had a long and important career. Acquired by George W. 
Tifift in 1857, the works were carried on by him and his 
family, in the firm of George W. Tifift, Sons & Co., for many 
years, turning out a very considerable part of the product 
of the city in steam engines, boilers and architectural 
cast-iron. 

In 1842 David Bell, a Scotch machinist and mechanical 
engineer, came to Buffalo and found employment at the 
Buffalo Steam Engine Works, then lately brought into 
operation. In 1845 he joined William McNish in starting 



4 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

a small plant for the same business. The partnership was 
dissolved in 1850 and David Bell continued it alone. A 
few years later his works were burned, just after the expira- 
tion of insurance, and he began anew with little to capitalize 
his undertaking except the stuff of courageous energy in 
himself. He not only rebuilt his works, but enlarged their 
scale. In business management he could hardly be called 
successful; but he kept his feet, and was always at the front 
of new ventures in his line. He built the "Merchant," the 
first iron propeller on the lakes. He began locomotive 
building in 1865. He constructed for the city its first fire- 
boat, in 1887. He was full of enterprise to the end of his 
life, and the David Bell Engineering Works, which sur- 
vived him, were merged, in 1907, in the Buffalo Foundry 
and Machine Company, of which some account will be 
given later on. 

Mr. William Pryor Letchworth came to Buffalo in 1848 
from New York City, where he had been engaged 
for a time, in the interest of Peter Hayden, of Columbus, 
Ohio, establishing the sale and manufacture of saddlery 
hardware in that section. At Buffalo he formed a partner- 
ship with the brothers Samuel F. and Pascal P. Pratt, under 
the name of Pratt & Letchworth, opening a store at No. 165 
Main Street, as importers and wholesale and retail dealers 
in and manufacturers of saddlery hardware. 

The firm was the first in our vicinity to engage in the 
manufacture of this branch of hardware, and its establish- 
ment was soon recognized as headquarters, in a measure, for 
general supplies to dealers in its department of trade, from 
both American and foreign makers, as well as from its own 
works. The limits of the original store were outgrown by 
the business in a few years, and it was removed to The 
Terrace, at No. 52, where its principal offices were located 
for two decades or more. Railroads as well as steamboats 



MALLEABLE IRON.— OPEN HEARTH STEEL 5 

on the great rivers were now enlarging the sphere of trade 
from the Lakes with extraordinary rapidity, and the firm 
of Pratt & Letchworth won its full share of the consequent 
gain. 

In 1856 Mr. Letchworth's health had become somewhat 
impaired by his application to business, and he made an 
extended pleasure tour in Europe, leaving much of the 
detail of the business to a younger brother. It was not 
many years after his return that he bought the beautiful 
estate on the Genesee River, near Portage, which he named 
Glen Iris, and which, augmented to a thousand acres by 
later purchases, was presented by him to the State of New 
York in 1907. Under the name of Letchworth Park, and 
under the immediate care of the American Scenic and His- 
toric Preservation Society, this noble public park will 
preserve for all time the three falls of the upper Genesee 
and their beautiful surroundings. 

In i860 Pratt & Letchworth bought property at Black 
Rock and located their manufactory there, adding to it the 
manufacture of malleable iron, which they used in their 
business largely. Subsequently they added the production 
of open hearth steel. Scientific study applied to these cast- 
ings has produced a superior quality, and the products of 
the Pratt & Letchworth Works are now used for the driving 
wheels and frames of some of the finest and largest loco- 
motives on American and foreign railways. The products 
of the firm are to be met with in almost every quarter of the 
globe. 

In 1873 William Pryor Letchworth sold his entire inter- 
est in the business to his brother Josiah, who had been an 
active member of the firm for some years. The retirement 
of the former from business was not to give himself wholly 
to the attractions and cares of Glen Iris; for he accepted, 
in 1873, an appointment as one of the commissioners of the 



6 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

State Board of Charities, becoming its president and its 
hardest working member for many years. It is by his 
labor in that important office, especially as it was directed 
to the better care of the insane, and to the separation of 
children from county poorhouses, that the name of William 
Pryor Letchworth, LL.D., has been made one of historic 
fame. His death, in his eighty-eighth year, occurred but 
recently, on the ist day of December, 1910. 

On the death of Samuel F. Pratt, in 1873, his interest 
in the Pratt & Letchworth business was bought by the 
junior partner, Josiah Letchworth. The interest of Pascal 
P. Pratt remained in the business until 1896, when it was 
sold, and the business was incorporated under the name of 
Pratt & Letchworth Company, Ogden Pearl Letchworth 
being chosen its president and personal manager. From 
this time the business became greatly enlarged in the making 
of steel castings on the open hearth principle for railroad 
work. The quality of the P. & L. castings is unsurpassed. 

The branch of the business which comprises the manu- 
facture of wood and iron hames, in connection with New 
England manufacturers, was organized separately, under 
the name of the U. S. Hame Company, with Ogden P. 
Letchworth in the presidency. New styles of these goods 
found a ready market, in South as well as North America, 
and much larger forces of workmen have been required 
for the manufacture of the goods. 

The Jones Iron Works, still in operation on The Terrace, 
were founded in 1848, and have been carried on by the 
family successors of the founder ever since. 

In the same year, the Shepard Iron Works, known later 
and still known as the King Iron Works, were opened, 
manufacturing engines, both stationary and marine. They 
are now under the management of H. G. Trout. 



VARIED MACHINERY WORKS 7 

In the next year R. L. Howard withdrew from the firm 
of H. C. Atwater in the grocery and ship-chandlery busi- 
ness, to engage in the manufacture of the mowing machine 
invented by William F. Ketchum, whose patent interests 
he had bought and whose services in business he had 
secured. It was the first successful mowing machine, and a 
great and highly profitable manufacturing establishment 
was soon built up. When the original business declined, 
on the expiration of patents, other lines of manufacture, in 
general machinery and foundry work, — paper-cutting and 
book-binding machinery, passenger elevators, etc., — were 
introduced, and the Howard Iron Works continued to be 
an important factor in the industries of the town. In 1905 
they passed under the control of the Otis Elevator Co., be- 
coming one of its plants. 

The Delaney Forge, still in operation on an enlarged 
scale, was founded in 1850 by Charles Delaney. 

The Eagle Iron Works, still in operation, were founded in 
1853 by a company which included S. S. Jewett, F. H. Root 
and Robert Dunbar among the stockholders. After a few 
years the Works were purchased by Robert Dunbar and S. 
W. Howell, and became subsequently the property of Mr. 
Dunbar and his son. In 1901 the works were acquired by 
the firm of Wegner & Meyer for use in the manufacture 
of ice-making and refrigerating machinery. 

In 1856 the brothers Edward and Britain Holmes, who 
had been dealing previously in lumber and timber and 
carrying on a large planing mill and sash and door factory, 
established a manufactory of patented machinery for 
cooperage and other wood-working, which grew to large 
proportions, and has been carried uninterruptedly to the 
present day. 



« INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

The very extensive manufacture of bolts and nuts now^ 
carried on by the Buffalo Bolt Company was begun in 1859 
by George C. Bell. In 1869 the late Ralph H. Plumb 
bought an interest in the business, and it was conducted 
for a short time by the firm of Bell & Plumb. Mr. Bell 
then sold his remaining interest and Mr. Orrin C. Burdict 
came into partnership with Mr. Plumb. Later on the firm 
acquired a third member and became Plumb, Burdict & 
Barnard. The business remained under this proprietorship 
until 1897, when the Buffalo Bolt Company, in which Mr. 
J. J. Albright is largely interested, was formed. The com- 
pany's extensive plant, in which it is now employing about 
750 hands, is located at Tonawanda. Its present output is 
more than 1,250,000 bolts and nuts per day, which rolls up 
a yearly product of 35,000 tons. In 1869 the daily manu- 
facture was but 14,000 bolts and nuts. Comparing the 
production of 1907 with that of 1869, it shows an increase 
of about 9,000 per cent., while the labor increase is only 
1,000 per cent. We have a striking illustration of the eco- 
nomics of invention in this. 

Chillon M. Farrar, inventor of a reversible steam engine, 
much used in boring oil and artesian wells, formed a part- 
nership, in 1864, with John Trefts and Theodore C. Knight, 
and the firm established a modest plant that year, on Perry 
Street, for the manufacture of engines and boilers and for 
general machine work. Mr. Knight retired from the firm 
in 1869, and the business, grown large with the years, has 
continued ever since under the name of Farrar & Trefts. 
In conjunction with Rood & Brown, manufacturers of car 
wheels, the firm established also the general foundry busi- 
ness of the East Buffalo Iron Works, on the New York Cen- 
tral Belt Line, near Broadway. 

The United States Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Company, 



CASTING.— FORGING. — BOILER WORKS 9 

which now turns out daily about 120 tons of pipe for water, 
gas and steam, is conducting a business that was started in 
1868 by George B. Hayes and F. O. Drullard, on so modest 
a scale that its output was but 25 tons per day. The original 
plant was on Exchange Street between Chicago and Louis- 
iana streets. It was removed to Box Avenue, on the New 
York Central Belt Line, in 1892. 

"The original business which grew into that of the existing 
Buflfalo Forge Company was founded in 1877 by William 
F. Wendt, now president of the company; but within recent 
years it has absorbed the George L. Squier Manufacturing 
Company, which had a long previous history, and likewise 
the Buffalo Steam Pump Company, controlling and operat- 
ing the three plants. In all, about 1,000 people are em- 
ployed. In its beginnings the Forge Company occupied 
only the fifth floor of a building at the corner of Washing- 
ton and Perry streets. From this it removed in 1880 to the 
corner of Mortimer Street and Broadway. 

The Lake Erie Boiler Works, established in 1880, and 
the Lake Erie Engineering Works, brought into operation 
in 1890, are successive creations of the same industrial or- 
ganizer, Mr. Robert Hammond, who conducts them both. 
The boiler-making plant is said to have been the first in the 
country to be equipped with a complete outfit of hydraulic 
tools, for heavy work. It turns out about $300,000 worth of 
large marine boilers per year. The Engineering Works, 
founded ten years later, were constructed and equipped in 
the same complete style, with large tools, all of special de- 
sign. These works employ 700 men, and their capacity is 
for an annual output of $600,000 in value. Both plants 
are at the corner of Perry and Chicago streets. 

An industry that has acquired large importance was 
planted in a small way, in 1881, by two men from New 



lO INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

England, Joseph Bond and John B. Pierce, who had been 
looking at different places, with a view to undertaking a little 
business in the manufacture of steam-heating boilers. They 
saw advantages in Buflfalo which induced them to start a 
modest plant, and it had such success that, before many 
years, they found it best to put their business on a much 
broader base. For this purpose they bought about twenty 
acres of ground on Elmwood Avenue, at the crossing of the 
New York Central tracks, and there, under the name of 
the Pierce Steam Heating Company, established a large 
radiator foundry, with machine shops and boiler works. 

As thus named, the business was carried on prosperously 
until 1892, when it was sold to the American Radiator Com- 
pany, formed under the presidency of Mr. Joseph Bond. 
A few years later this company bought, also, the plant and 
business of the Standard Radiator Company, which Mr. 
Nelson Holland had established in Buffalo, on Larkin 
Street, some time before. The American Radiator Com- 
pany proved to be a very vigorously expansive corporation, 
branching widely in its business, with its general offices in 
Chicago; but Buffalo has continued to be the main seat of 
its producing works. In 1901 it erected a new plant here, 
on twenty acres of land at Black Rock, near Hertel Avenue, 
on Rano Street, and gave it the name of the "Bond Plant," 
in memory of Mr. Bond, who died that year. This estab- 
lishment includes one of the largest gray-iron foundries in 
the country, and its machinery is run by Niagara electric 
power. It employs about 1,000 men. The enlarged 
"Pierce Plant," on Elmwood Avenue, employs another 
1,000, and the "Standard Plant" about 500, making a total 
of 2,500 men who are kept busy by this company "all the 
year round," it is said, "for the plants rarely ever shut 
down." 

The products of the company are solely "American Radi- 





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NELSON HOLLAND. i^jad. 

Wholesale dealer in lumber; born Belchertown, Massiit and 
June 24, 1829; educated at Springville Academy, Erfe Mr. 
County, New York; director in the Manufacturers' artdj^i^in 
Traders' Bank; member of Westminster Pres^yterianr^ ■ 
Church; Republican in politics. 

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BRIDGE WORKS 1 1 

ators" and "Ideal Boilers" for steam and hot water heating; 
made in endless variety of pattern and capacity and sold in 
all countries for the warming of all kinds of buildings, from 
the cottages of America to the palaces of the king of Eng- 
land, the czar of Russia and the crown prince of Japan. 
Though the company has five other plants elsewhere in the 
United States and one in Canada, about a third of its total 
output is from Buffalo. 

The beginning of what furnished the foundation for a 
greatly important organization of bridge-building was made 
by Charles Kellogg, who established the Kellogg Bridge 
Works, in connection with the Union Iron Works. In 1881 
these bridge works were acquired by George S. Field, 
Edmund Hayes and C. V. N. Kittridge, who gave them the 
name of the Central Bridge Works, and they were operated 
under that name for three years. In this period the most 
important work of the company was the construction for 
the Michigan Central Railroad of the Cantilever Bridge 
which spans the Niagara chasm below the Falls. 

In 1884, by an amalgamation of the Central Bridge Com- 
pany with Kellogg & Maurice, of Athens, Pa., with the 
Delaware Bridge Company, of New York, and with Mr. 
T. C. Clark, of Clark, Reeves & Co., of Phoenixville, the 
Union Bridge Company was formed, which conducted the 
business on a very extensive scale for the next eleven years. 
Its most notable engineering achievements were the bridging 
of the Hudson at Poughkeepsie; of the Mississippi at Cairo 
and at Memphis, and of the Hawksbury River, in New 
South Wales, Australia. The last named structure is com- 
posed of seven spans, 430 feet each, for double track. Its 
remarkable feature is the depth of the foundations that were 
necessary, going 176 feet below tide; the deepest ever laid. 

In 1895 the Union Bridge Company was merged in other 



12 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

companies and passed later into the American Bridge Com- 
pany, in which no Buffalo interest remains. 

The manufacture of bicycles, organized in 1890 by 
George N. Pierce, soon took rank with the most important 
establishments of its class in the country. No wheels had 
a higher reputation than those which bore the Pierce name, 
in the days when hundreds of different styles and makers 
were in the field. The business increased steadily until 
about 1897, when a great decline occurred, universally, and 
continued till about 1904. Then came the beginning of a 
revival which has restored the manufacture to a healthy 
state. The makers of bicycles in the United States now 
number but thirteen or fourteen, while more than five hun- 
dred are said to have been engaged in the business in 1896. 
The recent output of the Pierce Cycle Company was about 
10,000 per year. The company as now constituted was or- 
ganized in 1906, when the George N. Pierce Company, 
making automobiles, sold out the bicycle part of their fac- 
tory, and the Pierce Cycle Company was formed, with 
Percy P. Pierce, son of George N., as its president. This 
company conducts the bicycle manufacture exclusively. 

In 1893 Mr. W. H. Crosby, becoming manager of works 
established by the Spaulding Machine Screw Company 
(then just organized), began to develop the manufacture 
of parts for bicycle construction stamped from sheet-steel. 
Up to that time bicycle frame connections or joints had been 
made exclusively from solid drop-forgings, which had to be 
bored out and machined to a considerable extent. By the 
process of stamping from sheet-steel these parts were pro- 
duced more quickly and cheaply, of fully equal strength, and 
the more progressive of the bicycle manufacturers were soon 
turning out more wheels at lower prices than before, by 
reason of using the products of the Spaulding Company. 



SHEET STEEL STAMPING 13 

From the management of that company, however, Mr. 
Crosby withdrew in 1896 to organize The Crosby Company, 
himself its president and manager, his brother, Mr. A. G. 
Crosby (who died four years later), vice-president, Mr. 
William H. Hill secretary and treasurer, and Mr. Edward 
Ehler superintendent. The new company's office and works 
were then located at 506-507 Genesee Street. Increasing 
business required a much enlarged plant in 1903, for which 
a factory building on Pratt Street (181-187) was bought. 
Four times since that date extensive additions to the original 
building have been erected, giving nine times the floor-space 
that was occupied by the company on Genesee Street in 
1903. The plant, which employs 450 men, is operated by 
electric power from Niagara Falls. 

The sole business of The Crosby Company at the outset 
of its career was the manufacture of bicycle parts; but it 
soon began adding to its list of products a large variety of 
special parts required in constructive work for different 
trades. At first these included parts for wagons, carriages, 
harnesses, sewing machines, trolley wheels, telephone instru- 
ments, etc. Then came the rapid development of the auto- 
mobile manufacture, opening to the company a field in 
which its business has had an extraordinary growth. In a 
note from Mr. Crosby to the present writer, answering in- 
quiries addressed to him, he remarks: "Almost every line of 
manufacture is looking towards people like ourselves to 
develop from sheet-metal pieces that were heretofore made 
either of castings or forgings, and in many cases we displace 
pieces that are turned from a solid bar of steel. We are 
turning out parts now that weigh seventy pounds, and from 
this down to a fraction of an ounce. We have recently 
added an autogenous welding plant, by means of which two 
stamped pieces are welded together, making a piece that 
could not be stamped in one single unjoined article. This 
welding process is quite new." 



14 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

This quite unique industry is being developed rapidly in 
other cities; but the initial adventure in it was that made by 
Mr. Crosby, and The Crosby Company holds the leading 
place in it still. 

One of the works of the same character, turning out 
pressed steel products, known as the John R. Keim Mills, 
had its origin somewhat more than two decades ago, when 
it was founded by Mr. Keim for the production of steel balls 
and other cold-pressed and cold-drawn parts of machinery. 
Under its present name it was organized in 1907. Mr. John 
R. Lee is the president and treasurer of the company, Mr. 
N. A. Hawkins vice-president, Mr. William H. Smith sec- 
retary and general manager. The mills are on Kensington 
Avenue and the Erie Railroad. 

The automobile manufacture, carried on by the George 
N. Pierce Company, was developed in connection with the 
bicycle works described above, and had its beginnings in 
1896, when demands for the cycle showed decline. It was 
established in association with the bicycle plant, on Hanover 
Street, and continued there until 1907, when distinct works, 
on a large scale, and of unsurpassed equipment, were 
founded on Elmwood Avenue, at the crossing of the New 
York Central Railroad Belt Line. In 1901 there were 
twenty-five vehicles turned out of the works and their value 
was $10,000; in 1907 the output of automobiles was 1,000, 
and the value was $4,000,000. The growth of business, it 
will be seen, has even more than kept pace with the swift 
progress of engineering science and art in this new line. 
The company is second to none in reputation among the 
makers of the gasolene engine type of pleasure automobiles. 

In 1899 E. R. Thomas, who had begun the construction 
of automobiles in Canada within the previous year, saw ad- 
vantages in Buffalo which induced him to remove the busi- 



AUTOMOBILE BUILDING 15 

ness to this field, locating the manufacture on Ferry Street. 
Its development in the first years was moderate, rising to a 
product in 1904 which represented $375,000 of value, and 
employed about 150 men. In the next three years it ad- 
vanced by leaps, the business of the season of 1906-7 giving 
employment to 1,500 workmen, and the output being valued 
at nearly $5,000,000. Mr. Thomas has works now in De- 
troit, as well as at Buffalo, and the total floor-space of his 
factories is nearly 350,000 square feet. The Thomas auto- 
mobiles have a world-wide fame, since one of them won the 
New York to Paris race of 1908, across North America and 
through Siberia and Russia. 

The business now conducted by the Buffalo Structural 
Steel Company was established by Casper Teiper in 1894. 
The company was organized in 1899, with a capital stock of 
$30,000, increased to $100,000 in 1904. Mr. Teiper and 
William G. Houck have been the executive officers since the 
incorporation. The works, at 166 Dart Street, have a ca- 
pacity for producing about 8,000 tons of structural steel per 
year. They have supplied material for most of the larger 
buildings — hotels, apartment houses and business structures 
— of the city in recent years. 

The Buffalo Gasolene Motor Company, manufacturing 
marine engines, was organized in 1899 and established its 
plant on Niagara Street, at the corner of Auburn Avenue. 
Its present officers are Louis A. Fischer, president, A. F. 
Dohn, vice-president, A. Snyder, secretary and treasurer, 
W. E. Blair, general superintendent. 

A small $10,000 corporation, called the Buffalo Foundry 
Company, organized in 1900 by the late Charles F. Dunbar, 
its president and principal stockholder, was the germ of the 
present Buffalo Foundry and Machine Company, capital- 
ized at $500,000 ($300,000 issued), and remarkably 



l6 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

equipped for the manufacture of medium and large castings 
made with semi-steel, air-furnace and gray iron, and also 
for engineering work. The new company was organized in 
1902, Mr. Dunbar still leading the enterprise, with Mr. M. 
Sullivan for his coadjutor and Mr. Andrew Langdon and 
others soon brought into the alliance. The old company 
had occupied a rented building on Mississippi Street; the 
new company erected a plant, on East Ferry Street and Win- 
chester Avenue, which is said officially to be "equipped for 
handling larger and heavier castings than any other jobbing 
plant in the United States or Canada, so far as our infor- 
mation obtains." With this equipment it has been able to 
cast gas-engine beds weighing 93 and 97 tons each for the 
Allis-Chalmers Company, of Milwaukee, as well as 40 ton 
beds for the gas engines of the Lackawanna Steel Company's 
plant. In the middle bay of its foundry it has crane ca- 
pacity for handling castings up to 200 tons in weight, if that 
weight is ever required. 

Until the spring of 1907 the company operated its foundry 
alone. Then the David Bell Engineering Works were 
merged with it, and its present name was assumed. The 
old David Bell Works were abandoned, and the machine 
shops and the foundry are together on East Ferry Street. 
The present officers of the company are H. D. Miles, presi- 
dent and treasurer, M. Sullivan, vice-president, F. C. Slee, 
secretary. 

The J. P. Devine Company, which controls valuable Ger- 
man patents for vacuum drying, established its business in 
Buffalo in 1903, but was not incorporated until 1905. Its 
manufacturing establishment and experiment station are on 
Maryland Street. 

The L. M. Ericsson Telephone Manufacturing Company, 
which began the establishing of a plant on the Military 



DROP FORGING VJ 

Road in 1905, has brought it to fine perfection of equipment, 
and will undoubtedly have importance in the future of the 
industries of the city. 

The General Railway Signal Company, which transferred 
its business to Rochester not long since, had established a 
drop-forging plant, in connection with its other works, on 
the New York Central Belt Line, at Elmwood Avenue. 
This was purchased in the spring of 1907 by The Consoli- 
dated Telephone Company, and the business continued 
under a new corporation, named the General Drop Forge 
Company, in which the former secretary of the General 
Railway Signal Company, Clarence H. Littell, was retained 
as general manager and treasurer. The plant was destroyed 
soon afterward by fire, but rebuilt, of fire-proof construction 
and much enlarged and improved, resuming operations in 
September of the same year. The business of the company 
is "the manufacture of special drop-forgings, up-setter, bull- 
dozer and general forging work." 



CHAPTER V 

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES 

ACCORDING to Mr. H. Perry Smith's History of 
the City of Buffalo and Erie County," published in 
1884, the first brewing of the German lager beer in 
this city was undertaken by a Swiss settler, Rudolph Baer, 
who came to Buffalo in 1826, "engaged in keeping the hotel 
at Cold Springs, and soon after built a brewery and gave 
the Buffalonians their first taste of beer made at home." 
When Mr. Smith wrote he could draw, no doubt, from per- 
sonal memories on the subject which are not now to be 
appealed to, and which death may have extinguished even a 
decade ago, when a historical sketch of the brewing industry 
of the city was compiled for the Buffalo Brewers' Associa- 
tion, in 1897. ^^ that sketch it is said to have been ascer- 
tained "from the best information obtainable, that previous 
to 1840 there were in this city five breweries, with a capacity 
of from one to nine barrel kettles each;" and that "the 
pioneer in this important enterprise was Jacob Roos, whose 
plant was located in what was then called 'Sandy Town' — 
between Church and York streets and beyond the Erie 
Canal, near the Old Stone House." It is further stated that 
Mr. Roos, early in the forties, purchased the land lying 
between Hickory and Pratt streets, below Batavia (now 
Broadway) , where the Iroquois Brewing Company now has 
its large plant. 

The second brewery mentioned in this historical account 
was established by Messrs. Schanzlin & Hoffman, at the 
corner of Main and St. Paul streets. Two years later the 
firm was dissolved, and Mr. Schanzlin built a brew-house, a 
dwelling and a restaurant out where Main Street crosses 
Scajaquada Creek. The third brewery was connected with 
a restaurant on Oak Street, near Tupper, by Joseph Fried- 



BREWING AND BREWERIES 19 

man, and, passing subsequently into the hands of Beck, and 
Baumgartner, gave its beginning to the extensive business 
now carried on by the Magnus Beck Brewing Company, on 
the corners of North Division and Spring. Another of the 
greater brewing establishments of the present day has grown 
from the next of the small plants founded in that period; 
for a daughter of its founder, Philip Born, married Gerhard 
Lang, and Mr. Lang, in due time, becoming a partner in 
the business, developed from it the Gerhard Lang Park 
Brewery, having its present location at the corner of Jefifer- 
son Street and Best. The fifth and latest of the pioneer 
breweries of 1840, described in the record here quoted, was 
started by Godfrey Heiser, on Seneca Street below Chicago, 
and ended business some forty or more years ago. 

In 1863 there were 35 breweries in operation in the city, 
and their product that year was 152 barrels. In 1896 the 
number of brewing establishments had dropped to 19, but 
the annual product had risen to 652,340 barrels. In 1907 
three of the breweries that had been in operation twelve 
years before were no longer in existence, and one new one 
had been established; but the 17 of the later period were 
producing 964,000 barrels per year. In these facts we have 
a striking illustration of the tendency of business, in the last 
two decades, or thereabouts, to concentrate its organizations 
and enlarge their scale. 

Of the breweries now existing, five have passed a half 
century of age, namely: the Magnus Beck and the Gerhard 
Lang establishments, already mentioned; the Broadway 
Brewing and Malting Company's plant, founded in 1852; 
the Consumers' (known formerly as the Lion Brewery), 
founded by George Rochevot in 1857, and the Ziegele Brew- 
ing Company's (Phoenix Brewery), founded by A. Ziegele 
in the same year. Two date from about 1867, — one 
founded by Christian Weyand, now operated by a company 



20 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

which bears his name, the other founded by John M. Luip- 
pold and now the property of the East Buffalo Brewing 
Company. From the decade of the seventies none have sur- 
vived. But six that arose in the eighties are flourishing in 
the business still, to wit: Buffalo Cooperative, from 1880; 
the Clinton Star, from 1881 ; the International, which the 
late Jacob Scheu established in 1884; the German-Ameri- 
can, which represents the old time establishment of Joseph 
L. Haberstro; the Lake View, built in 1885; and the Simon 
Brewery, formerly carried on by the J. Schuesler Company. 
The brewery of the Germania Company, founded in 1893, 
and that of J. Schreiber, which began production in 1900, 
complete the list. Thus far, the twentieth century has 
made no addition to the brewing establishments of the city. 
For the brewing of ale and porter there is but one con- 
siderably extensive establishment in the city, the Moffatt 
Brewery, which has been in operation for more than half a 
century, at the corner of Mohawk and Morgan streets. 

Soap making was an industry of some importance in 
Buffalo at a quite early time, and is notably represented 
among the larger organizations of productive business at the 
present day; but most of the older manufactories have dis- 
appeared. One, founded by Gowans & Beard about 1848, 
and now conducted by Gowans & Son, has had a prosperous 
career of some sixty years. 

Another, of nearly equal age, had the smallest possible 
beginnings in 1853, when William Lautz, Sr., coming from 
Germany with a family of four sons and three daughters 
and with a very few dollars in his pocket, began at once to 
win the means of living by moulding tallow candles, in the 
mode of that day, and sending his boys out to peddle them 
through the town. This needed next to no capital. Soap- 
making, which went then with candle-making, required 
somewhat more; but thrifty Mr. Lautz had soon saved 




^luiOBhmBtn q£08 ni 3zhq- 

nr .olfifluH lo avhsn b .nisltiij. 

iE9n ,}991j2 o^BoifO ni 

BDsnaS ol aiB9< ov/J ni b^yj 

yd iBsY .Inslq Jnaaaiq arif J 

bio bnB babbfi naad avBii 

i{rtfl ai baiquDDO 9DBqa 

^aniiavibb )n rn^Ja^a arfJ lo-^sift %t >)t 



yd btfil 

•.r(T .?; 

?6V/, Jrjd ,tjjt3<; nojii. 

JI'$q B- a/tnc't rlj'd ; r- r, 

d --7/3fT ;^-8i 

iJttxy. io. bsba^' 




ccrnp 
mauc 



1 by J-'hn M. Luip- 
ist Buflfalo Brewing 

V ■ ?ur- 
: in 

!, 1^1 WH. JjiillJlii >v_i><ijii I ai:\ f, ::iJii) 10(50; 

r, trom 1881 ; the International, which the 

-M-h-d in 1884; the German-Ameri- 

id time establishment of Joseph 

w, built in 1885; ^^^ ^^e Simon 

n by the J. Schuesler Company 

inia Company, founded in 1893, 

The foundations of this' enterprisfe ia soap manufactu^^ 



• were laid by Mr. John D. Larkin, a native of Bufifalo.^m 
1875. The original factory was in Chicago Street, near^ 
W Fulton Street, but was removed in two years to Sen^di 

Street, which forms a part of the present plant. Yeat'byi 
cf;uu.; .ygj^j. since 1877 new buildings have been added and old 
^ ^ ones superseded or extended. The space occupied is fifty 
„ ■' /' acres. A specialty is madi p^the syMem of ddiVeVini^ 
^"^^^° Erectly from "factory%- m^yl^ ""^^bly represented 
among the i ^ ' nons of productive business at the 

present day; but most of the older manufactories have dis- 
appeared. One, founded by Gowans & Beard about 1848, 
and now conducted by Gowans & Son, has had a prosperous 
career of some sixty years. 

Another, of nearly equal age, had the smallest possible 
beginnings in 1853, when William Lautz, Sr., coming from 
Germany with a family of four sons and three daughters 
and with a very few dollars in his pocket, began at once to 
win the means of living by moulding tallow candles, in the 
mode of that day, and sending his boys out to peddle them 
through the town. This needed ncx, •. no capital. Soap- 
miikiiiu. which went then wit: king, required 

-'Mnrwhat more; but thriftv N' lad soon saved 



SOAP-MAKING 21 

enough for the buying of a kettle or two, and so started the 
creation of a soap factory which, for many years past, has 
occupied a good part of Lloyd Street, and employed a large 
force of men. The boys, who were assistants and salesmen 
of the establishment, marketed its products, of candles and 
soap, in hand-baskets at the outset, then with hand-wagons, 
then, presently, with a dog-team, soon succeeded by a small 
horse, — and so, progressively employing their vehicles of 
transportation, until all the railroads and ships and boats 
that went out of Bufifalo were carrying their commodities 
far and wide. The father of the business died in 1886. 
The sons and grandsons who have continued it, under the 
firm name of Lautz Brothers & Co., have been valued 
citizens, and the younger of the sons, Frederick C. M. Lautz, 
who died not long ago, is honored greatly in memory as a 
lover and patron of music, who exemplified in his generous 
promotion of it the finer uses of wealth. 

A third establishment of quite long standing grew from 
somewhat similar small beginnings made by Jabesh Harris, 
who had learned the soap-making art in the neighboring 
small town of Hamburg, and came to Bufifalo to practice it 
in 1869. Mr. Harris went through hard struggles before 
he gained a substantial footing in the business; but he won 
it in the end, after being twice burned out, and left the large 
establishment of the Harris Soap Co. to be carried on by 
his sons. 

The latest foundation of the largest and most notable or- 
ganization of industry in this department, was laid in 1875, 
by Mr. John D. Larkin, a native of Bufifalo, who had been 
engaged in the manufacture of soap at Chicago during some 
previous years. Having sold his Chicago interest he re- 
sumed the business in his native town. His original factory, 
on Chicago Street, near Fulton, was a small building of two 



22 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

floors, twenty by forty feet in size. This was outgrown in 
two years, and a new building of much greater dimensions 
erected for the manufacture on Seneca Street, occupying a 
small fraction of the enormous acreage now covered by the 
Larkin works. Almost year by year, from 1877 to the latest 
of the calendar, building has been added to building, old 
ones have given place to new ones, small ones to large ones, 
common brick and wood to fire-proof construction, until the 
floor-space of the Larkin plant now measures more than 
fifty acres, in all. It had grown to a little more than one 
acre by 1885; to sixteen acres by 1901 ; to twenty-nine acres 
by 1904; to fifty acres by 1907. Building, to keep pace with 
its own needs, has become, therefore, a big part of the com- 
pany's work. 

Elbert G. Hubbard, William H. Coss and Daniel J. Coss 
were associated with Mr. Larkin in 1875-6. Darwin D. 
Martin entered the firm in 1878. In 1892 the Larkin Soap 
Mfg. Company was organized, with Mr. Larkin as presi- 
dent and Mr. Hubbard as secretary and treasurer. In the 
next year Mr. Hubbard sold his interest and was succeeded 
in the secretaryship by Mr. Martin. In the Larkin Co., as 
it is now named, Mr. Martin is still secretary, and official 
positions are held by Mr. Larkin's three sons. 

Until 1885 the products of the Larkin factory were mar- 
keted in the usual way, through wholesale and retail dealers, 
and an extensive demand for them had been created east and 
west. Then the company launched boldly into its experi- 
ment, of direct "factory to family" dealing, which it claims 
as "the Larkin idea." In describing the change it states 
that "a Chicago wholesale merchant was the first success- 
fully to bring together consumer and wholesaler, leaving 
the retail dealer out of their transactions; but * « * the 
Larkin Co. was, in 1885, the first manufacturer to eliminate 
all dealers — wholesale and retail ; all travelling salesmen 



SOAP-MAKING 2$ 

and brokers, the entire middle organization termed the 'mid- 
dlemen' — and sell important staples on a large scale entirely 
to the users." The saving of what would go as profits to 
middlemen, in ordinary trade, is represented by the large 
premiums which the company offers to the direct buyers of 
its goods; and the procuring and distributing of these pre- 
miums constitute an immense part of the business it conducts. 
Great factories outside of itself are kept busy in supplying 
the huge orders it gives for single articles of furniture, and 
the like; and a large pottery manufacture, of the first order, 
has been established in Buffalo, under its ownership and 
control. 

The Larkin products include perfumes and all toilet 
articles, as well as a great variety of soaps. The processes 
of their manufacture are interesting, and the perfect organ- 
ization and equipment of everything in the work of the 
2,500 people employed is more interesting still. The great 
office building, finished and opened in 1907, with a capacity 
for 1,800 typewriters and clerks, and a present clerical force 
of more than a thousand, is unique, in its plan, in its massive 
construction, in its plentitude of light and air, in its pro- 
visions and arrangements for efficient work and for the 
comfort of the worker. Its model restaurant, its library, 
its rest-room, its trained nurse for sudden illnesses, are busi- 
ness-office accompaniments not often to be found. That the 
Larkin Works have become one of the sights of the city is 
not at all strange. The visitors are so numerous that guides 
are provided to conduct them through. 

The Buffalo Pottery, referred to above, as being estab- 
lished and conducted by the Larkin Company, gives em- 
ployment to 250 persons of both sexes, and is a most inter- 
esting industrial organization. Its products go widely be- 
yond the United States, being exported to twenty-seven 
countries of the outer world. Its works are on Seneca and 
Hayes streets. 



24 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

A cement deposit, which runs from an outcrop on Scaja- 
quada Creek, just west of Main Street, northeasterly, 
through Williamsville to Akron, was discovered at an early 
day by the pioneers of settlement in this region. It is said 
to have been quarried and prepared for marketing at 
Williamsville as early as 1824, and Williamsville cement 
was used in the building of the original canal locks at Lock- 
port. Possibly, but not certainly, Mr. Warren Granger had 
started cement works on Buffalo Plains at an equally early 
date. It was not, however, until half a century later that 
the Buffalo end of the cement deposit was extensively 
opened and worked by the Buffalo Cement Company, organ- 
ized by Mr. Lewis J. Bennett, in 1877. The first works 
of the company were on the west side of Main Street, but 
presently transferred to the east side and developed on a 
large scale. In 1888, when the production may be said to 
have ceased, its quarries covered about 200 acres and had 
yielded 80,000 barrels per acre. The output of the com- 
pany in the later years of its working was 1,800 barrels per 
day. 

Borings in the neighborhood had shown the existence of 
a rich deposit of gypsum underlying the same region, and 
Mr. Bennett purchased a large tract of land on the west side 
of Main Street, with a view to developing this. Unfor- 
tunately there was soon found to be an intrusion of water 
which seemed to make the intended working impossible, and 
it was given up. Mr. Bennett then gave a new direction to 
his spirit of enterprise, and began in 1889 the development 
on his land of that fine residential district, on the northern 
rim of Buffalo, which is now well populated and known as 
Central Park. 

Long before the earth-storage of petroleum was dis- 
covered, there was a considerable manufacture of oils, for 
illumination and lubrication, from other fats than the 



. on Scaja- 
theasterly, 
, • j:, v. < u at an early 
•lit in this rcjifi n. It is said 
ju - - ' """ prepared i >r ,n:irketing at 
as early as 1824, and Will lauiav. lie cement 
, .., ... .. . ,,,t building of the original canal locks at Lock- 
port. Possibly, but not certainly, Mr. Warren Granger had 
started cement works on Buffalo Plains at an equally early 
date. It was not, however, until half a century later that 
the Buffalo end of the cement deposit was extensively 
opened and workedllENVteS ^ufifEK^NMYRnt Company, organ- 

York, July '7, 1833; was I'n' California during the tro^ibl^-^' "^^ 
some times of the "V'igilants ;" was supervisor of Glen, Neiiv on a 
York, 1865; came to Buffalo, 1866, and i:i 1868 organized aid to 
. contracting business with Andrew Spaulding anil Jolv?; ha».l 
Hand; organized the Buffalo Cement Company in iS/J- ^rn. 
Prominent in Masonic affairs; trustee Buffalo Public 
Library; member Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, His- " 
torical Society, Chamber of Commerce, and Buffalo Chap- 
ter Sons of the RevoMionhood had shown the existence of 
'■T lying the same region, and 
,act of land on the west side 
1 developing this. Unfor- 
co be an intrusion of water 
^ed '/ orkia^r 'nu''<>>sihle. and 
n to 
uent 

- ns 



i oiis, tor 
than the 



OIL REFINING 2$ 

blubber of the whale. As early as 1848, Mr. F. S. Pease 
had established such a manufacture in Buffalo, and his lu- 
bricating oils, which were his specialty, and which he 
exhibited conspicuously at national and international fairs, 
obtained a great reputation and were sold extensively at 
home and abroad. A considerable manufacture of "lard 
oil," for illuminating purposes, was also carried on by Mr. 
Richard Bullymore, in the middle period of last century. 

The manufacture of linseed oil, begun in Buffalo by 
Spencer Kellogg and Sidney McDougal in 1879, grew in 
their hands to a business of very large proportions and im- 
portance. It is now carried on by the Spencer Kellogg Co., 
whose establishment, on Ganson and Michigan streets, is 
one of the largest of its kind in the country, and its product 
is sold in all parts of the world. In recent years the firm 
of Hauenstein & Co. have entered on the same manufacture, 
at works on Vincennes Street, with promising success. 

Many Buffalonians joined the rush for the Pennsylvania 
Oil Fields, after the first successful borings for petroleum, 
in 1858, and large interests in the crude oil production were 
acquired in this city from the first; but no refining of the 
crude petroleum was undertaken here till about 1873 or 
1874. The late Joseph D. Dudley, with whom the late 
Joseph P. Dudley was associated, then established the Em- 
pire Oil Works, on the Ohio Basin, and carried on the 
refining business for a few years. The Standard Oil Com- 
pany had carried its campaign of conquest well forward by 
that time, and Buffalo was not a point it would neglect. Its 
first footing here was got by the purchase of the Empire 
Works, about 1878. A second refinery had then been 
started, on Seneca Street, by Messrs. Holmes and Adams, 
who are said to have had some friendly arrangement with 
the Standard Company, and their works were operated until 
burned, about ten years ago. 



26 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

The third enterprise in crude oil refining at Buffalo is 
the one which survives alone at the present day, represented 
by the Atlas Oil Works of the Standard Oil Company, on 
Buffalo River and Elk and Babcock streets. It was started 
in 1880 by the Kalbfleisch Sons, of the Buffalo Chemical 
Works, allied with some Cleveland interests, and the build- 
ing of a pipe line from Rock City to Buffalo was part of the 
undertaking. This was a project of rivalry which chal- 
lenged the Standard Oil Company to an exertion of all its 
combative power and skill. The attempt to build a pipe 
line in the rival interest was made impossible in some way, 
while the Standard laid one of its own; and that successful 
company's purchase of the Atlas Works in 1892 was, no 
doubt, an inevitable result. 

At about this time several other attempts to enter the re- 
fining industry in Buffalo were being made. Adjoining the 
Atlas Works, a company formed by Buffalo and Titusville 
parties began operating what were called the Solar Oil 
Works, using a process for continuous distillation of crude 
petroleum which had been patented by Samuel Van Syckel. 
Mr. Van Syckel was a well known inventor in the oil in- 
dustries, who had been the first to conceive the idea of 
piping oil, and who, over a short distance near Titusville, 
had laid the first pipe-line. It goes without saying that the 
Solar Works had a struggle for life with its powerful rival 
and succumbed in the end. It passed, first, in 1883, to the 
Tidewater Pipe Line Co., which had maintained its inde- 
pendence thus far, but which surrendered soon afterwards 
to the Standard Company, carrying with it the Solar Works. 

Another attempt of the same period was that of Mr. C. 
B. Matthews, who established the works of the Buffalo Lu- 
bricating Oil Company, near the Atlas Works, on Elk and 
Babcock streets, in 1881. His long litigations and conten- 
tions with the Standard Oil Company, including the 



OIL REFINING ^l 

indictment and conviction of persons connected with the 
Vacuum Oil Company, of Rochester (one of the subsidiary- 
organizations of the Standard), who were charged with 
having suborned a workman in the employ of the Buffalo 
Lubricating Oil Company to prepare conditions in its appa- 
ratus that would bring about an explosion, form a notable 
chapter in the published history of petroleum oil. The 
struggles of the Lubricating Oil Company were prolonged 
until about 1887, when its works were transferred to a com- 
bination of independent refineries in Cleveland, Oil City 
and Corry. They were operated for a short time by this 
combination, and then given up. About 1888 Mr. 
Matthews organized the Buffalo Refining Company, the 
business of which he has conducted ever since. It does no 
refining in Buffalo, but holds stock in a Pennsylvania re- 
finery, from which it obtains its oil. Its business in this 
city is the compounding of cylinder and engine oils and 
the manufacture of greases, nearly all of which product 
goes up the lakes. It has little to do with shipments by rail. 

Still two other refineries were started in Buffalo about 
1 88 1, both of them located on the Tifft Farm. One, the 
Niagara, of which Mr. Backus, of Cleveland, was president, 
was carried on till bought and cleared away by the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad Company, to make room for its terminal 
improvements on that ground. The other, the Phoenix, 
was embarrassed by freight conditions till it gave up. 

The surviving Atlas Refining Works, which became the 
property of the Standard Oil Company in 1892, have been 
greatly enlarged in the hands of that all-powerful trust. 
They occupy a tract of about 84 acres at the corner of Elk 
and Babcock streets, having a frontage of 1,782 feet on the 
former street, and running back to the Buffalo River. Oil 
refining in all its departments is carried on, and with it a 
mechanical department, equipped with labor-saving ma- 



28 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

chinery of the latest types, for the construction of tank cars 
and for other boiler-shop work. From 500 to 600 men are 
employed in the works as a whole. The present capacity 
of the refining plant is for the yearly treatment of 1,200,000 
barrrels of crude oil, and it is fully employed. Mr. Horace 
P. Chamberlain has been the general manager since 1890. 

The manufacture of fire-brick was established in Buffalo 
by the late Edward J. Hall, in 1866, as a branch of the busi- 
ness of A. Hall & Sons, at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. 
Within a year or two it became an independent business, 
conducted by Mr. Hall during his life, and still continued, 
in the administration of his estate, with C. M. Helmer as 
its manager, and under the name of Hall & Sons. The 
location of the plant has always been, as now, at the corner 
of Tonawanda Street and West Avenue, in Black Rock. 
With a thorough practical knowledge of the manufacture 
and much executive ability, Mr. Hall organized a plant 
that is noted for the quality of its output. In the past 
fifteen years it has been largely rebuilt and extended. 
Modern machinery has been put in and the capacity of the 
works about doubled. 

In 1879 Mr. J. F. Schoellkopf, Jr. (his father, bearing 
the same well-known name, being then alive), returned 
home from seven years of chemical study in Germany, and 
began the manufacture of coal tar dyes. The undertaking 
was moderate in scale at the outset, but its importance was 
in the fact of its being the first of its kind in America started 
by specialists, trained in the art, and with the avowed pur- 
pose of producing as nearly as possible a full line of coal 
tar colors. Owing to unfavorable tariffs and patent laws 
the business was of slow growth and unremunerative at 
first; but as important foreign patents expired, and as the 
scientific managers, making new discoveries of their own. 



.(aoinuO 

-iaaiq : '(ftBrm^i.) I'n 
-3oiv ivnBqmoJ j;' 
-E/1 iBiJnaD t'f" V 
'^JnuoaS ,>Irii 

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-aoH : 




^^••' 

^i 



nod ;TJiuJ'Jijlrj(ii5iri Ifijifri-jrl'.) 

fttf! "iirtetBauba ;8r8i .-^s wibui 

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. fijkawnofiuxi J Jij-jbigoiq 

'.agMigilge^ ib^i ica iKiioi] 

^ I lli^^rrifi.fttMflll^^i'Jfiiuniji'/' 
rc'jtrO y; 'jaifi;:/. TfihoUw'/ biu; .^FIb'T 
o')Jernl ; jlHqbihelhiH biu; /li'J >bo'<' 
ii.fl'iFI ..Jnl'J olKTina Tjclmanr ; lisJ-q 

ijf! . .'J-ji-ii"^ iBDIlTRfl'J flfijitOfn/. 





28 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

chinery of the latest types, for the construction of tank cars 
and for other boiler-shop work. From 500 to 600 men are 
employed in the works as a whole. The present capacity 
of the refining plant is for the yearly treatment ^f 1,200,000 
barrels of crude oil, and it is fully employed Mr. Horace 
P. Chamberlain has been the general manager since 1890. 

The manufacture of fire-brick was established in Buffalo 
by the late Edward J. Hall, in 1866, as a branch of the busi- 
ness of A. Hall & Sons, at Perth x\mboy, New Jersey. 

Within a vear-or tuo it became an independent business, 
conducted bv :.lf^!?:?H^pELLKOpF(jXoK;). 

in the ai^^W?'^^'i*W»Vifa<:turer ; born Buflalo, New York, Feb- :- 
jj^ ,^ ruary 27, 1858; educated in Buffalo and Germauy; presi- ,n^. 
dent of Schoellkopf, Hartford & Hanna Company; vice- 
*■ '■ president Commonwealth Trust Company and Central N,a- \ 
'^f^ ^ tional Bank ; director in Columbia National Bank, Security'' '^' 
Will I Safe Deposit Company, Niagara Fails Hydraulic Power Sr'"'^' 
anil K Manufacturing Company, Cliff Faper Company of Niagara^iHt 
that is^^'S; and National Aniline & Chemical Company of Newast 
fifteen^?^^ City and Philadelphia; trustee Buffalo General Hos4,.,j 

M, pit'al; member Buffalo Club:" Buffalo ■ Historical Sftciety! u„ 
American Chemical Society; National Biographical Society 
works ^^),,, 

In 1879 Mr. J. F. Schoellkopf, Jr. (his father, bearing 
the same well-known name, being then alive), returned 
home froni seven years of chemical study in Germany, and 
bcgii;; rliL- m.iiiutacture of coal tar dyes. The undertaking 
wa^ 1 scale at the outset, but its importance was 

in ( ^eing the first of its kind in America started 

by ' in the art, and with the avowed pur- 

pi -• nearly as possible a full line of coal 

tar colufh. Owing to unfavorable tariffs and patent laws 
the business w^« of ?low growth and unremunerative at 
first; but i' foreign patents expired, and as the 

scicntifit ^-''^'ng new discoveries of their own, 



ACIDS AND COAL-TAR DYES 29 

took out valuable patents here and abroad, they were able 
to increase their line. 

In 1886 the founder of the manufacture was joined by his 
brother, C. P. Hugo Schoellkopf, who, in his turn, had 
completed a course of chemical studies in Germany. The 
business had now attained a steady growth. In 1887 a 
company was organized in the city of New York for han- 
dling its products, and a similar company was formed at 
Philadelphia in 1896. In 1899 these companies were con- 
solidated with the Buffalo plant, by incorporation under the 
name of Schoellkopf, Hartford & Hanna Company, and a 
branch in Boston was opened at the same time. A year 
later branch houses were established in Chicago, Cincin- 
nati, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, and Kansas City, covering 
practically all of the territory in the United States that is 
tributary to the trade in aniline colors. 

In 1902 the company, being an extensive consumer of 
mineral acids, established a plant for the manufacture of 
those. This, again, was a pioneer undertaking, — the first 
in the United States to produce sulphuric acid by the con- 
tact process, and to operate continuous processes of making 
nitric acid and muriatic acid by patented methods. This 
new plant grew to such dimensions that it was separately 
organized in 1904, and is now conducted in the name of the 
Contact Process Company. It is now one of the largest and 
most complete plants of its kind in the country. 

The entire business that has grown from Mr. Schoell- 
kopf 's undertaking of 1879 was measured by sales of product 
in 1907 to the extent of nearly $4,000,000. In 1881 its 
sales amounted only to $75,000. Inasmuch as the pro- 
prietors are continually putting new products on the market, 
there appears to be no reason why it should not continue to 
grow in future as in the past. 

The present officers of Schoellkopf, Hartford & Hanna 



30 INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION 

Company are J. F. Schoellkopf, president; W. W. Hanna, 
I. F. Stone, and Jesse W. Starr, vice-presidents; Charles 
Ware, secretary; C. P. Hugo Schoellkopf, treasurer. 

In 1903 the house of Pratt & Lambert, which ranks with 
the largest manufacturers of varnish in the world, operating 
many plants in this country and in Europe, established 
works in Buffalo on Tonawanda Street, so extensive that 
they cover five acres of ground. The president of the com- 
pany, Mr. W. H. Andrews, is resident in Buffalo. 



CULTURAL EVOLUTION 



CHAPTER I 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROTESTANT 

CHURCHES AND JEWISH RELIGIOUS 

SOCIETIES 

UNDOUBTEDLY the village settlement on Bufifalo 
Creek, had been visited by Protestant missionaries 
prior to 1812; but one came in that year who first 
organized the membership of a church. This was the Rev. 
Thaddeus Osgood, from Connecticut, who is said to have 
been making his fifth journey through the western settle- 
ments, and who wrote in his journal, of his visit to the Buf- 
falo hamlet, that he found here "more attention to religious 
instruction and to divine things in general" than he had wit- 
nessed "in any other new settlement." The society that he 
formed took originally the name of the First Congregational 
and Presbyterian Church; but in 18 15 it preferred and 
assumed the title of the First Presbyterian Society of Buf- 
falo. In the following year it obtained a settled pastor, the 
Rev. Miles P. Squier, at whose installation the services were 
held in a new barn, at the corner of Main and Genesee 
streets. Writing subsequently of that time, Mr. Squier 
said: "We of all names as Christians agreed to hold to- 
gether until we got able to separate. I did not say much 
about sects, but preached the great essentials of the gospel ; 
and the people were united, and worked together for the 
advancement of the common cause. The Episcopalians 
were the first to hive out." 

The separate hiving of the Episcopalians (if Mr. Squier's 

31 



32 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

expression may be used) was consequent on a visit in 1817 
from Bishop Hobart, of New York. "I gave him my pul- 
pit the first Sabbath," wrote Mr. Squier. "We all heard 
him gladly. He, with his people, met on their own ap- 
pointment after that, and the result was our neighbor, St. 
Paul's Church." St. Paul's Church parish is said, how- 
ever, to have been organized in February, 18 17, by the Rev. 
Samuel Johnston, Episcopal missionary for the district west 
of the Genesee. Services were held at the Eagle Tavern 
and in the school house until the summer of 181 9, when a 
framed building, of Gothic form, was erected on a lot given 
to the Church by Mr. Ellicott, of the Holland Land Com- 
pany. St. Paul's Church has occupied the same ground, 
bounded by Main, Erie, Pearl and Church streets, ever 
since. 

This first St. Paul's Church was not, however, the first 
church edifice to be erected in Buffalo. A Methodist 
chapel had preceded it by half a year or more. The history 
of "Methodism in Buffalo," by Rev. Sanford Hunt, states 
that New Amsterdam appears first in the minutes of the 
Genesee Methodist Conference in 1 812. It was included 
in a missionary circuit which extended from Batavia to the 
Niagara River, and from the Tonawanda to twenty miles 
south of Buffalo Creek. The Rev. Gideon Lanning, who 
was on the circuit in 18 13, reported two Methodists only 
in Buffalo; but in 1818 the Rev. Glezen Fillmore, then 
preaching on what was called the Eden Circuit, organized 
a class of eight or nine in Buffalo village and four at Black 
Rock. He held Sunday services for a time in the school 
house, dividing time with the Episcopalians, to do which 
his preaching was at sunrise and early candle-light. Then 
he leased a lot on Franklin Street, a little below Niagara, 
and built a small church, with help obtained from Mr. 
Ellicott and from New York. This building was dedi- 
cated on the 24th of January, 1819. 



EARLIEST PROTESTANT CHURCHES 33 

It seems probable that a society of Baptists had existence 
before this time; but the present writer has found no record 
of its date. A Holland-Purchase Baptist Association was 
organized as early as 18 15, and the Bufifalo Public Library 
is in possession of a file of the Minutes of its yearly meetings 
from 1 81 8 to 1839. It then became the Bufifalo Baptist 
Association, and its Minutes under that name are continuous 
in the Library until 1906. In 1822 there was some gather- 
ing of Baptists in the village which called the Rev. Elon 
Galusha, of Whitesboro, to come to them as a missionary, 
and he organized a Baptist Church that year. 

These four societies, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Method- 
ist and Baptist, were the first religious organizations in 
Buffalo, and formed the parent stocks from which much 
branching in their several denominations occurred in later 
years. The First Presbyterian Society erected and dedi- 
cated its first building in 1823, on the triangle (given for 
the purpose by the Holland Land Company) between Main, 
Niagara, Pearl and Church streets, which it occupied until 
1890, when it gave place to the Erie County Savings Bank, 
and the focal point in the city which St. Paul's and the "Old 
First" had marked as "The Churches," for almost a century, 
lost that familiar name, and became Shelton Square, in 
memory of the first rector of St. Paul's. The original First 
Presbyterian edifice, which cost $874, was used by its 
builders four years only, and then sold to the Methodists, 
whose still smaller chapel was outgrown. 

The second undertaking of the Presbyterians, in 1827, 
produced a large edifice, of old-fashioned stateliness, cost- 
ing $17,500, which held the most conspicuous site in the city 
for two generations and more. About three years after the 
completion of the church its broad-faced steeple received 
a clock and a bell. The building bought by the Methodists 
was moved in 1827 to a lot which Mr. Ellicott had given 



34 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

them, on the north side of Niagara Street, running from 
Franklin to Pearl, and used there for five years. 

In 1828 the first meetings of Protestant Germans for 
religious service were held in a room over a grocery store, 
on Main Street, near Genesee. The congregation thus 
gathered was organized subsequently into the First German 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, of St. John. In 1829 the 
Baptist society had become able to build for itself, and 
erected a framed church at the corner of Washington and 
Seneca streets, which sufficed it for the next seven years. 
Hitherto St. Paul's Church had been served by missionaries ; 
but in 1829 it received the rector. Rev. William Shelton, 
who ministered to it for fifty-one years. In the same year 
the first church organ heard in Buffalo was placed in St. 
Paul's. 

In the Third Decade of the Century. — The First Pres- 
byterian Church began mission work in the opening year 
of this decade, building a chapel for sailors and boatmen on 
Main Street near Dayton. This led to the formation in 
1834 of a Bethel Church, which was maintained until 1848. 

The first Unitarian and the first Universalist societies 
were organized in 183 1. The Universalists built during the 
next year, on the east side of Washington Street, a little 
north of Swan. The Unitarians met in the old court house 
until 1834, when they had erected the long-familiar church, 
at the corner of Franklin and Eagle streets, which under- 
went transformation into the existing Austin Building after 
many years of sacred use. In 1836 it received as its pastor 
the Rev. Dr. G. W. Hosmer, who was one of the most 
beloved of the city for thirty years. 

The little church bought by the Methodists from the 
Presbyterians in 1827 served them, on their Niagara Street 
ground, until 1832. They gave the use of it then to a Ger- 
man Protestant congregation, and sheltered themselves in 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: THIRD DECADE 35 

the basement of a new church, on the same ground, which 
they were building of stone. X'Cjl'IOGG 

This German congregation had been gathered by a young 
evangelist from Switzerland, the Rev. Joseph Gombel, who 
came to Buffalo in 1831 and joined the First Presbyterian 
Church. The Buffalo Presbytery appointed him to take 
up work among the German-speaking people, and he did 
so with such success that the United Evangelical St. Peter's 
Church was organized in 1832. In 1835 it received as a 
gift from its Methodist hosts the little building in which 
its meetings had been held for three years, and removed it 
to the corner of Genesee and Hickory streets, where it was 
continued in use for another fifteen years. 

From the First Presbyterian Church a first off-shoot ap- 
peared in 1832, when some of its former members were 
united in the organization of a Free Congregational Church, 
and built a meeting place on the north side of what was then 
known as the Court House Park, now Lafayette Park. This 
society, reorganized in 1839 under the name of the Park 
Presbyterian Church, had no vitality, and seems to have 
faded out of life; but the homely little building it had 
created was brought nobly into use in the next decade. 

A more successful and important movement of coloniza- 
tion from the First Presbyterian Church occurred in 1835. 
It was that which formed the new society known in its early 
years as the Pearl Street and later as the Central Presby- 
terian Church. Of its original membership of thirty-five, 
twenty-nine came from the Presbyterian Church and six 
from the Free Congregational. Temporarily its meetings 
were in a rude structure on Pearl Street; but within its first 
year, or soon after, it had built, on the northwest corner of 
Pearl and Genesee streets, the costliest and most notable 
church edifice then adorning the city. The building, in its 
form, was an exact copy of the Parthenon ; the interior was 



36 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

an ellipse, and the result was acoustic perfection. It was 
lighted from a dome, through colored glass by day, and at 
night by a massive chandelier. The exterior was of cut 
stone. It was a famous edifice in its time, and soon made 
more famous by the preacher in its pulpit, the Rev. Dr. 
John C. Lord, who was installed as the pastor of the church 
on the I St of February, 1837. He was not eloquent; he was 
not an orator, in any sense of the term ; he was not deep in 
learning or strong in reasoning; but he possessed the some- 
thing indefinable which gives to certain men a great per- 
sonal force. 

Another church organized in 1835, in connection with the 
Associate Reformed Church of America, fell to pieces a 
few years later, but was reorganized in the next decade and 
became the First United Presbyterian Church in Buffalo. 
In that year, too, there were beginnings of meetings which 
resulted in the forming of the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

The next sacred edifice to rise in the city was one that 
stood lately in the thick of the traffic of the lower streets, and 
still echoed from its original walls the voices of prayer and 
sacred song. It was built in 1836, on Washington Street 
near Swan, by the First Baptist Society, and occupied by 
that parental society for nearly fifty-eight years, when it 
became the citadel of the Salvation Army. 

The first parting of a church colony from St. Paul's oc- 
curred in 1836, when Trinity parish was organized and 
services held for a time in rented rooms on Washington 
Street; afterward in the Universalist Church on the same 
street. The new society deferred building for six years. 

In 1837 a German society was formed in connection with 
the Evangelical Association of North America and is still 
known as the First Church of the Evangelical Association. 
Its meetings were in a small building on Sycamore Street 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES : THIRD DECADE 37 

until 1839, when a plain church was erected on Mortimer 
Street, and occupied there for the following seven years. 
The same building was then removed to the corner of Syca- 
more and Spruce streets. Also, in 1837, an organization 
of colored Baptists was effected, conducting services on 
Michigan Street, between Broadway and William. With 
help from the Baptist Union, this society survived many 
vicissitudes. 

The year 1839 brought large accessions to the German 
Lutherans of the city, consequent on the enforced union of 
Lutheran and Reformed Churches in Prussia, depriving the 
former of the right to worship according to what they be- 
lieved to be the faith of the true Lutheran Church. Many 
Lutheran congregations came then to America, with their 
pastors, as the Independents and the Puritans of England 
had come two centuries before. One such body, number- 
ing about one thousand, led by the Rev. J. A. Grabau, 
arrived in Buffalo on the 5th of October, and held a Thanks- 
giving service in a hall at the southwest corner of Main and 
Eagle streets on the following day. Until the spring of the 
next year their meetings were in several places ; then they 
built at the corner of Goodell and Maple streets, and their 
society was incorporated under the name of "The Old Luth- 
eran Church." It is known likewise as the German Evan- 
gelical Church of the Holy Trinity. Another large con- 
gregation of Prussian Lutherans arrived from Silesia in the 
same year, with their pastor. Rev. C. E. F. Krause. This 
society, too, held meetings for a time in the hall at Main and 
Eagle streets, and did not build for itself until 1842. It 
bears the name of the First German Evangelical Lutheran 
Trinity Church. 

In the Fourth Decade. — Pastor Krause's First German 
Evangelical Lutheran Trinity Church society built a church 
for its own services of worship, at the corner of Milnor and 



38 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

William streets, in 1842; and pastor Grabau's Old Lutheran 
congregation was enlarged by further arrivals from Prussia 
in that year and the next. 

In those years (1842-3) the Trinity society of the Protes- 
tant Episcopalians built the plain but dignified church 
edifice, at the corner of Washington and Mohawk streets, 
which it occupied for forty-two years; and in 1844 there 
came to it the beloved rector, the Rev. Dr. Edward Inger- 
soll, who was parted from it only by his death, in 1883. 
The Universalist Church received its first regular pastor, the 
Rev. S. R. Smith, in 1843, and its second, the Rev. A. G. 
Laurie, in 1849. 

The oldest of the German Protestant churches, known 
afterward as the First German Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of St. John, finished and dedicated in 1843 a build- 
ing of which it had laid the corner-stone in 1835. In the 
same year it sent out an ofif-shoot of thirty families from its 
membership, who organized a new society, under the name 
of the German United Evangelical Church of St. Paul, and 
built for it, in the next year, on Washington Street, between 
Chippewa and Genesee. 

Two new church societies were organized in 1844, one by 
forty families which parted from the First Baptist Church, 
to build the two-steepled edifice still standing on Niagara 
Square; the other by migration from the First Methodist 
Church, to found Grace M. E. Church, on Michigan and 
Swan streets, which was dedicated in 1845. 

The year 1845 was one of many events in the religious 
communities of the city. On the 7th of June in that year 
it was announced in the BufTalo Commercial Advertiser that 
"there will be preaching by the Rev. Grosvenor W. 
Heacock in the Park Church to-morrow (Sunday)." This 
service assembled for the first time a congregation that was 
organized on the 13th of July following as the Park Church 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: FOURTH DECADE 39 

Society, and which changed its name on the 21st of October 
to that of the Lafayette Street Church Society. Thirty-one 
years later the same preacher, the Rev. Dr. Heacock, con- 
tinuous pastor of the church from its organization till his 
death, described, in a historical sermon, the homely edifice 
in which his pastorship was begun. It was, he said, "as 
to its interior, a small, old and gloomy church building," 
while the exterior was no more attractive; "and around it 
had gathered the wrecks of two or three previous church 
failures." The congregation which braved the discourage- 
ments of its past history, in 1845, was gathered by the desire 
to establish this young preacher in a pulpit of his native city. 
Son of one of staunchest of the pioneers of Buffalo, gifted 
with a personality so big and so strong in noble attributes, 
and yet so simple, so sweet, so transparently pure that its 
power and its charm were alike irresistible, Grosvenor 
Heacock, then approaching his twenty-fourth birthday, was 
the center already of a love and admiration that grew till 
all the city was embraced. To speak of Dr. Heacock as a 
great orator might convey the impression that some intention 
and effort of art was in his speech; and nothing could be 
farther from the truth. In everything he was, above all 
else, a spontaneous man. His nature expressed itself openly 
in everything that could give it expression, — word, action 
or look; and that was the source of a wonderful eloquence 
of speech when his soul was stirred. 

Another important event of 1845 was the branching from 
Trinity of the society which organized the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church of St. John, and which, three years later, built 
the fine stone edifice, with a dignified tower, that graced 
the corner of Washington and Swan streets till it gave place 
to the Statler Hotel, in 1907. Zion's German Evangelical 
Reformed Church was a third creation of this year. It was 
organized by a number of families of the Reformed Church 



40 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

of Germany, under the direction of the Rev. J. Althaus, 
and its first church edifice, dedicated in 1846, was built at 
the corner of Cherry and Spring streets. Nine years later 
it built anew on Lemon Street, near Virginia. The original 
Unitarian church building was enlarged and remodeled, 
and a building was erected on Vine Street for the African 
M. E. Church, in 1845. 

A fourth Presbyterian society, which took the name of the 
North Presbyterian Church, was constituted in 1847, and 
erected on the west side of Main Street, between Huron and 
Chippewa, the building which it occupied for fifty-six years. 

A third St. John's Church — the second German church 
of that name — was formed in 1847, by a society of the Ger- 
man United Evangelical denomination. It held services 
for several years in a public school house and elsewhere, 
before building for itself. In the same year the German 
Methodist Episcopal Church was built, at the corner of 
Sycamore Street and Ash. It was then, too, that the first 
Jewish cpngregation was formed, taking the name of Beth 
El. For some years its meetings were in the upper story 
of the Hoyt Building, at Main and Eagle streets. Then it 
bought a school house, on Pearl Street near Eagle, and con- 
verted it into a synagogue. 

Methodism added to its communities, in 1848, the society 
which built on Pearl Street, at the corner of Chippewa, and 
which was known for many years as the Pearl Street M. E. 
Church, but took ultimately the name Asbury Church. Its 
original membership was drawn from the parent Niagara 
Street Church. 

The first German Baptist Church, parent of five German 
churches of that denomination now maintained in the city, 
was established on Spruce Street near Sycamore, in 1849. 

In the Fifth Decade. — In March, 1850, the "old and 
gloomy church building" in which the Rev. Dr. Heacock 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: FIFTH DECADE 41 

began his pastorate of the Lafayette Street Presbyterian 
Church was fortunately burned, and, though rebuilt with 
the old walls preserved, at the small expense of about $9,000, 
and though its capacity was limited, yet the interior was 
made, as Dr. Heacock said with truth, "as cozy and pleasant 
an audience room as we can easily find." This had to 
suffice for a dozen years. 

In June of the same year the corner-stone of the beautiful 
new St. Paul's, which became a little later the cathedral 
church of the Protestant Episcopal diocese, was laid, and 
the building was consecrated in October of the following 
year. It is generally adjudged to be the masterpiece of 
Upjohn, the famous architect of New York, and as perfectly 
proportioned an example of Gothic architecture as can be 
found. It was built at a cost of something more than 
$130,000. 

The original St. Paul's Church building, now vacated — a 
framed structure of good appearance, but small — was sold 
to the German United Evangelical St. Peter's Church, and 
removed to the corner of Genesee and Hickory streets, where 
it took the place of the little building which the Methodists 
had bought from the First Presbyterian Church in 1827, 
and given to St. Peter's in 1835. Thus two of the pioneer 
church edifices in Buffalo ended their existence on the same 
ground, distant from the sites on which they were built as 
near neighbors. 

The church organized in 1835 in connection with the 
Associate Reformed Church of America had fallen to pieces 
in 1840, but had undergone a reorganization in 1848, and 
now, in 1850, it received a pastor, the Rev. Clark Kendall, 
under whose ministration it acquired strength. In 1857 it 
was affiliated with the United Presbyterian Church of North 
America. A Church of the Dutch Reform was organized 
in 1850, and held services in various places for many years 



42 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

before building for itself. In the same year a second Jew- 
ish congregation, naming itself Beth Zion, was organized, 
and held religious services in various places for a number 
of years, but did not build. 

With the Rev. George H. Ball as its pastor, then and for 
many years, the First Free Baptist Church was formed in 
1850 or 1 85 1, buying and occupying the original church 
building of Dr. Lord's congregation, at the corner of Gen- 
esee and Pearl streets. 

The German Evangelical St. John's Church erected a 
building on Amherst Street, near East, which was dedicated 
in 1853. I" that year the Evangelical St. Stephen's Church 
society was formed by twenty-one families from the St. 
Paul's Church of the German United Evangelical body. 
In the next year it received for its pastor the Rev. Dr. Fred- 
erick Schelle, under whom, during his ministry of nearly 
forty-five years, it grew to be one of the largest in the city. 
Its church edifice was built at the corner of Peckham and 
Adams streets in 1857. In 1853 the "Old Lutheran" 
Church of the Holy Trinity sent out a division of its family 
to found the German Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. 
Andreas (Andrew), and to build for it on Peckham Street. 
That, too, was the year in which another colony from the 
First Presbyterian Church went far northward to establish 
the Westminster Church. Some years previously the ven- 
erable Jesse Ketchum, of benevolent fame, had bought a 
lot and built a chapel on Delaware Avenue, above North 
Street, and the Westminster society was cradled in this. 
The chapel was enlarged in 1855, which did not suffice for 
the new church, and a larger edifice was erected on the 
same site in 1858-9. 

New buildings were erected in 1854 for the First Church 
of the Evangelical Association, on Sycamore and Spruce 
streets, and for Grace M. E. Church, on Michigan Street, 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES : FIFTH DECADE 43 

between Swan and South Division. The latter, when dedi- 
cated, in June, 1855, was free from debt, largely through the 
liberality of the late Francis H. Root. The beginnings of 
the Protestant Episcopal parish of St. James are traced to 
a mission that was established in 1854, ^^ Seneca Street, 
near Hamburg. A small wooden chapel was built for this 
mission in the next year, at the corner of Swan and Spring 
streets, and a permanent church was soon formed. 

In the same religious connection another new parish was 
organized in 1855, by the planting of the Church of the 
Ascension, which occupied a chapel on North Street, at the 
corner of Linwood Avenue. A new Presbyterian society, 
also, was organized that year, which built a chapel on the 
rear part of a Delaware Avenue lot, midway between Chip- 
pewa and Tupper streets, receiving the ground from Mr. 
George Palmer, preparatory, as appeared later, to a much 
greater gift. Known first as the Delaware Presbyterian 
Church, this took, a few years later, the name of Calvary 
Church. 

St. Mark's Methodist Episcopal Church was organized 
in 1856 by twelve members from Grace Church, and a 
framed building was erected on Elk Street for its services 
in the next year. At this time, too, the First German 
Baptist Church dismissed some of its members to form a 
second society, which built for itself on Hickory Street, 
north of Sycamore. It was in this year that St. Paul's (of 
the P. E. Church) received its chime of ten bells. 

From three Sunday School Missions opened in 1857 
came three new churches in the city. One, conducted by 
Methodist teachers, in a brick building, called "Father 
Ketchum's Church," on the ground given later for the State 
Normal School, grew into the Jersey Street M. E. Church, 
which took the name of Plymouth in after years. The 
Protestant Episcopal St. Luke's Church had its origin in 



44 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

another, planted on Niagara Street, at the corner of Vir- 
ginia, and for which a framed chapel was built presently 
on Maryland Street. The third was instituted by the Ger- 
man Evangelical Association of North America, and its 
offspring was the Krettner Street Church of that body. 

In March, 1859, the First Baptist Church, on Washing- 
ton Street, parted with forty-nine of its members, who went 
out of it to organize the Cedar Street Baptist Church, build- 
ing their place of worship at the corner of Cedar and South 
Division streets, on ground given for the purpose by Mr. 
John Bush. The First Unitarian Church building was in- 
jured seriously that year by fire, but quickly restored. 

In the Sixth Decade. — The First Free Methodist Church 
was organized in i860. It bought a brick building on Pearl 
Street, near Eagle, used previously as a theatre, and adapted 
it to a better use. In the next year the parent of the Meth- 
odist churches of Buffalo, established for thirty years on 
Niagara Street, but struggling with debt and other diffi- 
culties "for a long time past, was dissolved and its property 
sold. 

Two new church edifices were added to the city in 1862. 
One of them, a fine piece of architecture, in grey stone, was 
a munificent gift by George Palmer to the Delaware Pres- 
byterian Church, which underwent a reorganization at that 
time and assumed the name of Calvary Presbyterian Church. 
The other building of the year provided sittings at the La- 
fayette Street Presbyterian Church for the larger congrega- 
tion that had waited long to fill them. 

St. Philip's Protestant Episcopal Church (colored) was 
organized in 1863 and acquired a chapel on Elm Street, be- 
tween North and South Division streets, which a Presby- 
terian minister, the Rev. Dr. Prime, had built about ten 
years before. 

And now, in 1864, another church society on Niagara 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES : SIXTH DECADE 45 

Street expired, after existing for a score of years. The 
Niagara Square Baptist Church, first-born of the parent 
Baptist Church, had promised well in its youth, but lan- 
guished for some reason in the later period, and could not 
be kept alive. Its building was sold to the Free Baptist 
Church, which had previously occupied the building 
vacated by the congregation of Dr. Lord. 

The place of the church which died this year was filled by 
the birth of another that has been full of life and vigor, 
under one continuous leader, to the present day. It had its 
origin in a mission Sunday School, opened by the Rev. 
Henry Ward. The mission acquired a chapel on Seneca 
Street in 1865, and became an organized church in 1869, 
with Mr. Ward for its pastor, as he has now been for more 
than forty years. 

Another event of 1864 was the reorganization of the Beth 
Zion congregation, upon its fusion with a score or so of 
Jewish people whose religious beliefs had become more 
liberal than those of the strictly orthodox. The aim of the 
new society of Temple Beth Zion, thus formed, was "to 
effect changes in the ritual and mode of worship, to conform 
with the development of modern conceptions and Jewish 
ideas." For a short time the reformed society held services 
in Kremlin Hall, but soon purchased from Mr. William G. 
Fargo the building that belonged formerly to the Niagara 
Street M. E. Church. A second organization of the strictly 
orthodox Jews under the name of Berith Sholem or Brith 
Sholem, was formed in 1865. 

In 1865 the Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe was chosen to 
be Coadjutor Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
Western New York, and, within the same year, on the death 
of Bishop DeLancey, became Bishop of the diocese, and 
fixed his residence in Buffalo. 

In this year the Rev. P. G. Cook, as secretary and mis- 



46 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

sionary of the Y. M. C. A., established a mission school on 
Wells Street, from which, after some years, came a Wells 
Street Church. It was in the Wells Street Sunday School 
that Miss Charlotte Mulligan organized her "Guard of 
Honor" Bible class, which took root among the permanent 
philanthropic and religious institutions of the city. 

What seems to have been the first recorded meetings of 
"Friends" were held at the house of Mrs. Martha Ferris, 
beginning in 1865. In 1869 they built a meeting-house on 
Allen Street. 

A new church edifice on Main Street, above Huron, 
erected by the Universalist society, was consecrated under 
the name of the Church of the Messiah, in 1866. Four 
years later it was burned, but rebuilt at once. 

The year 1867 was fruitful of new religious organizations. 
The fecund First Baptist Church spared eighty-seven of its 
members, to go northward and found a church on what was 
then Ninth Street — the Prospect Avenue of later days. 
Early in the following year the Ninth Street Baptist (now 
Prospect Avenue Church) was established in a comfortable 
chapel at the corner of Georgia Street. At the same time 
a number of members of the body of Christians known as 
Disciples of Christ were organizing, at the corner of Ellicott 
and Tupper streets, the society now constituting the Rich- 
mond Avenue Church of Christ; and a second German 
Methodist Episcopal Church, to be named the East Street 
or Zion Church, was being formed in connection with the 
First German M. E. Church. In this year, moreover, the 
Jersey Street M. E. Church arrived at its full organization 
and acquired a building of its own. 

Disaster came to the St. John's P. E. Church in 1868. Its 
stately building was damaged seriously by fire, consequent 
on the lodging of a rocket on its roof. Dissension and divi- 
sion in the society arose, on questions between reconstructing 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES : SEVENTH DECADE 47 

the edifice or going elsewhere. One party, with the rector, 
withdrew, and essayed the establishing of a new parish, 
under the name of Christ Church. Ground on Delaware 
Avenue, above Tupper, was bought, where, after two or 
three years, a chapel was built; but the intended church did 
not thrive. The St. John's organization was maintained, 
its building restored, and worship in it continued for a 
number of years. 

The United Evangelical body of German Protestants 
added to its churches, in 1868, the St. Matthew's, building 
for it on Swan Street, near the Seneca Street junction; and 
the First German Evangelical Lutheran Trinity Church 
dedicated a new edifice that year, on Michigan Street, be- 
tween Genesee and Sycamore. A mission Sunday School, 
opened on Hamburg Street, near Elk, in 1869, by the First 
United Presbyterian Church, resulted in the planting some 
years later of the Second Church of that denomination. In 
1869 the Dutch Reformed Church built on Eagle Street, 
near Cedar; and the First Free Methodist Church was 
housed in a new building on Virginia Street, at the corner 
of Tenth. 

In the Seventh Decade.— The Delaware Avenue M. E. 
society was organized in 1870, and held services in the Cal- 
vary Presbyterian Church while a chapel, at the corner of 
Delaware Avenue and Tupper Street, was being built. The 
chapel was dedicated and occupied in 1871, and the main 
edifice, which it joined, in 1876. 

St. Luke's Church, of the Protestant Episcopal com- 
munion, removed its building from Maryland Street to 
Niagara Street near Maryland in 1870, and enlarged and 
improved it on the new site. The Rev. Dr. Walter North, 
still pastor of St. Luke's, began his ministry with it in 1875. 
Another St. Luke's, of the German United Evangelical 
body, was organized not long afterward, and bought the 



48 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Hope Chapel, on Richmond Avenue and Utica Street, 
which Westminster Church had built for Sunday School 
purposes two years before. 

In 1 871 the Prospect Avenue Baptist Church opened a 
mission from which sprang the Emmanuel Baptist Church, 
organized in 1877 and established on Normal Avenue and 
Rhode Island Street. A new building for the society now 
known as the Richmond Avenue Church of Christ was 
erected at the corner of Maryland and Cottage streets in 
1871. 

1872 and 1873 were years of exceptional activity among 
the churches. The parish of St. Mary's on the Hill was 
formed in 1872 ; the society, then organized, holding services 
and Sunday School in the neighboring Church Charity 
Foundation building until it dedicated its own building, on 
Easter Day, 1875. St. Mark's Church (P. E.) was cradled 
the same year in a Sunday School, founded at Lower Black 
Rock by the rector of Grace Church, and a chapel for the 
mission was built on Dearborn Street, near Amherst, 1876. 
From another mission of 1872, the Baptist Olivet Mission, 
opened in a small building on Delaware Avenue, where the 
Twentieth Century Club House stands now, came in due 
time the Delaware Avenue Baptist Church. Still another 
mission of the same year, conducted by the Y. M. C. A. of 
Grace M. E. Church, gave rise to the Sentinel M. E. 
Church, far out on the east side of the city. Moreover, new 
church buildings were erected by the Asbury M. E. and 
the First German M. E. Churches in that year. 

In 1873 no less than six new churches were planted, either 
by full organization, or in the seed of a preliminary mis- 
sion. Four of these were of German membership. A 
mission chapel on Detroit Street, built by the Young Men's 
Society of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. John, 
gave life in the next year to a self-sustaining congregation. 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES : SEVENTH DECADE 49 

for which a new building was erected on Broadway near 
Fox, and which bears the name of the German Evangelical 
Lutheran Christ Church. From a mission founded by the 
First Church of the Evangelical Association of North 
America came the St. Paul's Church of that association, on 
Grape Street. The German Evangelical St. Marcus 
Church was organized as a branch of the St. Paul's Church, 
of the same communion, and held services in a little French 
Protestant Church, at the corner of Ellicott and Tupper 
streets, until 1876, when it built for itself on Oak Street, 
south of Tupper. Salem's Church, of the German Evan- 
gelical Reformed body, was organized in 1873, and pro- 
vided with its place of worship, on Sherman Street, between 
Sycamore and Broadway. 

The Woodside M. E. Church, on the Abbott Road, dates 
from 1873, when the society was organized and a framed 
building erected, which now looks out on Cazenovia Park. 
St. Andrew's P. E. Church can be said to have been planted 
that year, by the opening of a Sunday School, conducted by 
workers from St. Paul's, which grew into "St. Paul's Free 
Chapel," built on Spruce Street, near Genesee, in 1875, and 
that, ultimately, became an organized parish and church. 
A Free Methodist mission was opened and a chapel built 
on Clinton Avenue, at Black Rock. 

New buildings were erected in 1875 for the Church of 
the Ascension (P. E.) and for the Second Church of the 
Evangelical Association. The building of the Jersey Street 
M. E. Church was reconstructed, after suffering damage 
from a fire, and the society changed its name to that of Ply- 
mouth Church. The Jewish Brith Sholem erected a syna- 
gogue on Elm Street, which it occupied for some years. 
Its present synagogue is on Pine Street, near William. 

A grave event of the year was the retirement of the Rev. 
Dr. Lord from the pulpit of the Central Presbyterian 



50 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Church, on account of failing health. He had served in it 
for nearly forty years. 

In 1874 the First German Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
which had its origin, as related above, in 1828, erected a new 
church edifice and adopted the name of the Church of St. 
John. It had acquired a vigorous constitution and was 
active in good work, having founded the Lutheran Orphan 
Asylum, in 1864, and added a Home for Orphan Boys, at 
Sulphur Springs, in 1868. A younger St. John's Church, 
of the United Evangelical denomination at Black Rock, en- 
larged and improved its church building in this year. Its 
membership, originally German, was becoming Anglicized 
rapidly, and is now, says the present pastor, more English 
than German. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of St. Thomas had its 
origin in 1874, in a mission Sunday School, established by 
the rector of St. James Church. A building was erected for 
it, at 401 Elk Street, in 1879. The Wells Street Church was 
organized; the Riverside M. E. Church, at Black Rock, 
dedicated a new edifice; and the Jewish Beth El congrega- 
tion (orthodox) built its present synagogue, on Elm Street, 
in 1874. 

Two new church societies were organized in 1875. One, 
which was known during its early years as the Glenwood 
M. E. Church, took form at a meeting in a private house, 
and its services were held in private dwellings for a time. 
The society was not incorporated until 1880, having pre- 
viously been maintained as a mission of the Delaware Ave- 
nue M. E. Church, with whose aid it had erected a building 
on Main Street, in 1879. The other new church was the 
Third of the German Baptist societies, formed mainly from 
the First German Baptist Church, but growing partly from 
a previous mission Sunday School. A new building of the 
East Presbyterian Church was completed and dedicated in 
1875. 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES : SEVENTH DECADE 51 

In 1876 the Rev. Charles H. Smith became the rector of 
St. James P. E. Church, where he ministers still. 

The year 1877 was saddened by the death of the Rev. Dr. 
Heacock. After that sorrowful event the Lafayette Street 
Church had a succession of good and able pastors; but it 
never ceased to be "Dr. Heacock's Church," in the thought 
of those who had known it in the earlier time, until the walls 
which had echoed his voice were abandoned to a vaudeville 
desecration, and the church transported to a splendid new 
home, where a new history was begun. 

Fillmore Avenue Baptist Church, growing from a Sun- 
day School opened on Seneca Street, near the Erie Railway 
crossing, had that planting in 1877, and received a gift of 
ground from Mr. A. S. Holmes. The very old St. Peter's 
Church, of the United Evangelical body (founded by the 
evangelist, Gumbell, in 1832) built newly and largely in 
1877-8, up to which time it had used the original St. Paul's, 
removed from Main Street in 1850. 

Two important new churches were founded in 1879. One 
was the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Holy 
Trinity — the first Lutheran society in the city that conducted 
services in the English language, though the Lutherans are 
said to be more numerous in Buffalo than any other Protes- 
tant body. It was consolidated with a French Lutheran 
society, which had erected a building at the corner of EUi- 
cott and Tupper streets as long ago as 1830, and the new 
organization held its services there for some time. The 
other organization of the same year founded the free Church 
of All Saints (P. E.), at the corner of Main and Utica 
streets, where the Rev. M. C. Hyde ministered faithfully 
many years. 

The First Church of the Evangelical Association erected 
a fine Gothic edifice in 1879. In that year the Old Lutheran 
Church of the Holy Trinity lost by death its venerable pas- 



52 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

tor Grabau, who came with its pioneer congregation from 
Prussia in 1839. 

In the Eighth Decade.— Tht Rev. Dr. S. S. Mitchell, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church for a quarter of a 
century thereafter, was installed on the ist of November, 
1880. 

The Buffalo Baptist Union, which seems to have given a 
great impetus to the missionary and organizing work of the 
Baptist churches, was formed in 1880, as the result of a 
meeting held at the house of Thomas Chester, and upon a 
plan prepared and reported by E. L. Hedstrom and Ray T. 
Spencer. Mr. Chester was the first president of the Union, 
succeeded by Mr. Hedstrom, and by P. J. Ferris in later 
years. 

The First Congregational Church was organized in 1880, 
by members withdrawn from the Lafayette Street Presby- 
terian Church. Its services were held in McArthur's Hall 
until the following year, when the Niagara Square Baptist 
Church building was bought by the society and repaired 
and enlarged. The Rev. Frank S. Fitch became its pastor 
in 1883, and remains in the office at the present day. The 
German Evangelical Friedens Church was formed, by about 
twenty-five families, in the same year, building for itself at 
once, on Eagle Street, at the foot of Monroe. The First 
Unitarian society left its long cherished but inadequate 
home on Franklin and Eagle streets in this year, to dedicate 
and occupy a new edifice on Delaware Avenue, where it 
remained for twenty-seven years. 

In 1 88 1 the German Evangelical St. Lucas Church 
erected a new and larger building to replace the Hope 
Chapel, on Richmond Avenue, which it had occupied hith- 
erto. St. Paul's German Evangelical Lutheran Church 
built anew, on Ellicott Street, between Tupper and Goodell ; 
the Fillmore Avenue Baptist Church built on the ground 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES : EIGHTH DECADE 53 

that had been given to it, on Fillmore Avenue, north of 
Seneca Street; and a new Jewish synagogue was erected, at 
Clinton and Walnut streets, by the newly organized society 
of Beth Jacob. 

Ninety-six members from the First Baptist Church were 
the organizers, in 1882, of the Dearborn Street Baptist 
Church, taking up work which a Sunday School mission 
had begun in that field some years before. A building for 
the new church was occupied in 1884. 

Out of a mission opened in 1882 by the Evangelical Asso- 
ciation of North America there arose the Rhode Island 
Street Church of that association, organized and incor- 
porated in 1885, when it entered a chapel of its own. Till 
that time it had met in a Presbyterian chapel on Fifteenth 
Street. In recent years it has been changed, by change of 
language, from a German to an English church. 

The First Free Baptist Church, having sold its Niagara 
Square building to the Congregationalists, built anew on 
Hudson Street in 1882. The Prospect Avenue Baptist 
society replaced its original building by a larger new one; 
the German Evangelical St. Paul's Church built newly on 
Ellicott Street, between Tupper and Goodell; the Vine 
Street African M. E. Church remodeled its building; the 
Reformed Dutch Church sold its Eagle Street building to 
the Swedenborgians. 

The year 1883 seems to have been at the beginning of a 
remarkable activity in the organization of new churches, 
especially in the German fields. The Evangelical Re- 
formed Emanuel's Church was founded as a mission by "the 
Western New York Classis of the Reformed Church in the 
United States," and a chapel built for it at the corner of 
Humboldt Parkway and East Utica Street. The St. Trini- 
tatis German United Evangelical Church was organized 
and established on Gold Street, near Lovejoy, to meet the 



54 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

needs of the German population in that section. It erected 
a first building in 1883 and a second in 1887. The St. Ja- 
cobi (or St. James) Evangelical Church was formed by 
members withdrawn from St. Marcus Church of that de- 
nomination. It bought Providence Chapel, on Jefferson 
Street, near High; but built on the same site in 1885. A 
Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church, of the Trinity, was 
organized by the Rev. F. O. Hulthren, of Jamestown, at a 
meeting in the German St. John Lutheran Church, and 
established on Spring Street, near Broadway. The Dela- 
ware Avenue Baptist Church came now, fully organized, 
from the Olivet Mission, and built the chapel which it 
occupied for many years, before giving place to the Twen- 
tieth Century Club. 

In this year of religious energy, the Methodist Episcopal 
Union was organized, and Francis H. Root was its president 
from 1885 until his death. A High Street Baptist mission 
which had existed for some years formerly and had been 
dropped, was revived and its ultimate fruit was the Maple 
Street Baptist Church. A new building was erected for 
St. Mark's M. E. Church. 

Three Baptist Sunday Schools and missions were estab- 
lished in 1884, from each of which arose a church. One 
was opened on Glenwood Avenue, at the corner of Purdy 
Street, for which the Baptist Union bought a chapel that 
had been built by the Protestant Episcopalians, but given up 
for another site. For the second, the same Union pur- 
chased a large framed building which the Lutherans had 
given up, in the heart of the Polish district, and so planted, 
on Clark Street, near Peckham, what grew into the First 
Polish Baptist Church. From the third, called the Calvary 
Mission, sprang the Lafayette Avenue Baptist Church, the 
original chapel of which has been enlarged twice since the 
building of it in 1890. 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: EIGHTH DECADE 55 

A Methodist Sunday School, opened at East Bufifalo in 
1884, sowed the seed of the Lovejoy M. E. Church, which 
dedicated a modest chapel the next year, and built an addi- 
tion to it in 1887. 

It was in 1884 that Trinity P. E. Church society was 
united with that of Christ Church (formed in 1868 by the 
secession from St. John's) , occupying temporarily the chapel 
built by the latter on Delaware Avenue, north of Tupper 
Street, while erecting there the new Trinity, which was 
dedicated on Easter Day in 1886. The last service in the 
old Trinity edifice was held on the 5th of July, 1885. 

A Sunday School opened by the First Congregational 
Church in 1884, on Chenango Street, near West Ferry, gave 
origin to the Pilgrim Congregational Church, organized in 

1886. Four years later it built on Richmond Avenue and 
Breckenridge Street. In 1884 the St. James P. E. Church 
built newly on its old site; a building for the Third German 
Baptist Church was dedicated, and that occupied by the 
Second German Baptist Church was enlarged. The Dela- 
ware Avenue M. E. Church edifice was remodelled. At 
this time Bishop Hurst of the M. E. Church became resi- 
dent in Buffalo, and an episcopal residence was purchased 
by Francis H. Root. The present pastor of the English 
Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Holy Trinity, the Rev. 
F. A. Kahler, began his ministry to it in 1884. 

A chapel built by the Buffalo Methodist Union and a 
Sunday School opened in 1885 were the beginnings of the 
now large and flourishing Richmond Avenue M. E. Church. 
The church was organized in the next year, with twenty- 
three members, and an addition to its chapel was built in 

1887. The Northampton Street German M. E. Church 
was established in a small chapel in 1885, and a larger chapel 
erected five years later. The St. Thomas P. E. Mission be- 
came an organized church and parish in the same year. 



56 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Zion's German Evangelical Reformed Church enlarged 
its edifice in 1885 to a seating capacity for 1,500 people. 
The commodious stone building now occupied by the Rich- 
mond Avenue Church of Christ was erected in that year. A 
chapel was built by the Woodside M. E. Church. 

The Church of the Ascension experienced a grievous loss 
in 1885, in the death of the Rev. John M. Henderson, who 
had been its rector since 1861. 

Bethany Presbyterian Church, growing out of a mission 
opened not long before by Calvary Presbyterian Church, 
was organized in 1886. The Bethany German Evangelical 
Church and the German Evangelical Lutheran Christ 
Church were also founded in 1886; the former on Eaton 
Street, by the pastors of the German Evangelical Synod; 
the latter by its present pastor, the Rev. T. H. Becker, as the 
outgrowth of a mission Sunday School opened some time 
before, on Broadway, at the corner of Fox Street. The 
German Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's Church was organ- 
ized in the same year, erecting church buildings, parsonage 
and school house in 1887. Fo"" ^ Fifth Street Baptist Mis- 
sion, started in 1886, the Trenton Avenue Chapel was built 
four years later, between Carolina and Virginia streets. 

A building which received the name of the Ripley Memo- 
rial M. E. Church was erected in 1887, on Dearborn Street, 
near Austin, by the Rev. Allen P. Ripley and his children, 
in memory of the late Mrs. Ripley, and presented to the 
trustees of the church society then organized. 

Four missions opened that year developed as many new 
churches. Two of these were of Baptist origin, one build- 
ing a chapel on Vernon Street, in which the Parkside Baptist 
Church was organized in 1890; the other opened in Alamo 
Hall, on the White's Corners and Abbott roads, but seated 
a few years later in its own chapel on Good Avenue and 
Triangle Street, and resulting ultimately in the organization 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES : EIGHTH DECADE 57 

of the South Side Baptist Church. From the third mission 
of the year came the Hampshire Street or Normal Park 
M. E. Church, for which a building was dedicated in 1889. 
Plymouth M. E. Church and the Methodist Union co- 
operated in the support of this mission. The fourth was 
founded by the pastors of the city conference of the Evan- 
gelical Synod of North America, with such quick success 
that the Evangelical Bethlehem Church was organized in 
May of the same year, under the Rev. A. Goetz, its present 
pastor, and established in a chapel on Bowen Street, now 
Woltz Avenue. 

No less than six newly organized churches were added to 
the religious forces of the city in 1888. The Second United 
Presbyterian Church, cradled for almost a score of years 
previously in the Hamburg Street Mission, took an inde- 
pendent form and built for its services on Swan Street, op- 
posite Chicago Street, where it was seated until 1906. The 
Church of the Good Shepherd (Protestant Episcopal) was 
organized, occupying the Ingersoll Memorial Chapel on 
Jewett Avenue, built by the late Elam R. Jewett in memory 
of the Rev. Dr. Edward Ingersoll, long time rector of 
Trinity Church. A congregation branching from the First 
German Evangelical Lutheran Trinity Church, formed the 
Emmaus Church, building on Southampton Street, near Jef- 
ferson. The Seneca Street M. E. Church was organized, 
and built for its services at the corner of Seneca and Imson 
streets, with help from the Methodist Union. The Sumner 
Place M. E. Church, arising from a mission conducted by 
the Lovejoy Street Church, assumed its organized form and 
erected a plain framed chapel the same year; and the Met- 
calf Street M. E. Church was formed, acquiring for its use 
what had been a Union Chapel and Sunday School. 

St. Paul's Cathedral was half destroyed on the loth of 
May, 1888, by an explosion of natural gas and consequent 



58 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

fire. It was promptly restored. The Zion or East Street 
German M. E. Church edifice, also, suffered serious injury, 
from lightning, and was rebuilt. 

Organizations of the Epworth League, among the young 
people of the M. E. Church, were instituted in 1889. Cal- 
vary M. E. Church was organized, with a dozen original 
members, and a building erected for it on ground, at the 
corner of Kehr and Northampton streets, given for the pur- 
pose by the Leroy Land Company. The Church of the 
United Brethren in Christ was formed and established pros- 
perously, in a place of worship at the corner of Masten and 
Laurel streets. The Jerusalem Reformed Evangelical 
Church, organized in this year, is located on Miller Avenue, 
at Nos. 45-47. St. Luke's P. E. Church was removed to a 
more commodious new building, on Richmond Avenue, at 
the corner of Summer Street. 

In the Ninth Decade. — The venerable edifice of the First 
Presbyterian Church, built in 1827, was demolished in 1890, 
to clear the site which had been bought for the Erie County 
Savings Bank, and the new building for the First Church, on 
the Circle, at Wadsworth and Pennsylvania streets, was 
begun. The new Temple Beth Zion, of impressively fine 
Byzantine architecture, on Delaware Avenue, above Allen 
Street, was finished and dedicated in 1890. The Rev. Dr. 
Israel Aaron, its present pastor, had come to it three years 
before. 

In 1 89 1 the Laymen's Missionary League of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church was organized. A Sunday School 
opened by the First Congregational Church that year in a 
hall, above a saloon, on Amherst Street, at the corner of the 
Military Road, was followed by the building of a chapel on 
the Military Road, near Grote Street, and the organization 
of the Plymouth Congregational Church. In 1896 the 
chapel was enlarged. Kenmore M. E. Church was organ- 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: NINTH DECADE 59 

ized that year, and building for it was undertaken in the 
following year. Out of a Sunday School mission in Roche- 
vot's Hall, Jefferson and Best streets, opened in 1891 by St. 
John's congregation of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
the Concordia Church of that communion was formed in 
1892. The P. E. parish of St. Andrew's was organized in 
1 891, and its new church edifice erected in the following 
year. At the same time the P. E. Church of St. Mary's on 
the Hill began a handsome building of stone, which it 
finished in 1893. The present church edifice of Bethany 
German Evangelical Church was built in 1891 ; and a new 
chapel for the Richmond M. E. Church was erected in 
1 89 1 -2, preparatory to the undertaking of the fine large main 
building now occupied by the church. 

Especially among the German Protestants, 1892 was a 
year of many new plantings. Twenty members from the 
First German Evangelical Lutheran Church established the 
Gethsemane Church of that communion, which built on 
Goodyear Avenue, near Genesee Street. Salem Church, of 
the German United Evangelical body, was founded by thir- 
teen men, who arranged for services in the Sunday School 
room of an M. E. Church until they had built for them- 
selves, the same year, at the corner of Garfield Street and 
Calumet Place. Calvary Evangelical Lutheran Church 
was established by the Mission Society of the Lutheran 
Church of BufTalo, to provide services in the English lan- 
guage for many Germans who had lost familiarity with 
their own tongue. It occupied for ten years a small framed 
building at the corner of Ellicott and Dodge streets. Four 
Y. M. A.'s, of different Lutheran Churches, joined in start- 
ing a mission Sunday School, with accompanying services, 
in a hall on Fillmore Avenue, at Utica Street, where it was 
conducted as the Fillmore Avenue Mission for six years. 
Then the Memorial Church of the Evangelical Association 



6o CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

was organized, and a building erected on East Utica Street, 
at the corner of Wohler's Avenue. 

From a Baptist Mission Sunday School, opened in 1892 
on Walden Avenue west of Bailey Avenue, there came a 
church, organized in 1897 ^^^ known first as the Walden 
Avenue Baptist. Its services had been held in a movable 
tabernacle; but now it received from the Baptist Union the 
gift of a building, derived from a legacy of $5,000, left by 
the late Eric L. Hedstrom on his death in 1894, ^^^ it took 
the name of the Hedstrom Memorial Church. 

Another bequest to the Baptist Union, of $10,000, by the 
late James Reid, who died in 1887, was applied in this year, 
1892, to the establishment of a church which had grown 
from the mission opened in 1884 in the Polish section of the 
city. The First Polish Baptist Church was seated accord- 
ingly in the Reid Memorial Chapel, on William Street, 
between Coit and Detroit, where services in both the Polish 
and the English languages are held. 

In 1892 and since that date, as stated by the pastor of the 
Richmond Avenue Church of Christ, that society "has 
mothered three missions," which became churches, namely, 
the Jefiferson Street, the Forest Avenue and the Dearborn 
Street Churches of Christ. 

The Universalist Church of the Messiah dedicated its new 
edifice, on the southwest corner of North and Mariner 
streets, in 1892. The First Congregational Church built its 
present house of worship, on Elmwood Avenue at the corner 
of Bryant Street, in the same year. The German Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Christ Church built newly, at a cost of 
$35,000. The Sentinel M. E. Church assumed that name, 
on the dedication of a new church building. The Glen- 
wood Avenue Baptist Church was organized, and its build- 
ing enlarged. 

A Sunday School, opened in the spring of 1892 by Mr. 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: NINTH DECADE 6l 

Halsey H. Taylor and a few others, at the corner of Walden 
and Bailey avenues, led to the organization, in the following 
July, of the Walden Avenue Presbyterian Church society, 
which bought a lot and built a chapel very quickly, at the 
corner of Walden Avenue and May Street. Its Sunday 
School is one of the largest in the city. 

Mission work among the Italians was opened in 1893 by 
an Italian Baptist minister, the Rev. Ariel Bellondi, who 
came to Buflfalo that year. He found a few Protestants in 
the large Italian colony which had been growing in the Ken- 
sington section for half a dozen years, and his labors bore 
early fruit, in the formation of the First Italian Baptist 
Church, for which a plain framed building was erected on 
Edison Street, near East Delevan. The Baptist Young Peo- 
ple's Association, instituted in 1894, now lent special aid 
and support to the Italian mission work. 

The present Park Presbyterian Church was organized in 
1893, with a membership of twenty-three (increased within 
fifteen years to 250) , assembled from the vicinity of Dela- 
ware Park, in neighboring halls, until 1897, when a building 
for the church was erected at the corner of Crescent Avenue 
and Elam Place. In 1909, as stated below, the society was 
united with that of the North Presbyterian Church in a new 
home. 

A mission from St. Andrew's P. E. Church, opened in a 
hall at the corner of Jefiferson and Northampton streets in 
1893, acquired a chapel on Roehrer Avenue and Riley Street 
and was organized as the Church and parish of St. Barnabas 
in the following year. At St. Mark's P. E. mission chapel 
the Church and parish of St. Mark's was formed, the chapel 
rebuilt and a rector installed, in 1893. In that year, too, 
the St. John's P. E. Church gave up its old towered edifice 
on Washington and Swan streets, where the Statler Hotel 
has been built, and erected a Guild House, at the intersection 



6? CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

of Lafayette Avenue and Bidwell Parkway, in which its 
services have since been held. 

The Ebenezer German Baptist Church was established in 
1893 ^s a branch from the Second German Baptist Church, 
and erected its building in 1900, on Fillmore Avenue, north 
of Clinton Street. 

In 1893 the Westminster Presbyterian Church began a 
period of freshened vitality, under the ministry of the Rev. 
Dr. Samuel Van Vranken Holmes. 

Fitch Memorial Congregational Church, named in 
memory of a deceased son of the Rev. and Mrs. Frank S. 
Fitch, was founded in 1894, and established in a building on 
Clinton Street. The German Evangelical Lutheran Im- 
manuel Church, at East Buffalo, dates from the same year, 
when it began to hold meetings in the Lovejoy M. E. 
Chapel, but built independently in 1896-7. 

The parent church of the Buffalo Baptists gave up its an- 
cient place of worship on Washington Street in 1894, mak- 
ing use of the Concert Hall in the Music Hall building 
until September, 1900, when its present fine edifice on North 
and North Pearl streets was dedicated. The Parkside Bap- 
tist Church, in 1894, entered into possession of a fine edifice 
of stone, built on ground given to the church by the owners 
of the Central Park district. In the same year the Second 
German Baptist Church sold its former property and built 
anew on Northampton and Wohler's streets. 

1895 was a year of extraordinary creativeness in the 
church history of Bufifalo, especially on its east side. The 
German Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Redeemer 
was organized as a mission by the St. John's Lutheran 
Y. M. A., and established on Genesee Street near Bailey 
Avenue. The Zion English Evangelical Lutheran Church 
was formed under the auspices of the Board of Home Mis- 
sions of the Evangelical Lutheran body, and seated at the 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: NINTH DECADE 63 

corner of West Ferry and Nineteenth streets. The English 
Evangelical Church of the Atonement was organized, under 
the auspices of the Holy Trinity Church of that communion, 
with 88 members — now increased to 949, with valuable 
church property, on Eagle Street, west of Jefiferson. The 
Evangelical Reformed Zoar society was formed by the 
united labor of several pastors of other German Reformed 
Churches, and established on Genesee and Rohr streets. 
The Evangelical Reformed Church of St. Paul, founded by 
the Rev. J. M. G. Darius, at South Buffalo, built on Duer- 
stein Avenue, opposite to Cazenovia Park, during 1895-6. 
The Bethel German Baptist Church, on Johnson Street, 
north of Sycamore, was formed by members from the First 
German Baptist Church. The Red Jacket Mission, opened 
on Seneca Street, at the corner of Juniata, by the East Pres- 
byterian Church and its pastor, the Rev. Henry Ward, grew 
soon into the organized South Presbyterian Church, with 
325 present members and a good church edifice. 

In 1895 the Hutchinson Memorial Chapel of the Holy 
Innocents, built by E. H. Hutchinson in memory of his 
father and mother, Mr. and Mrs. John M. Hutchinson, was 
opened at the Church Home. A chapel for the Linwood 
Avenue M. E. Church was built in 1895-6. 

The Right Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe, Bishop of West- 
ern New York, dying July 20, 1896, was succeeded by the 
Right Rev. William D. Walker, formerly Missionary 
Bishop of North Dakota. 

A Baptist mission, opened in 1896 at the corner of Del- 
evan and Grider avenues, by the Parkside Baptist Church, 
gave origin to the Kensington Baptist Church, organized 
the next year, and seated in its own building in 1901. The 
brick edifice now occupied by the Evangelical Bethlehem 
Church was dedicated in 1896. The present building of 
the Evangelical Reformed Emanuel's Church was also built 



64 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

in this year; and that of the German Evangelical St. Paul's 
was doubled in size. 

The new building of the First Presbyterian Church was 
formally dedicated on the i6th of May, 1897. The Caze- 
novia Baptist Church was organized in that year, and occu- 
pied rented homes until 1904, when it built on Cazenovia 
Street, near Seneca. 

In 1898 the Lafayette Reformed Church was founded by 
a colony from the West Avenue Presbyterian Church, under 
the auspices of the Church Extension Society of the Re- 
formed Church in America. This church, the only one of 
its denomination in the city, is of Dutch ancestry, holding 
the Presbyterian system. It had been previously established 
in Bufifalo, for various periods, since 1838. Its members 
now number 169. 

The Lovejoy M. E. Church replaced its original structure 
with the present brick one, and the Sumner Place M. E. 
Church built anew, in 1898. 

The Old Lutheran Church of Holy Trinity celebrated its 
sixtieth anniversary in 1899. 

In the First Decade of the New Century. — The South 
Side Baptist Church was organized in 1900, after thirteen 
probationary years in the status of a mission. The German 
Evangelical Friedens Church enlarged its house of worship. 
English services were introduced in the Bethany German 
Evangelical Church. 

The religious organization which bears the name of the 
Church of the Divine Humanity (Swedenborgian) was 
formed in 1900; but a small body of its people had been 
meeting for worship during some years previously, in a hall 
on Rhode Island Street. Half a century earlier there had 
been a "New Church" (Swedenborgian) society of twelve 
persons organized in Bufifalo; but its members were soon 
dispersed. The later society was planted with more vigor 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: IX THE NEW CENTURY 65 

of life, and was able, in its second year, to build a house of 
worship for itself, at the corner of West Utica and Atlantic 
streets. Its first pastor was the Rev. F. A. Gustafson, now 
of Denver; its present pastor is the Rev. Thomas French, Jr. 

To test the need of a Lutheran church in the Cazenovia 
district, services were opened in a private residence on 
Triangle Street, in 1902. The result was the organization, 
two years later, of the Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
incorporated in 1905, and established in a building on 
Kingston and Seneca streets. The Faxon Avenue Presby- 
terian Church was founded in 1902 by the Rev. F. J. Jopp. 
The framed building in which the Calvary Evangelical 
Lutheran Church had worshipped for ten years now gave 
way to a brick structure, and the church received into its 
body the members of a Norwegian Lutheran Church, known 
as Zion's Church, which had existed for some years on 
Harlow Place, but which was now dissolved. 

In the same year the Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church 
society was organized and held meetings for a time in a 
hall, but built presently on Cazenovia Street and Glendale 
Place, where it dedicated a handsome church in 1908. 

In 1902-3 the old edifice of Westminster Presbyterian 
Church was so enlarged and rebuilt that only three walls 
of the original structure remained. A rich decorative 
treatment was given to the interior by the Tiffany Glass and 
Decorating Company, of New York. 

Two new churches in the United Presbyterian connection 
were established in 1903: the South Park U. P. Church, on 
South Park Avenue at the corner of Altruria Street, and the 
Ontario U. P. Church, on that street and Gallatin Avenue. 
Both were organized under the auspices of the United Pres- 
byterian Men's Association. In that year, too, the Hunt 
Avenue Baptist Church was organized, recalling to life a 
former church which had had a short life under the name 
of the Pilgrim Baptist Church. 



66 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

The last meeting of the North Presbyterian Church, in 
its old downtown home, was on the 17th of April, 1904. 
For one year thereafter it held services in the Assembly Hall 
of the Twentieth Century Club, for another year in the 
hospitable Temple Beth Zion, — where temporarily houseless 
Christian congregations have been invited to shelter on a 
number of occasions, — and then in the chapel of its own new 
church, on Delaware Avenue, at the corner of Utica, until 
the main edifice was finished and dedicated, in January, 
1907. 

Maple Street Baptist Church, and the Evangelical St. 
Andrew's Church, were organized in 1904; the latter on 
Genesee Street and Domedion Avenue. 

In 1905 the splendid new church edifice of the Holy 
Trinity English Evangelical Lutheran Church, on Main 
Street above North, was finished, at a total cost of $155,000, 
and dedicated on May 7th, the twenty-sixth anniversary of 
the church. The South Park M. E. Church dedicated the 
building it occupies. St. Paul's Church of the Evangelical 
Association remodelled and enlarged its edifice. The beau- 
tiful Parish House of Trinity P. E. Church was opened. 

The Sloan Presbyterian Church, on Broadway, at the City 
Line, was organized in 1906 by the Presbytery of Buffalo. 
In the same year a mission Sunday School previously 
opened by the Delaware Avenue M. E. Church, was made 
the basis of a new church organization, the Epworth M. E. 
Church at the corner of Grey and Cayuga streets. The 
Second United Presbyterian Church migrated from Swan 
Street to Woodlawn Avenue and Humboldt Parkway, 
where it built anew. 

The beautiful new building of the First Unitarian 
Church, on Elmwood Avenue, at the corner of Ferry Street, 
designed by Edward A. and W. W. Kent, was finished in 
1907, at a cost of not quite $140,000. 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: IN THE NEW CENTURY 67 

The beautiful old building of the Central Presbyterian 
Church, on Pearl and Genesee streets, was injured seriously 
by fire in this year. It was restored for a few years of use, 
but in 1909 the building and ground were sold to Michael 
Shea, the vaudeville manager, the society united with that 
of the Park Presbyterian, and a fine building of stone 
erected at the corner of Main Street and Jewett Avenue. 

Saint Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church, — the first 
Italian M. E. Church in the Genesee Conference, was 
dedicated on the 28th of February, 1909. It was built of 
brick and white stone, at a cost of $15,000. The church 
stands at the corner of Front Avenue and Wilkeson streets. 

The Evangelical Reformed Emmanuel Church cele- 
brated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 1908, the Rev. James 
Storrer having been its pastor from the beginning. 
Speaking of the change which half a century had brought, 
Mr. Storrer remarked that the region of the church, on 
Humboldt Parkway, when he began service in it, was often 
called Siberia, because of its remoteness and inaccessibility. 

Salem German Evangelical Church remodelled and 
enlarged its building in 1907. At the present time new 
buildings are in contemplation by the Plymouth Congrega- 
tional, the Pilgrim Congregational, the Woodside M. E., 
and the Evangelical St. Stephen's churches, and by the 
Memorial Church of the Evangelical Association. 



CHAPTER II 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC 
CHURCH 

THE Neutral Nation of Indians, which occupied both 
borders of the Niagara River when French 
explorers and missionaries obtained their first 
acquaintance with this region of America, were visited by 
the Franciscan Father Dallion, from the Huron Mission, 
in the fall of 1626. From that time the Neutrals and the 
neighboring Senecas, in Western New York, received occa- 
sional visitations from the Catholic missionaries who 
labored in fields at the north and east; but no permanent 
mission appears to have been established among the former 
before they suffered destruction as a tribe. After that 
occurrence, a large territory enveloping the site of the future 
city of Buffalo was uninhabited, practically, for not less 
than a hundred years ; and after the Senecas had been driven 
into it, from their previous main residence in the Genesee 
valley, by Sullivan's expedition, in 1779, there is nothing in 
Bishop Timon's account of "Missions in Western New 
York" to indicate the presence of a missionary in their 
village on Buffalo Creek. 

Apparently, therefore, the first performance of religious 
rites by a Catholic clergyman, within what is now the city 
of Buffalo, occurred in 1821 ; that being the year in which 
Bishop Timon has placed "the first recorded visit of a 
priest" to the white settlement on Buffalo Creek. The 
clerical visitor then was the Rt. Rev. Henry Conwell, 
Bishop of Philadelphia, who passed through the village on 
a journey westward, and baptized a child during his brief 
stay. The few Catholics of the place were next visited, in 
the same year, we are told, by the Reverend Mr. Kelly, of 

68 



EARLY CATHOLIC MISSIONS 69 

Rochester, "who said mass in St. Paul's, the Episcopal 
church, only five Catholic families being in attendance. 
From this time occasional visits were made by clergymen 
stationed at Rochester." 

In 1828 the Rev. Mr. Baden was in Buffalo for six weeks, 
"officiating sometimes in the court house, and at other times 
at the residence of Louis Le Couteulx, Esq." At the solici- 
tation of Father Baden, Mr. Le Couteulx, on the 5th of 
January, 1829, executed a deed of a piece of land, in trust 
for the Catholics of Buffalo, to Rt. Rev. John Dubois, 
Bishop of New York, and his successors, for a Catholic 
church and cemetery, and sent it to the Bishop as a New 
Year's gift. Bishop Dubois was then making a visitation of 
his large diocese, and arrived at Buffalo in the summer of 
1829. "He found," says Bishop Timon, "seven or eight 
hundred Catholics, instead of the seventy or eighty he had 
been led to expect. By means of an interpreter he heard 
the confessions of some two hundred Swiss; preached in 
the court house ; administered the sacraments of baptism and 
matrimony; proceeded to the above mentioned ground and 
dedicated it to the object for which it was given. This 
ceremony was the first of the kind ever performed in 
Western New York. After the consecration, the Catholics 
called upon the Bishop and urged him to send them a priest, 
which he promised to do. Accordingly, in the fall of that 
year, the Rev. Mr. Mertz arrived in Buffalo. 

"Father Nicholas Mertz, who had collected upwards of 
$3,000 in Europe with the intention of building a church 
elsewhere, erected, in 1831, with part of this money, on the 
consecrated lot, a small wooden church called 'The Lamb of 
God' [known afterwards as St. Louis Church], the name 
being suggested by the figure on a bronze tabernacle, which 
he brought with him from Europe and placed in the church. 
When Father Mertz first arrived in Buffalo he resided in a 



70 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

small log hut, on the west side of Pearl Street, between 
Court and Eagle streets, and held Divine service in an old 
frame house near by." 

Bishop Dubois made a second visit to Buffalo in 183 1, and 
found, it is said by Bishop Timon, considerable discord in 
the church, between its German and Irish members; and 
listened to a complaint on the part of the former, that "the 
pastor would not allow them to manage the money affairs 
of the church." The complaint was dismissed. 

A few years later, the number of Catholics having in- 
creased beyond the capacity of the little church of "The 
Lamb of God," and the Irish people being "pained by the 
petty annoyances to which they were exposed" in that con- 
gregation, "resolved to withdraw from it and procure, if 
possible, a pastor of their own, from whom they might 
receive more frequent instruction in English." In 1837 
the Rev. Charles Smith was sent from Albany as their 
pastor, and services were held for them at various places, 
until 1841, when the original St. Patrick's Church was built 
at the corner of Ellicott and Batavia streets. Ultimately, in 
1855, this church was transferred to the Sisters of Charity 
and became St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum. 

Meantime, fresh discontents had appeared in the St. Louis 
Church of the German congregation, some part of its mem- 
bership claiming a right to control the property and funds 
of the church. In 1838 these members obtained incorpora- 
tion, under a law of 1784, which put that control in lay 
hands. Father Mertz left the church and was succeeded 
by the Rev. Alexander Pax, who proceeded to erect a larger 
edifice for the congregation, which had far outgrown the 
small temple of "The Lamb of God." But soon after the 
completion of the new building the dispute over rights 
between laymen and clergy, in the holding and management 
of church property, was made acute by action on the part 



THE ST. LOUIS CHURCH TROUBLES 7 1 

of Bishop Hughes, who succeeded Bishop Dubois, on the 
death of the latter, in 1842. Bishop Hughes called a 
diocesan synod, to frame statutes for a decisive regulation of 
this among other church matters. The resulting enactments 
required the title of all church property in the diocese to 
be vested in its bishop, and affirmed his control over the 
use of church funds. The only congregation to resist this 
declaration of the law of the church was that of St. Louis 
in Buffalo. In this case the title to church lands was not 
in question, since Mr. Le Couteulx had conveyed his gift of 
land to Bishop Dubois, for the church ; but the controversy 
was wholly concerning the control of the use. 

The Bishop now wrote to the recalcitrants: "Should you 
determine that your church shall not be governed by the 
general law of the diocese, then we shall claim the privilege 
of retiring from its walls in peace, and leave you also in 
peace, to govern it as you will." The pastor, Father Pax, 
failing to enforce the statutes, resigned and left the city. 
After a time the church asked for another pastor, and 
received this reply from Bishop Hughes: "You shall not 
govern your Bishop, but your Bishop shall govern you in 
all ecclesiastical matters. When you are willing to walk in 
the way of your holy faith, as your forefathers did, and be 
numbered among the Catholic flock of the diocese, precisely 
as all other trustees and congregations are, then I shall send 
you a priest, if I have one." At the same the Bishop sent 
two priests who established a new church. The trustees 
attempted an appeal to Rome, without success. A part of 
the St. Louis congregation, which withdrew from it and 
met for worship in the basement of St. Patrick's Church, 
became the nucleus of a new congregation, for which the 
Church of St. Mary, on Batavia Street (now Broadway), 
was built, temporarily in 1844, and rebuilt of stone in 1850, 
with a convent on Pine Street. 



72 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

In August, 1844, the St. Louis trustees became reconciled 
with the Bishop, announcing that having received an expla- 
nation of the prelate's pastoral, which they had not under- 
stood correctly before, they promised "that the administra- 
tion of temporal affairs of our church shall be conducted 
conformably to the same." This ended the controversy 
for a time. 

In that interval of better feeling the diocese of Buflfalo 
was formed, by papal command, on the 23d of April, 1847. 
It embraced all that part of the State of New York which 
lies west of the eastern limits of Cayuga, Tomkins and 
Tioga counties, and the Very Reverend John Timon, then 
Visitor of the Congregation of Missions, was the Bishop 
named. He had been in laborious mission service at the 
West since 1825. Bishop Timon arrived in Buffalo on 
the 22d of October, and was received with warmth; but 
differences with the trustees of the St. Louis Church began 
in the first year of his rule. Again and again his authority 
was disputed and his commands disregarded, until finally, 
when the Bishop wished to place the church in charge of 
the Jesuit Fathers, and the trustees refused to admit them, 
their breach with him was complete. On the 14th of June, 
1851, he solemnly declared "St. Louis Church to be under 
an interdict, and that, consequently, no child of the Church 
can, without grievous sin, assist there at such rites and 
prayers whilst this sad state of things continue." 

St. Louis Church remained under the interdict for 
nearly four years. Speaking on the subject in the State 
Senate, on the 30th of January, 1855, the Hon. James O. 
Putnam said : "There still floats over its tower the black flag, 
symbolical of the darkness which envelops the altar over 
which it waves, bearing the significant inscription, 'Where 
is our Shepherd?'" On appeals to Rome, Archbishop 
Bedini was sent to investigate the questions at issue, and his 



BISHOP TIMON AND ST. LOUIS CHURCH 73 

decision was against the trustees. As they still refused sub- 
mission, they were formally excommunicated, on the 22d 
of June, 1854. At the next meeting of the State Legislature, 
they petitioned for a general law, to place all church 
property under the control of trustees ; and such an act, intro- 
duced and advocated by Senator Putnam, was passed. It 
invalidated future conveyances to priests and bishops in 
their official character, and all future conveyances of lands 
for purposes of religious worship unless made to a religious 
corporation organized under the laws of the State; and it 
declared that such property shall be deemed to be held in 
trust for the benefit of the congregation using the same. 
Soon after the passage of this act, terms of peace between 
the St. Louis trustees and the authorities of the Church were 
arranged, and no further discord in that important congre- 
gation has appeared. In 1862 the church property act of 
1855 was repealed, and in the next year, by an amendment 
of the earlier law, the incorporation of Roman Catholic 
Churches was made the same as that provided formerly for 
the Protestant Episcopal Church and the Dutch Reformed. 

The long controversy had excited much feeling, both 
locally and generally, throughout state and nation, and must 
have been trying to the spirit of Bishop Timon, who had 
nothing of arrogance or a domineering temper in his kindly 
heart. None who knew him or who looked on his face 
without prejudice could believe that any hardness of per- 
sonal feeling had to do with his firm enforcement of the law 
and discipline of his church. There was never in Buffalo 
a more winning representative of Christianity than he. 

During the years over which the St. Louis Church 
troubles had extended the general growth of the Catholic 
Church in Buffalo was not checked. A congregation was 
formed at Lower Black Rock, in 1847, which met in a 
rented room until the following year, when a small framed 



74 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

building was erected for church services and for a school. 
In 1853 S*^- Xavier's Church was built for this congregation, 
and it has been greatly enlarged and improved in later 
years. St. Boniface Church had its beginning in 1849, in 
a framed structure, which gave place to a brick edifice in 
1857. The parish of what is now the Church of the Im- 
maculate Conception was organized in 1849, and named St. 
Mary of the Lake. The original church was a framed 
building; the present church was built in 1856 (but recon- 
structed later) , and renamed The Church of the Immaculate 
Conception, in honor of the dogma which had been pro- 
claimed not long before. St. Peter's French congregation 
was formed in 1850, of French-speaking people who with- 
drew from St. Louis Church, and who bought from the 
Baptists a plain brick church building which the latter had 
erected, at the corner of Washington and Clinton streets, 
fourteen years before. This was occupied by the French 
Catholics until 1898 or 1899, when it was sold, to give place 
to the Lafayette Hotel, and a splendid new St. Peter's was 
built in 1900 at the corner of Main and Best streets. In 
the outskirts of the city, on Main Street, St. Joseph's parish 
was formed in 1850. Its original church was replaced by 
a larger and finer structure about 1886. 

In 1850 Bishop Timon went abroad, and after his return 
he issued a pastoral inviting contributions to the erection 
of a cathedral in the city. On the 6th of the following 
February the cornerstone of St. Joseph's Cathedral was laid. 
The Bishop had visited Me.xico to solicit help in the 
building, and had obtained contributions in Spain and other 
parts of the world. The work of construction went forward 
steadily, and the cathedral was finished sufficiently for dedi- 
cation to use in July, 1855. It is a stately Gothic edifice, 
designed by Patrick C. Keely, having a length of 236 feet, 
with 126 feet length of transept and 90 feet width of nave. 



ST. JOSEPH'S CATHEDRAL 75 

Wishing to give his cathedral the distinction of a sur- 
passingly fine chime of bells, Bishop Timon, in 1865, 
ordered an arrangement of forty-three bells from a famous 
bell-foundry at Paris. The bells were cast in 1866, 
exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1867, and arrived in 
Buffalo in 1868. Including a duty of $2,200, their cost 
when they reached the cathedral was nearly $24,000. The 
tower in which they were hung, having no proper openness, 
proved very unsuitable for the purpose. The sound of the 
bells was muffled, and the lack of an airy belfry caused 
rusting of the mechanism by which they were to be rung. 
A grievous disappointment resulted, and for more than 
thirty years, after about 1875, the famous chime never 
uttered a sound, except from two of its bells. In the spring 
of 1907 an electrical apparatus for the ringing was con- 
structed, and the chime is now heard occasionally, but only 
near at hand, being stifled in the enclosure of the tower. It 
is to be hoped that at some time, not distant, the bells may 
swing in a proper campanile, and radiate the charm of airy 
music which the good bishop expected them to do. There 
are probably few, if any, finer carillons in the world. 

In 1 85 1 another part of the St. Louis congregation with- 
drew, and held services for a time in the basement of St. 
Peter's French Church. The Bishop then conveyed to the 
Jesuit Fathers, who conducted these services, a piece of 
property that he had bought on Washington Street, subject 
to the condition that they build a church for the Germans, 
and a college. This was the origin of St. Michael's Church, 
first built in 1852, and rebuilt in 1867, and the origin of 
Canisius College. In the same year Bishop Timon took 
steps toward creating another institution of learning, by 
inviting three Oblate Missionaries of Mary Immaculate 
from Montreal to take charge of the Diocesan Seminary. 
They opened their work that year in temporary quarters, 



76 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

but in the next year the old County Poor House property on 
Prospect Hill was bought and the buildings fitted for their 
use. The Seminary lacked support, and was discontinued 
in 1855; but Holy Angels' parish was formed, under the 
charge of the Oblate Fathers, and a church for it was built 
in 1858 

To relieve the St. Patrick's Church, now overcrowded, a 
new parish was created in the Hydraulic region, in 1853. 
A small framed church built for it received the name of St. 
Vincent de Paul; but exchanged names, in 1855, with the 
old St. Patrick's Church, when the latter became St. 
Vincent's Orphan Asylum. Another church, St. Bridget's, 
arose in the same year, 1853, on Fulton Street. It grew out 
of a Sunday School, conducted since 1850 by members of a 
society of St. Vincent de Paul. An interval of five years 
then passed before the adding of another to the Catholic 
churches of the city. This was St. Anne's, established by 
the Jesuit Fathers, on Emslie Street, near Broadway. The 
original small brick church of the parish is now represented 
by a large Gothic edifice which cost $120,000. After six 
years more there was need again of an added parish and 
church for families on and near Humboldt Parkway. A 
chapel named St. Vincent's was built for them at the corner 
of the Parkway and Jefferson Street, in 1864. At the time 
of this writing the parish of St. Anne's is preparing to cele- 
brate its golden jubilee, August 24-26, 1908. 

Bishop Timon was now greatly broken in health, and two 
or three years of extreme feebleness, but indomitable 
persistence in labor, preceded his death, which came on the 
i6th of April, 1867. He had preached in the cathedral 
only two days before. His successor, Bishop Stephen Vin- 
cent Ryan, who had been Visitor-General of the Vincentian 
Order, was consecrated in November of the following year. 

In the interval, a new church, that of St. John the Baptist, 



BISHOP TIMON SUCCEEDED BY BISHOP RYAN 77 

had been dedicated by the administrator of the diocese, the 
Very Rev. William Gleason. This, built at the corner of 
Hertel Avenue and East Street, accommodated a part of 
the former congregation of the Church of St. Francis 
Xavier. The next to be built, in 1872, was the Church of 
St. Mary of Sorrows, at the corner of Genesee and Rich 
streets, a plain brick structure, rebuilt in 1884, and super- 
seded in 1901 by a stately edifice of stone. This was 
followed, the next year, by the erection of the first Polish 
church, named for St. Stanislaus; originally a framed 
building, at the corner of Peckham and Townsend streets, 
but superseded by one of stone in 1884. Then came, in 
1874, the formation of St. Nicholas parish, in the Cold 
Spring district, east of Main Street, where a small building 
served for both church and school until 1893, when a new 
church, at the corner of Utica and Welker streets, was built. 
In 1875 two parishes were added to the Catholic organiza- 
tion in Buffalo, namely: St. Stephen's in South Bufifalo, 
provided originally with a plain brick church on Elk Street, 
which gave way before many years to a fine edifice of stone; 
and the parish of the Sacred Heart, for which a church was 
built on Seneca Street, occupying a site running through to 
Swan. 

There now came a pause in church-building until 1882, 
when the Church of the Assumption was built, at the corner 
of Amherst and Grant streets, to meet the needs of our 
increasing population of Poles. In the next year the parish 
of St. Agnes was formed, in the district beyond the stock 
yards, and services opened in a small framed structure on 
Benzinger Street. In 1884 a similar modest building, on 
Bailey Avenue, near Walden, called the Church of the 
Holy Name, was provided for a new parish in East BuflFalo, 
which now assembles its congregation in a fine building of 
stone. In the same year, at another extremity of the city, 



78 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

another congregation was provided with a temporary 
church, on Bouck Avenue (now Lafayette) near Grant, 
where the brown stone walls of the Church of the Annuncia- 
tion have risen in recent years. A third Polish church, that 
of St. Adelbert, at Rother Avenue, Stanislaus and Kosciusko 
streets, was built in 1886, but burned soon afterward and 
rebuilt. A change of pastors in this church produced a 
secession and the organization of an Independent Polish 
Church. For the new parish of St. Columba a church was 
begun on South Division Street, near Hickory, in 1888, 
and occupied in an unfinished state until 1892, when a larger 
structure on a better site, corner of Eagle and Hickory 
streets, was built. 

The original Bishop's House, adjacent to the cathedral, 
was vacated and the episcopal residence removed to its new 
building on Delaware Avenue, near Utica Street, in 1889. 
The neighboring chapel of the Blessed Sacrament was 
dedicated at about the same time. Recently this chapel has 
been enlarged and was dedicated anew by Bishop Colton on 
the 4th of April, 1908. In the next year a fourth Polish 
parish was formed, with services performed for it in a 
building on Beers Street. For an Italian population then 
beginning to grow very rapidly the Church of St. Anthony 
of Padua, on Court Street, was built and dedicated in 1891. 
But the Poles in Buffalo were multiplying still more 
rapidly, and made up a fifth and a sixth congregation within 
the next five years. One, formed in 1893, assembled for a 
time in a small framed building, but soon built, at the corner 
of Sycamore and Mills streets, the Church of the Trans- 
figuration, which was dedicated in 1897. For the sixth 
congregation, the Corpus Christi Church, on Clark and 
Kent streets, was established by a community of Franciscan 
Fathers in 1896. 

The diocese was now to receive a new bishop, the death 



BISHOP RYAN SUCCEEDED BY BISHOP QUIGLEY 79 

of Bishop Ryan occurring on the loth of April, 1896. 
Always a man of delicate health, the labors and cares of the 
episcopal office had taxed his strength severely, and troubles 
with the rebellious Polish members of his church had had 
their natural effect. In February, 1897, he was succeeded 
by the Rev. Dr. James E. Quigley, who had been identified 
with the city and the diocese during most of his boyhood and 
active life. The choice of a bishop on this occasion had 
been determined under a new rule, decreed by the Third 
Plenary Council of Baltimore, in 1886. The decree in 
question created in each diocese certain "irremovable 
rectors," to whom were given the right of suffrage in the 
election of bishops. By their suffrages, approved by the 
head of the church, Dr. Quigley became bishop. 

In the first year of his episcopate the new congregation of 
St. Theresa's Church was formed, on the south side of 
Buffalo River, holding services in an old public school 
house until the completion of a fine edifice of brown stone, 
dedicated in 1899. Another parish formed by Bishop 
Quigley in his first year, from portions of St. Bridget's and 
St. Stephen's, was that of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, for 
which a large stone church building, at the corner of 
Sandusky and Alabama streets, was dedicated in 1900. 
Two parishes were organized in 1898, one at Black Rock, for 
which the Church of the Nativity was dedicated in 1903; 
the other in East Buffalo, called Visitation Parish, where a 
building for both church and school, at the corner of 
Lovejoy and Greene streets, was finished in 1899. In that 
year (1899) the parish of St. Mary Magdalene was formed, 
east of Humboldt Parkway, and the cornerstone laid of a 
building at the corner of Fillmore Avenue and Landon 
Street, which was finished the next year and which serves 
for church and school. The last creation of Bishop Quigley 
in this diocese was the Holy Family parish, formed in 
South Buffalo, in 1902. " 



8o CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Early in 1903, on the death of the Archbishop of Chicago, 
Bishop Quigley was called to that greater See. He had 
acquired reputation as a vigorous opponent of socialistic 
theories, and his selection for Chicago is attributed to that 
fact by the Rev. Dr. Donohue, the historian of the Diocese 
of Bufifalo. In his "History of the Catholic Church in 
Western New York" (from which much of what is given 
here on the subject has been drawn). Dr. Donohue says: 
"Chicago is the hot-bed of Socialism in the United States, 
and it was but natural that when the Catholic head of that 
great archdiocese died the church authorities there should 
look upon the gifted bishop of Buffalo as an available suc- 
cessor to their deceased archbishop, and a fit incumbent of 
the great See of Chicago. Bishop Quigley's name was on 
the list of the electors, and he was considered by Rome as the 
most suitable candidate for the Archepiscopal See." 

When the selection of a successor at Buffalo was to be 
made, "the candidates decided upon by the majority of the 
electors," says Dr. Donohue, "were not acceptable to the 
bishops of the province, and, at the meeting of the latter, a 
new list was substituted, with the Rev. Charles H. Colton, 
of New York, as dignissimus. Father Colton was long and 
favorably known as Chancellor of the archdiocese and rector 
of St. Stephen's parish, and he was appointed by the Pope 
to succeed Dr. Quigley." 

Bishop Colton was consecrated on the 24th of August, 
1903. St. Gerard's Church, in the northeastern quarter of 
the city, and St. John Kanty's in the Polish district, have 
been established since his episcopate began. At the time of 
this writing, in 1908, preparations are being made for the 
organization of a new parish in the Central Park district, 
north of Delaware Park. 

In the spring of 1908 the Rev. Dr. Julius Rodziewicz, an 
accomplished Polish divine from Europe, came to Buffalo, 



BISHOP COLTON 8 1 

at the request of Bishop Colton, and addressed several 
meetings of the Polish seceders from the Roman Church, 
with results that were said to be promising of an end to the 
schism. 



CHAPTER III 

INSTITUTIONS OF GENERAL BENEVOLENCE 

PUBLIC relief of poverty and infirmity began with the 
founding of the County Poor House in 1829. It was 
a small stone building, pleasantly and healthily 
located on what is now Porter Avenue, near the site of the 
present Holy Angels' Church. A small insane department 
was added after a few years ; but the ground occupied was 
insufficient for much development of the institution, and a 
tract of 154 acres on Main Street, near the present City Line, 
was bought in 1847. Buildings erected there were first 
occupied in 1850, and additions, for hospital, insane depart- 
ment, etc., have been added from time to time. Recently, 
the County has sold one hundred acres of the ground to the 
University of Buffalo, and a second removal of the alms- 
house, to some distance from the city, is in contemplation. 

The long, hard experience of England in dealing with 
pauperism, and the keen thought given to its problems by 
English philanthropists and statesmen, evolved the system of 
the London Charity Organization, brought into operation in 
1869. Eight years later Bufifalo led all American cities in 
borrowing and adapting the system. 

Here, as well as elsewhere, there had been endeavors long 
before to organize charitable work by some general associa- 
tion of those engaged in the relieving of distressful want; but 
such attempts had never had success. They ran counter to 
the invincible disposition of people to nucleate undertakings 
of this character around their divided churches or around 
secular centers of some social kind. A "Bufifalo Association 
for the Relief of the Poor," formed in 1850 and incorporated 
in 1852, was intended "to detect fraud and relieve the 
needy," and especially "to remedy and remove public and 

82 



THE CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY 83 

professional begging;" but it must have shared the common 
fate of these "associated charities," for it left little record 
of effective w^ork. 

The conception of Charity Organization which the 
London Society embodied was one that avoided intrusion 
into any existing field of benevolent activity, aiming, on the 
contrary, to stimulate all relief work, but enlighten it, from 
a common center of investigation and information, and 
gradually conform it to a systematic co-operative plan. As 
stated by the leader of the movement in Buffalo, it was the 
purpose of a Charity Organization Society to be "a center 
of intercommunication between the various charities and 
charitable agencies of a given city; an intermediary, acting 
in behalf of each and for the welfare of each, and, from its 
neutral character with regard to religion, politics and 
nationality, making possible such a degree of co-operation as 
would be impossible otherwise." 

This conception of Charity Organization was brought to 
our city by a young English clergyman. Rev. S. Humphreys 
Gurteen, who came to serve as Associate Rector of St. Paul's 
P. E. Church. Before leaving England Mr. Gurteen had 
taken part in the London mission work of the "University 
Slummers," as the Cambridge and Oxford workers in that 
field were known, and had personal knowledge of the results 
that were being accomplished by the new charity reform. 
He found here the same evils that London was dealing with, 
and became eagerly desirous of having them dealt with in 
the same practical way. After revisiting London, in the 
summer of 1877, and spending two months in a renewed 
investigation of the system and methods of the Charity 
Organization Society, he came back prepared to labor in 
Buffalo for an organization on similar lines. By a course of 
Sunday evening lectures on the subject, at St. Paul's; by dis- 
cussion of it in newspapers and a vigorous pamphlet, and by 



84 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

an untiring propagandism more privately pursued, he woke 
interest in the proposition and won supporters so quickly 
that the organization he desired was accomplished before 
the close of the year. It was the first of its kind in the 
United States. 

Even in the first year of its work the Society won the co- 
operation of the Poor Department and the Police, and 
"nearly all the charitable agencies in the city had signified, 
in one way or another, their willingness to co-operate." It 
was beginning already to break down "sectarian exclusive- 
ness, the prejudice of race and the ties of party" in humani- 
tarian work; and now, after more than thirty years of its 
wisely directed influence those obstacles to systematic co- 
operation have practically disappeared. One hundred and 
twenty churches of all denominations have divided the city 
between them, in definite districts, each agreeing "to provide 
for every dependent family in its district a responsible vol- 
unteer visitor and such money as it can aflford, whenever 
asked to do so by the Society." 

When the Society was organized the population of 
Buffalo was about 140,000. The city was then giving public 
aid to 3,778 families, was expending $112,053 within the 
year for outdoor relief, and pauperism was having an always 
accelerated growth. In 1907, with a population not less 
than 400,000, the families in receipt of public aid numbered 
only 775, and the city expenditure in outdoor relief had 
dropped to $31,418. In 1881, four years after the begin- 
ning of its work, the Charity Organization Society had 
2,327 families under its care, as the general guardian and 
reporter of their needs. In 1906 the number was but 1,714, 
including all that receive city aid. When submitting these 
facts in its annual report for 1907 the Society was justified 
in saying: "These figures prove that the Society is winning 
its fight against poverty in Buffalo. * » * Poverty is a 
curable disease, and it is being cured in this city." 



THE FITCH INSTITUTE AND CRECHE 85 

Very promptly, after organizing its investigation of the 
needs and its plans for the relief of the existing dependent 
poverty, the Society turned attention to measures for dimin- 
ishing the causes, in thriftlessness, ignorance, broken spirit, 
evil habit, demoralizing conditions of life, from which so 
much of it sprang. In this direction it received early en- 
couragement from a splendid gift of real property made by 
Mr. Benjamin Fitch, formerly a merchant in Buffalo, but 
latterly resident in New York. By his gift, Mr. Fitch pro- 
vided immediately for the establishment, in 1880, of the 
Fitch Creche, or day nursery for the young children of 
working women, and for the erection of the Fitch Institute 
building, to accommodate various provident and benevolent 
undertakings that were in the Society's plan; and he 
endowed it, at the same time, with a permanent estate from 
which it drew a net income of $7,796 in 1907. 

The Fitch Creche became a model institution of its kind, 
for the most serviceable help to self-support that can be 
given to a large class of working women, and it has been 
studied and copied in all parts of the country. Speaking of 
it in 1894, 3t the New England Conference of Charities, 
Mr. Gurteen remarked: "This sketch of the early history of 
the Creche would be incomplete without especial reference 
being made to Miss Maria M. Love, who, from the very 
start, has been the life and soul of the movement, and to 
whose rare executive ability the Creche chiefly owes its 
present enviable reputation." It is still as true as when this 
was said, that Miss Love is the life and soul of the adminis- 
tration of the Creche. 

In 1 88 1 the Society established a provident woodyard, 
maintained for the next twelve years; and in the next year 
a coal saving fund, to enable the buying of fuel in small 
quantities at a low price. In 1882 it began an investigation 
of the housing of the poor, and an agitation for more efifec- 



86 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

tive supervision of crowded tenements, which has been pur- 
sued with increasing energy, until a thorough renovation of 
the lower class of tenements has been brought about in recent 
years. In 1883 it opened the Fitch Provident Dispensary, 
and in 1886 the Fitch Accident Hospital, both of which 
have been discontinued lately, because the need had been 
met otherwise sufficiently. In 1885 it opened Labor 
Bureaus, which, in 1907, provided 6,130 days' work for men 
and women out of regular employ. In 1890 it established 
a training school for nursemaids; in 1892 a Penny Savings 
Fund; in 1895 ^ Provident Loan Company (substituted for 
the pawnbroker's business) with procurement of a chattel- 
mortgage law for Buffalo that prohibits usurious rates. In 
1895 it brought about the establishment of the first Munici- 
pal Bath House. In 1900 and the year following it led 
measures which systematized the "probation" system of 
judicial dealing with young delinquents, and which created 
a Juvenile Court. In 1901-2-3 it secured the establishment 
of six Municipal Playgrounds. Between 1902 and 1905 it 
brought about a vigorous treatment of wife and family 
desertion, under legislation which makes it a felony and 
extraditable. In 1904 it organized a campaign against 
tuberculosis which has been pursued with earnestness since, 
by investigation, inspection and exhibitions, and by the 
opening of a Fitch Tuberculosis Dispensary. Finally, in 
these last years, it has instituted medical examinations of 
defective children in the schools, affording evidence of the 
need of medical school inspection systematically and 
officially performed; it has commissioned an agent of its 
own to enforce the child labor laws; and it has provided 
for legal aid to the poor. This is a record which speaks 
abundantly for itself. 

The first president of the Society was Mr. Pascal P. Pratt, 
who served it for two years. He was succeeded by Mr. 



CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

V on ot crowded tenements, which has been pur- 

i.creasing energy, until a thorough renovation of 

>cr class of tenements has been brought about in recent 

In 1883 it opened the Fitch Provident Dispensary, 

and in 1886 the Fitch Accident Hospital, both of which 

have been discontinued lately, because the need had been 

met otherwise sufficiently. In 1885 it opened Labor 

Bureaus, which, in 1907, provided 6,130 days' work for men 

and women out of regular employ. In 1890 it established 

a training school for nursemaids; in 1892 a Penny Savings 

Fund; in 1895 ^ Provident Loan Company (substituted for 

the pawnbroker's business) with procurement of a chattel- 

.... l^id'slAShBKRK'.hi bits usunoii.s rates. In 

Contractor: born, nHstol, Engiand/ti^^^'r^li'^t ^JlJ,ite|>^""'^'' 
began business life witb his father, a contractof and buildfer;'- '^ ^^^ 
came to the United States in 1857 and obtained contracts "'^^rn of 
ior many important structures in Buffalo and elsewhere. ' en. ted 
Gave special attention to engineering and sanitary works. ;., indent 
I" 1873 planned and constructed the water .wpi;ks of Titos-:; ,, :/ 
ville, Pennsylvania: die:! June 24. ig(Tg. '""" '^"^ / ^ 

c of wife and family 

.-: \.,.; a . .. .1: makes it a felony and 

In 1904 It organized a campaign against 

■ hah has been pursued with earnestness since, 

nspection and exhibitions, and by the 

! TiibercvildS'; Dispensary Finally, in 

■.H of 

>f the 

and 

:! of its 

...s provided 

hich speaks 

Tht ; nt of the S<H;.f n- waa M r. Pascal P. Pratt, 

who servo, ii 1" \ -•: " succeeded by Mr. 



YOUNG men's christian ASSOCIATION 87 

Edwin T. Evans, who devoted time and means to its ad- 
ministration for nine years. Then Mr. T. Guilford Smith, 
a leader in the councils and labors of the Society from the 
beginning, was called to the presiding chair, and occupied 
it until 1907, when the honorary presidency was conferred 
upon him, and Mr. Ansley Wilcox accepted the adminis- 
trative labors of the seat. 

In its early years the society was served by volunteer sec- 
retaries, and Mr. Josiah G. Munro gave hard work in that 
office for a quite long term. The first regularly engaged 
secretary was Mr. Nathaniel S. Rosenau, from 1883 to 
1893. Then came the enlistment of Mr. Frederic Almy, 
from volunteer and occasional into regular and entire service 
in social-betterment work, and his entrance upon a career 
in which he has won an eminent place. In 1908 Mr. Porter 
R. Lee (called since to a similar field in Philadelphia) was 
made joint secretary with Mr. Almy, and Mr. Roy Smith 
Wallace, as field secretary, was added to the administrative 
staflf. 

The parent of all Young Men's Christian Associations was 
formed in London, England, by George Williams, after- 
wards Sir George Williams, in 1844. The first in America, 
modelled on that of London, was organized in Montreal, 
December 9, 1851 ; the second arose in Boston, just twenty 
days later than the Montreal association; the third appeared 
in Buffalo, on the 26th of April, 1852. The prime mover 
in the Buffalo organization was George W. Perkins, and his 
first associates were Isaac C. Tryon, Jabez Loton, Cyrus K. 
Remington, P. J. Ferris and Jesse Clement. At its first 
public meeting, on the 9th of May, it enrolled forty-five 
members, and elected Norton A. Halbert as its president. 
To avoid confusion with the Young Men's Association then 
existing, it took the name of the Young Men's Christian 



88 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Union, and was so known until 1870, when its title was con- 
formed to that borne by all other institutions of its kind. 

The first habitation of the Union was in rooms then 
lately vacated by the Young Men's Association, on South 
Division Street, between Washington and Main. It had 
127 members when it opened its rooms. By the following 
spring the number had increased to 381, and larger apart- 
ments were sought. They were found in the "Odeon Hall 
Block," at the northwest corner of Mohawk and Main 
streets, and there the Union remained until 1855. Its mem- 
bership had then grown to 777, and it was encouraged to 
venture upon a still more convenient establishment of itself. 
It rented Kremlin Hall, on the fourth floor of the building 
which stands yet at the southeastern corner of Eagle and 
Pearl streets, and, with the hall, most of the rooms on the 
third floor, for library and offices. These rooms and the 
hall were well-furnished, pleasantly situated, and offered an 
exceedingly attractive place of resort to young men. 

When, in the autumn of 1856, the attractiveness of the 
place was enhanced by the presence in it of a personality so 
attractive as that of David Gray, who then became librarian, 
the Union could have no wish to offer more. Born in Edin- 
burgh, but brought to America and to the life of a western 
farm in early boyhood, Mr. Gray had come lately to Buffalo, 
and was drawn by friendly fortune into a service which in- 
troduced him to the best of the city and made his delightful 
endowments quickly known. After he came it was not 
long before the Y. M. C. U. Library had become a gathering 
place of kindred spirits, young and old, for stimulating and 
inspiring talk. Those summer afternoons and winter even- 
ings in the circle around David Gray have been memorable 
in a good many lives, and lasting associations of friendship 
growing out of them have had influences that are not yet 
spent. 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 89 

The library of the Union, at this time, contained about 
1,200 volumes of very good literature, and it was well used. 
For lectures given in Kremlin Hall, such notable speakers as 
Henry Ward Beecher, Bishop Simpson, Professor Dwight, 
Dr. Bethune, Dr. Storrs, President Anderson, of Rochester, 
were engaged. Until 1857 the institution had strong sup- 
port and did excellent work. Then came the financial crisis 
of that year, and the succeeding period of industrial and 
commercial depression, followed by the years of the Civil 
War; and the support on which the Union depended for its 
undertakings fell away. In 1859 it was forced to withdraw 
from Kremlin Hall and its pleasant rooms underneath, and 
to accept narrow quarters in the Brisbane "Arcade" build- 
ing, which stood where the Mooney building stands now. 
In 1865 it became one of the upper-floor tenants of the build- 
ing which the Young Men's Association had then acquired, 
by purchase and reconstruction of the old St. James Hotel. 
Four years later it obtained somewhat roomier quarters over 
No. 302 Main Street. In 1871 it removed again, to 319 
Main street, with some improvement of accommodations; 
and still again, in 1875, with further improvement, to the 
corner of North Division and Main streets, where it re- 
mained for three years. Its last change in rented quarters 
was made in 1878, when it took the abandoned Court House 
building, on Clinton and Ellicott streets, and had space in it 
for more of the kind of work it wished to do than it had 
ever possessed before. 

The Association (now so named) was coming into better 
days; but it had passed through a long period of serious 
decline in effective force. It had had almost a struggle for 
life; and, in the judgment of its historian, Mr. Frank E. 
Sickels, — whose interesting "Fifty Years of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of Buffalo" furnishes most of 
the material used in this sketch, — its difficulties had been 



90 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

due, in the main, to a mistaken direction in its work. It had 
held together a faithful band of Christian workers who 
had labored heroically always, but not specifically enough 
in their own distinct field. "What the times demanded," 
writes Mr. Sickels, "was a work for young men, especially 
those strangers who were flocking to the great cities." 

Mr. Sickels dates from about 1869 the wakening of the 
Association to a truer conception of its mission, and its 
gradual entrance upon a new and great career. In the next 
year it began to have thoughts of a gymnasium, which it 
could not realize, however, till eight years afterwards, when 
the old Court House supplied the needed room. In 1871 it 
amended its constitution, "to permit two classes of members, 
active and associate, the. latter class including any young man 
of good moral character. The creation of this class ren- 
dered possible the growth of a large privilege-using mem- 
bership, and has had a great and very beneficent effect upon 
the life of the Association." At the same time, by another 
amendment, its constitution was made to read: "The object 
of this Association shall be the improvement of the spiritual, 
mental, social, and physical condition of young men." In 
the winter, 1873, when all industries were again cast down, 
the Association opened a "Holly Tree Soup and Coffee 
Room," on Pearl Street and maintained it till April, 1874. 
A little later that year it established the "Friendly Inn," at 
No. 3 Pearl Street, where "a good meal, a clean bed, a bath 
room, a free reading room, a place to write letters, a chance 
to get employment," and temperance drinks, were offered at 
low rates of charge. This was kept open till 1878. 

For some time past the desire of the Association for a 
building that should be its own property and planned for its 
work had been stiffening into a resolve. This was stimu- 
lated immensely in 1874 by a remarkable entertainment, 
styled "The Authors' Carnival," which everybody took part 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 9 1 

in and which is a memorable event to this day. The Car- 
nival realized no less than $5,871 for the Y. M. C. A. build- 
ing fund. Patiently, steadily, from that time, the fund was 
built up, during ten following years, and in the tenth year 
it had finished a building which cost $96,545, and paid all 
but $2,100 of that cost. The building, on Mohawk, Pearl 
and Genesee streets, which replaced what had once been a 
market and later a police station, was dedicated on the 28th 
of January, 1884. Mr. Eric L. Hedstrom, from 1871 to 
1879, and Mr. Robert B. Adam from 1880 to the end, were 
the chairmen of the building committee which achieved this 
grand success, and a dozen or more of the strong business 
men of the city were their associates in the task. 

"From this time," says Mr. Sickels, "the work [of the 
Association] has advanced steadily in all departments. In 
the physical department the advance has been most marked; 
not only has the number using the privileges been many 
times multiplied, but the character and scope of the work 
have been constantly bettered and placed upon a more thor- 
oughly scientific basis." In 1890 provision for out-of-door 
athletic exercise was made by the renting and equipping of 
an Outing Park. Educational classes, started in 1880, have 
been multiplied and developed to such an extent that they 
were giving instruction on many subjects, by trained 
teachers, to 650 students, in 1907. 

Educational lectures of many kinds, university extension 
courses, debating clubs, clubs for study of social economics 
and other special topics, the Equality Club, for dining and 
listening to noted speakers from abroad, these, with many 
forms of religious work, are among the varied activities de- 
veloped in this later epoch of the history of the Association. 
Along with the work has gone much of entertainment, 
planned happily for keeping the social spirit of the institu- 
tion alive. A Junior Department or Division for boys, 



92 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

established in 1886, "is largely," says Mr. Sickels, a "repro- 
duction of the senior work." 

The fine building dedicated in 1884, which had seemed 
then to provide amply for the need of many years to come, 
had been outgrown before the century closed ; and the spring 
of 1900 found the heads of the institution boldly facing a 
necessity for raising not less than $175,000, with which to 
build anew and without stint of room or facilities for the 
great work in their hands. Again Mr. Robert B. Adam 
headed a building committee, with P. P. Pratt, J. J. Mc- 
Williams, William A. Rogers, S. M. Clement, W. H. 
Walker, R. R. HefTord, J. W. Robinson, F. E. Sickels, F. A. 
Board, William A. Joyce, S. N. McWilliams and A. H. 
Whitford for his colleagues, and the round sum specified 
was pledged by the end of the year. In the next year the 
fund grew to $250,000, and a spacious and admirable build- 
ing which cost over $300,000, on ground at the junction of 
Pearl, Genesee and Franklin streets, costing $100,000 more, 
was dedicated on the ist of October, 1903. 

This splendid development of the central organism of the 
Association is far, however, from representing its whole 
remarkable growth and the magnitude of its noble work in 
the city. From seed of its planting there have grown 
already seven subsidiary or affiliated associations, special- 
ized for a membership of Germans, railroad men and stu- 
dents of the University of Buffalo. The Union Terminal 
Railroad Department of the Y. M. C. A., formed in 1878, 
has attractive rooms in the Fitch Institute Building. The 
East Bufifalo Railroad Department, organized ten years 
later, occupies a fine building erected at the expense of the 
New York Central and West Shore Railroad companies and 
the Wagner Palace Car Company. The Depew Railroad 
Department was established in 1895, in a house provided by 
the Depew Improvement Company. The latest of the rail- 



Y. M. C. A. DEPARTMENTS AND AUXILIARIES 93 

road departments, that of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg 
road, was established, in 1901, on the invitation of the com- 
pany, which contributed $2,500 to the cost of a building and 
gives $600 yearly to the maintenance fund. 

For the German Department of the Association, organ- 
ized in 1888, ''a very complete building" at the corner of 
Genesee and Davis streets was erected in 1895 ^^ a cost 
(including ground) of $54,000. 

The Student Department was formed in 1901. An excel- 
lent building for a West Side Department erected at the 
corner of West Ferry Street and Grant, was dedicated in 
1909. 

As reported for the year ending May i, 1907, the Asso- 
ciation had a membership in its Central Department of 
3,161 ; in its Boys' Department of 1,100; in its railroad, its 
German and its student departments of 2,521. Counting 
together its members and the contributors to its maintenance 
who are not members, it reckons a total constituency of about 
10,000. 

Its property at the Central Department was reported to 
be $450,000 in value; in the German Department, $55,000; 
in the equipment of the railroad departments, $5,000; mak- 
ing a total of its real property $510,000. With this it had 
acquired an endowment fund of $116,365. The amount of 
its substantial possessions were, therefore, $626,565 ; against 
which its total liabilities were $138,563. 

Auxiliary to the Y. M. C. A., and projected by its ener- 
getic secretary, Mr. A. H. Whitford, a noble enterprise of 
true benevolence, inspiring a thoroughly practical under- 
taking of business, was carried out in 1910, by the erection 
of a large ten-story fire-proof Men's Hotel, contiguous to 
the central building of the Y. M. C. A., and conducted by 
the Association as lessee. The hotel provides 288 bed- 
rooms, accommodating 350 men, at prices ranging from $2 



94 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

to $3.50 per week, and from 35 to 75 cents a night. How 
admirable a benefit it ofifers, especially to young men of 
small means, is too plain to need any description. The 
building, like those of the "Mills Hotels" in New York City, 
which gave the suggestion of it, is in every way of the first 
class in construction and equipment, costing $225,000, for 
which funds were raised on mortgage bonds. Two citizens, 
Mr. John D. Larkin and Mr. William A. Rogers, were the 
main promoters of the undertaking. 

Most of the extraordinary achievement recorded in this 
sketch has come from energies aroused in the last thirty 
years. Many men have contributed to them; but there was 
one, the model merchant and good citizen, Robert B. Adam, 
who did more than any other. His official service in the 
Association began in 1879, and ended when he died, June 
30, 1904, at which time he had been its continuous president 
for seven years. 

The Guard of Honor, which has been mentioned hereto- 
fore as having grown into existence from a Bible class con- 
ducted by Miss Charlotte Mulligan at the Wells Street 
Chapel, was organized formally for religious and benevolent 
work on the i6th of January, 1868, at a meeting in the 
Buffalo Female Academy building, on Johnson Park. Its 
meetings were in that building, near the residence of Miss 
Mulligan (who was always, during her life, the guide and 
leader of the society) until 1884, when it bought the prop- 
erty at 620-622 Washington Street, where it built a com- 
fortable and well provided house for its own meetings and 
for the temporary lodging of homeless young men who need 
friendly help toward the getting of employment, or encour- 
agement in lifting themselves out of bad courses in life. 
Bed, bath and clean clothes at this place often do, in them- 
selves, a good missionary work; and other influences, sym- 
pathetic and religious, were brought to bear. These are 




/^wC-e-?- A). Xii^^r^^^- 



L K.-Vb t>Ui.L 



- ctk, and from 35 to 75 cents a night. How 
■ a benefit it offers, especially to young men of 
cans, is too plain to need any description. The 
building, like those of the "Mills Hotels" in New York City, 
which gave the suggestion of it, is in every way of the first 
class in construction and equipment, costing $225,ckX), for 
which funds were raised on mortgage bonds. Two citizens, 
Mr. John D. Larkin and Mr. William A. Rogers, were the 
main promoters of the undertaking. 

Most of the extraordinary achievement recorded in this 
sketch has come from energies aroused in the last thirty 
years. Many men have contributed to them; but there was 
one, the model merchant and good citizen, Robert B. Adam, 
who did more than am ut' H - official service in the 

Association bcKanJ^P?^:^ LARKIN. ^^.j^^^^ j^^ ^-^^^ j^^^^ 
20 M<a.iwiix.ta^t^]^^fi^^^p^4f>^,N^}^Yqrk^ ^pt^ober;^,-"'^! lent 
|q^8^5,; cdi^t^ted in the public schools. Took up the manu- 
facture of soaps and toilet articles and in 1875 founded the 
liarkiii Company vkrfeieh was\ihcorpdrated in 1892, with Mi-.heretO- 
fof^artart.aa pi;esidfiit,. .Difsector.Comjnonwealth Trust Coirt-a^s con- 
dl^^l 99^"™-fe^'^tm^lf^'v--^rv] Central National Bai^^j Street 
^,member"of Buffalo, Eljicott, and Manufacturers' Clujss of , 
ClwDfrwisw.!j/a[iizC(lJ;rf' , r ,.:„i,.- mji pQievolent 

BififaTo, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, and national Arts 
^v«alSbWl^i'jW'i^^:9lepta^nn^(5fiifes.at a meeting in the 

Buffalo Female Academy building, on Johnson Park. Its 
mcc' ' ' 't building, near the residence of Miss 

Mr iways, during her life, the guide and 

leau.. -"•' ^■^ •, h^M ,, K,-„.„ht ri, ,..-,,,. 

crty at f m- 

forjahlc .„:. and 

for \\ ho need 

fr ( . ' >)r encour- 

agement in lilting tt had courses in life. 

Bed, bath and clean <..> i.e often do, in them- 

selves, a good missionary work; and other influences, sym- 
pathetic and religious, were brought to bear. These are 




^47^C^^ A. Aii-7^^^A.<^^ 



YOUNG women's CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 95 

Still afforded at the Guard of Honor Home, where a Sunday 
School and Bible classes are also carried on. 

The Women's Christian Association, which recently has 
taken the name of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, was organized in 1870 for benevolent work among poor 
women, and this was directed mainly for many years to the 
maintenance of a Boarding Home. With the change of 
name, it has entered many and large fields of work, aiming 
at "the spiritual, intellectual, social and physical develop- 
ment of young women." The Association was first estab- 
lished in a room on Pearl Street; opened a Home later on 
Eagle and EUicott streets, and built, finally, under its old 
organization, a commodious habitation at No. 10 Niagara 
Square. Under the new regime, in 1904, it acquired the 
building then vacated by the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, at the angle of Mohawk and Genesee streets, and its 
newer work is centered there, while the former Boarding 
Home is still maintained. 

Now, at the Mohawk Street center, says the general sec- 
retary. Miss Lillian E. Janes, "through its lunch room, 
gymnasium and sewing classes, its Bible classes, student 
branches, and the branch at the Larkin Works, it touches 
1,200 women and girls daily. It has now a budget of 
$60,000, employs a staff of about twenty secretaries and 
teachers." Its work is organized in the following depart- 
ments: Educational, Religious, Physical, Student, Indus- 
trial, Cafeteria, Home, and Traveler's Aid. The present 
property of the Association is valued at $250,000. It has 
risen quickly to a place among the largest institutions in the 
city. 

Trinity Co-operative Relief Society, in connection with 
Trinity P. E. Church, was organized in March, 1880, for 
more efficiency in the benevolent undertakings of the 



96 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Church. Its first officers were Mr. William H. Gratwick, 
president; Miss Maria M. Love, vice-president; Miss Emily 
Ganson, secretary; Miss Elizabeth C. Rochester, assistant 
secretary; Mr. Horatio H. Seymour, treasurer. Its head- 
quarters for four years were in Trinity Parish Building, 
on Mohawk Street; then in rooms at the Fitch Institute, on 
Swan and Michigan streets. When the district plan of 
dividing charitable relief work among the Churches of the 
city, suggested by Miss Love in 1895, was adopted and car- 
ried out by the Charity Organization Society in the follow- 
ing year, the Trinity Co-operative Society accepted one of 
the largest and most needy of the districts assigned. 

It leased a house at 258 Elk Street, and opened there the 
Trinity House Settlement, with Mrs. Bradnack in resi- 
dence, and with equipments of a library, reading room and 
facilities for the organization of boys' and girls' clubs. In 
1903 a splendid new development was given to the Trinity 
House Settlement, by the erection for its use of a beautiful 
and most perfectly adapted building, on Babcock Street, 
Nos. 280-282, given as a memorial of the late Mrs. Stephen 
V. R. Watson, and bearing the name of Watson House. 
In this it is provided with everything that can be useful in 
its work. It has rooms for library and for readers, for 
manual training, for kindergarten, for girls', boys' and 
men's clubs, for gymnasium, for diet kitchen, for domestic 
service classes, for public baths, etc. Eight teachers and 
workers were in residence in 1907. 

The Women's Educational and Industrial Union of 
Buffalo feels pride in being the first godchild of the kin- 
dred institution in Boston, of like name. It was organized 
on the 5th of February, 1884, at a meeting held in the Fitch 
Institute building, which Mrs. Abby Morton Diaz, presi- 
dent of the Boston Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union, addressed. The undertakings it contemplated were 



women's education and industrial union 97 

planned and have been carried out, as nearly as practicable, 
on the lines of the parent institution. 

Every promise of its original program has been fulfilled 
effectively, with many additions to its scope. A Sargent 
gymnasium, a free reference library (named in memory of 
Miss Mary Ripley, a much beloved teacher in the public 
schools of the city), a "Handiwork Exchange," a free em- 
ployment bureau for women, a Girls' Union Circle, or Club, 
a Noon-Rest Lunch-Room, are among the fixed provisions 
of the Union for its clientage of women. It conducts train- 
ing classes for attendants and home nursing; classes by 
trained teachers in cooking, dressmaking, millinery and 
laundry-work, and other classes for children in housework, 
cooking and sewing. It provides lectures on hygiene, 
health and law, by prominent professional men and women. 
It organizes social, musical and literary entertainments. It 
arranges a "country week" in the summer for many work- 
ing girls. It finds homes for needy children and women. 
It has collected, in the twenty-four years of its existence, 
over $30,000 of wages, pensions, rents and other claims for 
women who were being defrauded. Its exertions have 
secured many important reforms of law in the interest of 
women; have brought about the appointment of police 
matrons, of women on the board of managers of the State 
Hospital for the Insane, of a woman on the city board of 
school examiners, and of women physicians in all State in- 
stitutions where women are housed. Its activities are end- 
less, and always directed with good judgment to good ends. 

Many capable, public-spirited and benevolent-minded 
women have devoted time, labor and thought without stint 
to the many-sided work of this admirable Union; but an 
unquestioned supremacy among them has always been con- 
ceded to Mrs. George W. Townsend, the prime mover in 
their organization and their continuous president for 



98 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

twenty-one years. Mrs. Townsend left Buffalo in Decem- 
ber, 1904, to make her home in Hawaii, but was not per- 
mitted to resign the presidency till the following May, 
when she was made honorary president, and the active 
presidency was conferred on the previous vice-president, 
Mrs. Henry C. Fiske. 

In the beginning of its work the Union was given the use 
of rooms in the Fitch Institute building by the Charity 
Organization Society. In 1886 it was able to purchase the 
old homestead of Judge Potter (later of George R. Bab- 
cock) on Niagara Square, and yet to hold a "Freedom from 
Debt Festival" in 1889. In 1891 it received a gift from 
Mrs. Esther A. Glenny, for building a Union Hall, and 
another gift of $5,000 from Mrs. Charlotte A. Watson for 
a Domestic Training Department. In 1893, having already 
outgrown its home, it felt able to rebuild more commo- 
diously for itself on the same excellent site, and did so, 
opening its new building by a public reception on the ist 
of November, 1894. ^t the end of another three years the 
Union was again free from debt. Nothing could afford 
better evidence of wise management and a strong, true spirit 
than these facts. 

On its twenty-first anniversary, in 1905, the Union began 
efforts to raise a permanent endowment fund of $100,000. 

A corps of the Salvation Army was first established in 
Buffalo in January, 1884, by the then Captain and Mrs. 
William Evans, now Colonel Evans of Boston. They held 
their first meeting on Lafayette Square on the first Sunday 
of that month, and opened indoor meetings in the old Court 
House building, at the corner of Clinton and Ellicott 
streets. After about twelve months, the lease of this build- 
ing having expired and no other hall being available at 
the time, the corps was closed and the officers withdrawn 
from the city. 



THE SALVATION ARMY 99 

It was not until five and a half years later that the work 
of the Army was reopened in Buffalo by Major (now 
Colonel) Richard E. Holz, who had been drawn to enlist- 
ment in its ranks during the previous period of its opera- 
tions here. In December, 1889, Major Holz revived the 
work in Buffalo, with headquarters on the upper floor of a 
building the site of which is now covered by the EUicott 
Square block. Other corps were soon established at Black 
Rock, Cold Spring, East Buffalo, and elsewhere. The Ger- 
man Corps was established about 1893 ^^ ^ hall on Broad- 
way. In the following winter the first Men's Shelter and 
Industrial Home, with a woodyard, was opened on Com- 
mercial Street, and a Slum Post, so called, was established 
on Canal Street. In the fall of 1894 the old church build- 
ing of the First Baptist Church, on Washington Street, 
was secured for No. i Corps, and was occupied until the 
present permanent headquarters were established, at Nos. 
11-13 East Mohawk Street, in property purchased in 1906. 

In 1896 Colonel Holz was transferred from the command 
at Buffalo, and his successors have been Colonel Sully, 
Brigadier Joseph Streeton, Colonel William Mclntyre, and 
Major George F. Casler. The work has grown and its 
fruits have increased steadily through all the years. For a 
number of years past the Divisional Headquarters of the 
Salvation Army have been in 350 Ellicott Square. 

Nearly if not quite the most important of the under- 
takings of the Salvation Army is that which established, in 
1903, the Industrial Home for men out of employment, now 
located in a purchased building, at 97 Seneca Street. In 
1908 the Home reported eighteen men employed regularly 
as "wagon men," who gather up waste material of every 
description, which people are glad to have riddance of, and 
which the managers of the Home contrive to turn to use. 
This gives constant work to a tailor, a shoemaker, a cabinet- 



lOO CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

maker and an upholsterer, and to numbers of the transient 
guests of the Home, who sort and bale the rags and paper 
that are brought in. The importance of this Industrial 
Home is widely appreciated by citizens and officials; and 
in all parts of the country there are grateful men who have 
been bridged by it over periods of misfortune or inspired 
by it to lift themselves out of the sloughs of an evil life. 

Another of the invaluable institutions of the Salvation 
Army is the Rescue Home, for fallen women, which is also 
a temporary home for women in need. This was estab- 
lished in 1899, at 325 Humboldt Parkway, from which 
place it was removed in 1903 to the large dwelling of the 
late David F. Day, No. 69 Cottage Street, which was bought 
by Colonel Mclntyre for the permanent seat of the Home, 
and nearly cleared of debt. Its first matron, Major Mary 
Wagner, who conducted the Home for a number of years, 
is credited with "splendid work." The later superin- 
tendents. Adjutant and Mrs. Hagg, are said to be the first 
married pair in the Salvation Army to have charge of an 
institution of this kind. 

The Rescue Home was consolidated with the Prison Gate 
Mission in March, 1902, and its officers conduct the work 
among discharged prisoners that was done by the Mission 
before. A law enacted in 1907 empowers police justices in 
Bufifalo to commit women who are arrested for drunken- 
ness and vagrancy to the Home, giving them the chance of 
rescue which the penitentiary would most likely destroy. 

The Buffalo Deaconess Home of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church is an outgrowth from work that was organized 
systematically by the Women's Home Missionary Society 
of the Bufifalo District of that Church in 1888. The dea- 
conesses "are women set apart by the Church for any form 
of missionary labor." They are of three classes, for parish 



MISSIONS AND SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS lOI 

visiting, for nursing and for teaching, each receiving in- 
struction according to the work for which it is prepared. 
The Home for such instruction and for centering the work 
of the deaconesses was instituted in June, 1890. Six years 
later the property now occupied, at 292 Niagara Street, was 
bought. The corner-stone of a large additional building 
was laid in June, 1908. 

At the opening of the Home it had two deaconesses; 
there are now fourteen. Its present work includes the con- 
ducting of a free kindergarten, industrial instruction, and 
boys' clubs, together with "travelers' aid," for which two 
deaconesses are kept in attendance at the New York Central 
Railway Station. The new building will add a free dis- 
pensary, an infirmary and a gymnasium. 

The Christian Homestead Association, endowed by an 
anonymous gift of a considerable fund, was incorporated 
in 1 89 1. It took up an important rescue mission work 
which Miss Joanna D. Cutter (afterwards Mrs. Walter N. 
Hinman) had instituted on Canal Street, and this was con- 
ducted under Mr. and Mrs. Hinman's charge very nearly 
until their deaths, which occurred within a single month, 
in 1896. The Association established, also, the Christian 
Homestead lodging house on Lloyd Street. Both the res- 
cue mission and the lodging house are still carried on, but 
the former has been removed to the neighborhood of the 
Steel Plant at West Seneca. 

The Volunteers of America, organized by General Bal- 
lington and Mrs. Maud B. Booth, who had previously been 
at the head of the Salvation Army in America, established 
the Buffalo branch of its work in May, 1891, with head- 
quarters and a Women's Home at 93 Broadway, and a 
Men's Home at 496 Michigan Street. A Children's Home 
has since been added, at North Evans, a few miles from 



I02 CULTUIL^L EVOLUTION 

the city. The work of the Volunteers, under Major and 
Mrs. F. C. Fegley, is kindred to that of the Salvation Army. 

By a few weeks of precedence, Westminster House was 
the first of the social settlements undertaken in Buffalo. It 
was opened on the 17th of September, 1894, in pursuance of 
an assumption by Westminster Church of relief work in a 
definite district of the city, according to the district system 
which the Charity Organization Society proposed in that 
year of much distress. The Rev. Dr. S. V. V. Holmes, who 
became pastor of the Westminster Church in the previous 
year, had been seeking the opportunity for an opening of 
social settlement work, and his church and congregation 
gave ready support to the plan. They began with the lease 
of a small cottage on Monroe Street, and the work grew 
until property has been acquired extending through to 
Adams Street, including two lots on Adams and a separate 
building on Monroe for a men's club. Besides a comfort- 
able two-story dwelling for residents, the buildings occu- 
pied supply quarters for a gymnasium, a kindergarten, a 
diet kitchen, a penny provident bank, a public library de- 
pository, and several clubs, for boys, mothers, etc., as well 
as for classes in such arts as carpentry, chair caning, cooking 
and millinery. The House staff includes regularly a head- 
worker and assistants, a district nurse, a kindergartner, and 
several volunteer workers, among whom has generally been 
the assistant pastor of Westminster Church. A choral 
society, which gives a yearly recital, is one of the organiza- 
tions connected with the House. A summer camp at Fort 
Erie, for brief outings to people of the Westminster House 
neighborhood, is maintained. The support of the House is 
borne chiefly by Westminster Club, the men's society of 
Westminster Church, which contributes annually between 
$3,000 and $4,000, and looks generally after its needs. 



MISSIONS AND SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS 103 

During the trying winter of 1893-4 the Women's Circle 
of the First Presbyterian Church became impressed with a 
feeling of unsatisfactoriness in the relief-work done, for the 
reason that it left no permanent efifect. It was determined 
that such work of the church should be concentrated on 
some limited section of the city, and conducted in a more 
systematic way. Upon consultation with the Charity Or- 
ganization Society, a district of extreme neediness was 
taken, accordingly, within which "the church holds itself 
pledged for relief work, except where individuals have 
some religious affiliation. These are then referred to the 
nearest pastor, priest and rabbi." 

For leadership in the work, Miss Mary Remington, who 
had been conducting a successful institution called Wel- 
come Hall, at New Haven, Conn., was engaged, and came 
to Buffalo in November, 1894. A house on Seneca Street, 
No. 307, was rented and fitted properly for occupancy at 
once. Miss Remington's residence was in the house, and 
it was named Welcome Hall. A diet kitchen was estab- 
lished, in co-operation with the District Nursing Associa- 
tion, and meetings, Sunday school and sewing schools begun. 
By the end of the year these quarters were outgrown, and a 
warehouse at the rear was rented and reconstructed for use. 

A few months later Miss Remington was authorized to 
rent two neighboring tenements, in order to expel from 
them a saloon and a dancing hall. A free kindergarten 
was then established in one. 

So the work at this location went on, until 1897, when 
the need of larger and better accommodations for it was 
answered by two generous friends, Mr. J. J. Albright and 
Mrs. Sidney Shepard, at whose expense the present beau- 
tiful Welcome Hall, and its accompanying cottage, were 
built. The new Hall was opened in January, 1898. 
Rooms for twelve residents are provided ; for women in the 



104 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

cottage and for men in the Hall. The latter is equipped 
amply with baths, class-rooms, club-rooms, a library room in 
which the Public Library maintains a branch, a gymnasium, 
a laundry, and a diet kitchen. The workers of the settle- 
ment, resident and non-resident, conduct many organiza- 
tions of clubs and classes, for all ages and both sexes, inter- 
esting great numbers of the populous neighborhood, in 
athletic games and exercises, in entertainments and social 
gatherings, and in the learning of such practical arts as 
sewing, cooking, basketry, typewriting, stenography and 
printing. On Sundays religious services and Sunday 
schools are held. Miss Remington resigned her connection 
with Welcome Hall in 1898. 

Neighborhood House, a social settlement on Goodell 
Street, is supported by a Neighborhood House Association, 
composed largely of men and women connected with the 
Unitarian Church. It began with a library, bank, girls' 
club, boys' club and a sewing school, in double parlors on 
Hickory Street, in November, 1894. As the work was 
extended larger quarters were secured, first at 92 Locust 
Street, and finally, in May, 1902, at the old homestead on 
the corner of Goodell Street and Oak. The annual report 
of the Association for 1907 showed six workers in residence 
at the House and forty-one non-resident. "Our twenty-one 
boys' clubs," says the report, "with an average membership 
of seventeen, form the largest part of our family circle at 
the settlement. They come from various parts of the east 
side, but largely from our neighborhood. They consist of 
groups of boys, twelve to twenty-five years of age, from one 
street, shop, factory or school which has given them a com- 
mon interest. They are organized with a set of officers. 
Each club pays two dollars per month rental." Girls' and 
women's clubs, singing, sewing, dressmaking and cooking 
classes, a kitchen garden, a library, and a bank, with public 



MISSIOxNS AND SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS 1 05 

entertainments, friendly visiting, helpful service to sick and 
needy, and medical inspections, make up the work of the 
House. In summer it conducts a camp on the lake shore, 
near Wanakah, fifteen miles from the city, w^here successive 
groups enjoy themselves for two or three days or a week. 

On leaving Welcome Hall, in 1898, Miss Mary L. Rem- 
ington ventured boldly, with almost no means, to undertake 
the establishing of a "Gospel Settlement" in the Canal 
Street quarter, which has always been of the worst possible 
repute. A few fellow workers were willing to join her; 
a few good friends would give what aid they could; and 
she had one strong supporter in Mrs. George H. Lewis, 
without whose sustaining hand, in the first years of her 
labor, it is doubtful if she could have won through. 

She and her associate volunteers began work in some 
rooms of the old Grand Trunk Railway station, on Erie 
Street, just below the Canal. The use of the rooms, with 
some furniture, was given; but the "settlement" that Miss 
Remington contemplated would require a different place. 
On the other side of Erie Street, opposite her rooms, stood 
an old abandoned hotel building, the Revere House of better 
days, which had become one of the worst of the crowded 
and filthy tenement houses of the city, swarming with a 
population of about a hundred Italian families. In ac- 
quainting herself with the neighborhood she visited it often, 
and longed for an opportunity to clean it up, and make it 
an object lesson of the decency of life that might be lived 
in such a place. At length she called on the agent of the 
building to talk of renting some part of it. The talk re- 
sulted in his offering to sell the whole building to her for 
$10,000, on easy terms. Two hundred dollars in bank was 
all the capital she had; but much thought and careful reck- 
oning determined her to make the attempt. She placed 



I06 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

large confidence in the revenue that her tenants would yield ; 
and her reckonings were proved to be right. 

The bargain for the building was struck. A carpenter, 
a painter, a paper-hanger and a plumber were found who 
would do an honest work of renovation unprofitably, and 
wait for their pay. The old house was made decent, and in 
November Miss Remington, Miss Hyde, her constant com- 
panion and helper, Mr. J. D. Holmes and Mr. W. E. 
Wadge, who had taken a great interest in the work, took 
apartments in it; and three of the number have been resi- 
dents ever since. Most of the former tenants were allowed 
to remain, and a process of training them to cleanly and 
regulated habits of life began. They quickly appreciated 
the better conditions created for them, and were so prompt 
in the payment of rent that their landlady knew always 
exactly what income from her property to expect. 

After ten years of her experiment, Miss Remington had 
not only bought the house, but the leased ground on which 
it was built. She had put the building in a condition to 
more than satisfy the stringent requirements of the State 
tenement house law, and had paid for the whole work. In 
doing this she has had help from Mrs. Lewis and some 
others, but in the main the money put into the property has 
come from its own earnings, derived from tenants who have 
all the time been helped and uplifted in their lives. The 
object lesson afforded by the Revere Block as a tenement 
house reformed is a bit of social betterment promotion that 
cannot easily be surpassed. 

The regular work of the settlement, carried on as it is 
almost entirely by volunteers, is practically self-sustaining. 
It conducts classes in many kinds of instruction, including 
manual training on its simpler lines, and a few useful arts, 
like the repairing of shoes. By clubs, meetings and enter- 
tainments it keeps a large number of all ages interested, and 



MISSIONS AND SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS 107 

its influence is wide. Sometimes the corps of helpers thins 
sadly, but a small band is always faithful, and the cour- 
ageous head of the mission never loses heart. 

Under the lead of Mrs. Herbert P. Bissell, an association 
of Catholic ladies established the Angel Guardian Mission, 
about 1898, as the pioneer of Catholic social settlement 
work. Hitherto the Mission has been conducted in a house 
on Seneca Street; but recently two commodious dwellings 
have been purchased on East Eagle Street, overlooking 
Bennett Park, one for a day nursery, in connection with the 
kindergarten, the other for a boarding house for wage- 
earning young women. Nursery, kindergarten and board- 
ing house will be maintained by the Angel Guardian Mis- 
sion Association, but conducted by three resident Sisters of 
St. Francis, from the convent on Pine Street. Mrs. Mark 
Packard is the president of the Association. 

Zion House, on Jefferson Street, at No. 456, established 
about 1902 by the Sisterhood of Zion, an organization con- 
nected with Temple Beth Zion, is an institution of great 
importance to the Jewish population of the east side of 
Buffalo. It is a social settlement, and more than that, be- 
cause it touches its clientage more naturally and closely 
and enters more intimately into their lives. It has its 
classes for many kinds of teaching, its clubs, games and en- 
tertainments ; its Penny Provident Bank, its kindergarten, 
in connection with Public School No. 41, and its supply of 
books from the Public Library, with an attendant from the 
Library to receive calls for them once a week. At the same 
time it is the headquarters of the Federated Jewish Char- 
ities, and, altogether, it is a very busy and a very useful 
House. 



CHAPTER IV 

INSTITUTIONS OF SPECIALIZED 
BENEVOLENCE 

THE Bufifalo Orphan Asylum, "for the care of orphan 
and destitute children," was founded by an associa- 
tion of charitable women from Protestant churches, 
organized in November, 1836, and incorporated in the fol- 
lowing year. In 1838 the ground which the asylum now 
occupies was given for the purpose by the generous Louis 
Le Couteulx, but thirteen years passed before the funds 
necessary for building on it were obtained. Meantime the 
institution was opened and maintained in rented houses, on 
Franklin, Seneca and Niagara streets successively. 

In 1845 the trustees acquired property at the corner of 
Main and Virginia streets, which they sold in 1848 to 
Bishop Timon, for the Sisters of Charity Hospital, estab- 
lished that year. The proceeds of this sale, augmented by 
a State appropriation of $20,000, and by private subscrip- 
tions, enabled the trustees to erect a building on the ground 
which Mr. Le Couteulx had given, at the corner of what 
is now Elmwood Avenue and Virginia Street. This was 
opened in 185 1. In 1878 a gift of $10,000 from Mrs. 
Stephen G. Austin was applied to the addition of an infant 
ward. Other additions and improvements have been made 
since, from gifts and funds of the asylum; but neither the 
building nor its site is now sufficient for the needs of the 
institution. Its proper capacity is for 150 children, and it 
has to receive more than that number at times. 

In 1906 the trustees purchased a tract of ten acres on Elm- 
wood Avenue, nearly opposite the Bufifalo Historical So- 
ciety building, having a frontage of nearly 70 feet. A new 
building on this fine site is the present hope. 

108 



THE FIRST HOSPITAL IO9 

One of the earliest of the lasting public charities of 
the city was the Bufifalo City Dispensary, organized in 1847 
and incorporated in 1850. 

Emergencies like that of the cholera visitation in 1832 
had called out some temporary provision of hospitals, prior 
to 1848; but it was not until that year that the city acquired 
permanently a public place for the care of the sick. An 
association for the purpose of establishing a public hospital 
had been organized in 1846, with Dr. Josiah Trowbridge as 
its president; but the undertaking did not succeed. It was 
left for the kindly-hearted and energetic head of the Cath- 
olic Church, Bishop Timon, to supply the urgent need. On 
his invitation, six Sisters of Charity came from Baltimore, 
in June, 1848, to conduct a hospital and an orphan asylum, 
both of which were brought into operation with little delay. 

For the hospital, Bishop Timon bought from the trustees 
of the Buffalo Orphan Asylum the property which the 
asylum was then occupying, at the corner of Virginia Street, 
on what is now known as Pearl Place, but which at that 
time was open to Main Street. It included a building 
which had been erected some twenty years before, for an 
academy, or high school, and which had been used for 
school purposes for some time. Joined with contiguous 
dwelling houses, a quite commodious structure was made 
up, in which the hospital work of the Sisters of Charity 
was begun. It was most timely — a blessing inestimable to 
the city in the following year, when cholera came again. 
Of 134 cholera patients then cared for, 82 were restored 
to health. From time to time the original building was 
enlarged and improved, and it housed the hospital until 
1876, when the institution was removed to the large, ex- 
cellently appointed building that it occupies at 1833 Main 
Street. It now does a very extensive beneficent work. The 
connected Emergency Hospital, on Pine Street, founded in 



no CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

1902, treats about 1,200 patients per year, having accommo- 
dations for 250. At the main hospital a training school for 
nurses is carried on. 

Of the six Sisters of Charity who came to Buffalo in 1848, 
on the invitation of Bishop Timon, three gave themselves 
to the work of the hospital and three to the care of the St. 
Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum which the good Bishop 
lost no time in founding for them. The asylum was opened 
in a house at the corner of Broadway and Ellicott streets, 
and was called quickly, like the hospital, to meet a dread- 
ful emergency created by the cholera visitation in 1849. 

In 1855 the old St. Patrick's Church building, adjoining 
the house then occupied, was remodelled for the asylum, 
and was the home for the children for thirty years. Then, 
in 1885, the property at 13 13 Main Street was bought, at 
a cost of $30,000, and the institution removed thither in 
1886. This sufficed until 1899, when two reasons, as the 
Sisters explained in a circular, urged them to build again; 
they were having to turn many little children from their 
doors, and they saw the need of an enlargement of their 
technical school — about which school something is told in 
another place. Accordingly, with the approval of Bishop 
Quigley, they undertook the erection of a large fireproof 
building, at the corner of Riley and Ellicott streets, in the 
rear of 13 13 Main Street. The asylum now occupies this 
safe and commodious edifice, giving its former home to the 
technical school. Two hundred and fifty children reside 
in the former till they have reached their sixteenth year, 
when they are transferred to the latter, to be trained for 
some employment by which their living may be earned. 

In connection with the asylum, a summer home, called 
Villa St. Vincent, is maintained at Youngstown, on the 
Niagara. 



BISHOP TIMON'S BENEVOLENT CREATIONS III 

In the year following the establishment of St. Vincent's 
orphanage for girls, Bishop Timon made provision for the 
care of fatherless boys, by founding St. Joseph's Male 
Orphan Asylum. This was opened in Buffalo, in 1849, 
transferred to Lancaster in 1850, returned to Buffalo in 
1854, and permanently seated at Limestone Hill, in West 
Seneca, in 1872. It shelters and educates more than two 
hundred boys. 

The German Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum, at 564 
Dodge Street, was originally, from 1851 to 1874, connected 
with St. Mary's Church, as an undertaking by the Sisters 
of the Third Order of St. Francis, who conducted the 
parochial schools of that parish. In 1874 it was adopted 
for the diocese by Bishop Ryan, and incorporated, under 
a board of trustees. The old cemetery site, near the Parade, 
between Best and Northampton streets, was bought for it, 
and a building erected there, to which several additions 
have been made since. The asylum is still under the charge 
of the Sisters of St. Francis. 

Buffalo owes many and large debts to Bishop Timon for 
organizations of beneficent work that have wrought a con- 
stant increase of good to the community since his day; but 
none greater than for the Catholic Protectory, or St. John's 
Protectory, founded in 1854 and incorporated in 1864, 
under the care of the Society for the Protection of Destitute 
Catholic Children. The location of the Protectory is just 
outside of the present city limits, at Limestone Hill, in the 
town of West Seneca, and it receives inmates to some extent 
from even distant places, but it exists for Buffalo and 
belongs to Buffalo, nevertheless. 

The first home of the Protectory was in a humble framed 
building; but it has built and rebuilt and enlarged and im- 
proved, until it has become, in the language of the business 



112 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

world, an enormous "plant," covering many acres of ground 
with its dormitories, workshops, school buildings, entertain- 
ment hall, farm, playgrounds, and every essential of an 
establishment for converting neglected or perverted boys 
into well-instructed and self-respecting men. By law, our 
city courts may commit children of Catholic parentage, 
between seven and fourteen years of age, to the Protectory, 
for truancy, viciousness or vagrancy, as well as for homeless 
destitution. They attend school regularly, and are taught 
useful trades, and are made familiar with the better ways 
of life. 

The first superintendent of the Protectory was Father 
Early; the second was Father Hines, who was succeeded in 
1882 by the Rev. Nelson H. Baker, still in charge. 

A second general hospital association, formed in 1854, 
with a board of fifty trustees, failed, like that of 1846, to 
raise what was thought to be a necessary endowment fund. 
In the next year, however, a third attempt, more venture- 
some in spirit, perhaps, secured incorporation of The Buf- 
falo General Hospital, procured subscriptions from citizens 
to the amount of $20,000, obtained an appropriation of 
$10,000 from the State, and proceeded to erect a building 
on a noble site, at the corner of High and Goodrich streets, 
which was dedicated with distinguished ceremonies on the 
24th of June, 1858. This is now the west wing of the hos- 
pital. The original trustees were George S. Hazard, 
Charles E. Clark, Andrew J. Rich, Bronson C. Rumsey, 
Roswell L. Burrows, William T. Wardwell, Peter Curtis, 
George Howard and Joel Wheeler. The first president 
was Mr. Clark. 

"The assets of the infant hospital (writes Mrs. Elizabeth 
M. Howe, in 'A Brief History of the Ladies' Hospital 
Association') were apparently a 'superior location — over- 
looking the city, lake and river' — a good building, by the 



THE BUFFALO GENERAL HOSPITAL 1 1 3 

Standards of the day, and an empty treasury. Of the three, 
the last was to prove of the most permanent value. * * * 
It was in 1869 that the asset of poverty rendered its first 
conspicuous service. In September of that year the Ladies' 
Hospital Association was organized to provide for the 
pressing wants of worthy indigent and sick women, for 
whom there was no provision in the city, and whose needs 
the hospital was unable financially to meet. The trustees 
offered 'to place the female wards of the hospital under the 
immediate supervision of the ladies of the city, represented 
for the time being by a committee chosen from the board of 
managers of the Home for the Friendless, who should 
assume the expense of furnishing those wards and the main- 
tenance of the persons admitted to them.' This very serious 
responsibility was accepted, and an effort made to organize 
the Protestant Churches of the city in support of the work." 
The desired organization was effected, each church being 
represented in the association by three delegated members. 
In 1872 the Ladies' Association was invited by the trus- 
tees of the hospital to merge itself into the hospital board 
by electing three of its number for an assistant executive 
committee, to act with the executive committee of the board. 
Under that arrangement the Ladies' Hospital Association 
became, for the next twenty years, in the words of one of 
the reports of the trustees, "the mainstay and support of the 
institution." It raised most of the funds for its main- 
tenance, for the extension of its buildings, for the improve- 
ment of its equipment, and had practical charge of its in- 
ternal economy. "In 1892," to quote again from Mrs. 
Howe, "Dr. Renwick R. Ross was installed as warden, and 
the third era in the history of the hospital began. * * * 
It has been that period of great gifts, of scientific equip- 
ment, of skilled administration, which has made the Buf- 
falo General Hospital to-day one of the large private hos- 



114 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

pitals of the country. In these years a new relation has 
been established between this association and the hospital, 
in the election, in 1901, of two of its members, Mrs. Hamlin 
and Mrs. Folwell, to the board of trustees. But in this 
later development of the hospital the Ladies' Association, 
as such, has had no proportionate share. * * * As the 
work of the hospital, in one direction and another, has 
reached the point where volunteer service was no longer 
adequate to the task, it has perforce been transferred to 
other hands." There are now eight ladies in the board of 
trustees, and the Ladies' Association is fully merged in that 
governing board. 

In 1887 the training school for nurses was instituted. 
Then a diet kitchen was established, and an ambulance 
brought into use. In 1880 a large addition to the hospital 
building was undertaken. In 1884 a ward for children 
and a maternity ward were opened. These were all due to 
the exertions of the Ladies' Association. In 1885 Mrs. 
Sarah A. Gates built a cottage for gynecological work, and 
a few years later she erected a Nurses' Home on the hospital 
grounds. Mrs. Gates and her daughters have done more 
for the hospital than any other single family; though gifts 
and bequests to it in late years have been many and large. 
Its endowment fund was reported in 1907 to be $446,000. 
It extended its main building largely in 1896-8, and added 
not long since the Harrington Hospital for Children. 

The president of the board of trustees is Mr. Charles W. 
Pardee, who gives much time and care to the business of 
the institution. 

By the agency of Bishop Timon an institution that is, at 
once, conventual, reformative and charitably protective, was 
founded in 1855 by nuns from France, belonging to the 
order of Sisters of Our Lady of Refuge. It is known as 
the Asylum of Our Lady of Refuge, or as the House of the 



THE P. E. CHURCH CHARITY FOUNDATION II5 

Good Shepherd, and its seat is a large property on Best 
Street. Its special work is described as being to "preserve 
and restore to society poor lost women, and to protect and 
educate destitute and wayward Roman Catholic female 
children." The convent was the first one of the order to 
be founded in the United States. 

In 1855 Bishop Timon brought about the establishment 
of the St. Mary's Lying-in Hospital, which became finally 
consolidated with an infants' asylum in the present St. 
Mary's Infant Asylum and Maternity Hospital, on Edward 
Street. 

A series of meetings by members of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church was held in 1858, "to take measures for the 
foundation of a charitable institution for the relief of the 
indigent, infirm and aged, and other needy and destitute 
persons." The result of these conferences was the incor- 
poration of The Charity Foundation of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Buffalo. It was organized in Sep- 
tember, 1858, with the Hon. George W. Clinton for its first 
president, and in the following November it opened a 
Home for adults, in a brick dwelling, leased, on Washing- 
ton Street, opposite the old Trinity Church. It provided 
accommodations for about twenty inmates, and received 
nine before the close of the month. 

Within a few^ years a second house was rented on 
Mohawk Street. In 1862 the Charity Foundation received 
a gift from Judge Smith of two acres of ground, at the 
corner of Rogers and Utica streets, and, by act of the Legis- 
lature in 1864 it was given the old Black Rock Cemetery 
(now "The Circle"), on North Street. By purchase of the 
Edwin Thomas residence and grounds, at the corner of 
Seventh and Rhode Islands, in 1866, the Foundation ac- 
quired a Home which included, from that time, an asylum 



no CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

for orphans, as well as a habitation for adults. The 
orphanage was enlarged in 1869, and established in a new 
building in 1895. In that year, also, the Hutchinson 
Memorial Chapel of the Holy Innocents was built by 
Edward H. Hutchinson, in memory of his father and 
mother. In 1903 the Foundation received a bequest of 
$50,000 from Mrs. Helen A. Campbell, for a memorial 
building in honor of her father, the late Thomas Thornton. 
The Thornton Memorial Building, finished in 1905, re- 
placed the old Home for the aged and infirm. In 1907 a 
quite remarkable entertainment named "Cosmovilla" was 
held in Convention Hall for the benefit of the Church 
Home, with such success as to go far toward freeing it of 
debt. 

In 1860-61 the Providence Retreat, for the care and treat- 
ment of the insane, and of the unfortunate victims of alco- 
holism and drug habits, was founded by the Sisters of 
Charity, under the lead of Sister M. Rosalind. Its build- 
ing, on Main Street, Kensington Avenue and Humboldt 
Parkway, where it has ample grounds, was opened in July, 
1 86 1. Its present accommodations are for 200 patients. 
In 1905 the cornerstone of a new building was laid. This 
will be an entirely fireproof structure, equipped with all 
modern appliances, electro and hydro-therapeutical, for the 
treatment of mental and nervous diseases, and is expected to 
cost nearly $500,000. 

St. Francis' Asylum for the Aged and Infirm was 
founded in 1862 by Sisters of the Franciscan Order, from 
Philadelphia. It was opened in a small framed dwelling 
on Pine Street, No. 337. Two years later a large building 
and a chapel were erected for the institution, and two wings 
were added to the former in 1870. In recent years two 
branches of the asylum have been established outside of the 



PROTECTION TO ANIMALS II7 

city; one at Gardenville, at a cost of $150,000, on a farm 
bequeathed by Mrs. Regina Goetz; the second at Williams- 
ville, on a farm of 120 acres, given by Mrs. John Blocher. 
In all, the asylum shelters about 600 inmates. 

The Evangelical Lutheran St. John's Orphan Home was 
founded in 1864 by the oldest of the German Church con- 
gregations in the city, — the First Evangelical Lutheran St. 
John's. The Home for Boys, at Sulphur Springs, w^as 
established in 1868. It was burned in 1876, and rebuilt 
next year. A large new building was added in 1898. 

The Erie County Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, organized in 1867, was the second of its kind in 
the United States, that of Henry Bergh, founded in the 
previous year, having been the first. An ardent leader in 
its organization and its first president was Mrs. Lord, wife 
of the Rev. Dr. John C. Lord. In its first years the society 
had no local habitation; but for some years past its work 
has been centralized at an office, now located in the Bowen 
Building, at the corner of Pearl and Huron streets. 

"When the work was first started," writes a lady long con- 
nected with it, "it was looked upon by the majority of 
people with indifiference and even with contempt. It was 
thought to be very much out of place for a woman to 
attempt to stop any cruelty seen in the public streets; but 
when poor canal horses, while being led through the streets, 
dropped in utter exhaustion in their tracks, and when the 
moans of suffering cattle on their way to the slaughter 
houses were heard constantly, and countless cruelties were 
inflicted on dumb creatures, large and small, true woman- 
hood asserted itself." 

The branch of the work known as that of the Humane 
Education Committee was instituted by Miss Lucy S. Lord, 
in order to teach young and old, but especially the young, 



Il8 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

the duty of protection and kindness they owe to the dumb 
creatures who serve them in so many ways. Miss Lord 
visited every school in the city, talking with teachers and 
pupils, with the result that many auxiliary societies of 
children have been formed. This mission work, begun by 
Miss Lord, has been carried on since by the late Mrs. Lily 
Lord Tifift and by Miss Margaret F. Rochester, Mrs. Pascal 
P. Beals and Miss Matilda Karnes. Miss Rochester intro- 
duced a prize essay competition on the subject in the schools, 
which has wakened a lively interest among the children. 

Latterly the society has employed three agents, one 
especially for the stockyards, and two for the city work. 
Under the Police Department it has charge of the City Dog 
Pound. At the stockyards it has looked after the treatment 
of many thousands. It now has a large membership. Its 
presidents since Mrs. Lord have been Mrs. Horatio Sey- 
mour, Rev. John W. Brown, Colonel E. A. Rockwood, 
Walter Devereaux, Rev. O. P. Gififord and DeWitt Clinton. 

Consequent upon an appeal made by Mr. (now the Rev.) 
Edward Bristol, a meeting was held in May, 1867, at the 
residence of Mr. Francis H. Root, which resulted in an 
undertaking "to afiford, by the establishment of a temporary 
Home, protection, employment or assistance to worthy 
females who are destitute or friendless, and to provide a 
permanent Home for aged women who are homeless." A 
society was organized, with a board of forty-one women as 
managers, chosen from Protestant churches. The first 
Home for the Friendless opened by the society was in a 
house on Seventh and Maryland streets, furnished by dona- 
tions. It received 26 temporary inmates the first year and 
132 in the second. The house was enlarged in 1872, and 
twelve women were made residents for life. 

In 1884-6 the large premises now occupied by the Home 
for the Friendless, at 1500 Main Street, were bought and 



THE INGLESIDE HOME II9 

built upon, using existing buildings in part. It had 34 per- 
manent residents when it came to this place. Eighteen 
rooms were added to its accommodations in 1892 by a new 
building, the gift of the late William I. Mills. In the same 
year the Home received a legacy of $15,000 from Francis 
H. Root. In a statement published in 1895 the managers 
say, speaking of a small balance which they had in bank 
when they opened the Home on Seventh Street in 1868: 
"From that day on, the Home has never been in debt, and 
has always had a balance with its bankers, which, never but 
once, has fallen below the amount of its original deposit." 

In 1869 the Rev. P. G. Cook ("Chaplain Cook," as he 
was always known after his services with the Twenty-first 
Regiment in the Civil War), doing Christian mission work 
in the "infected district" of that time, around Canal Street, 
in connection with the Y. M. C. A., became impressed very 
deeply with a sense of the need of some distinct agency for 
lending a helping hand to fallen women who could be per- 
suaded to reform their lives. He consulted an association 
of good women who had organized themselves for 
charitable work, and convinced them very quickly that they 
could not do anything more useful than in that field. They 
began by opening a weekly prayer meeting in a room on 
Evans Street, where the Y. M. C. A. was holding similar 
meetings for men. Girls and women of the neighborhood 
came in, and a few meetings sufficed to show that there must 
be a temporary home provided for those who desired to 
escape from the life they were in. A society for the 
purpose was incorporated on the 27th of September, 1869, 
by the following ladies: Ellen Wilkes, Mary R. Stearns, 
Susan Guild, Persis M. Otis, Ann M. Haines, Sarah A. 
Robson, Sarah J. Wilson, Annie F. Walbridge, Maria 
Webster, Annie McPherson, Charlotte E. Lewis, Elizabeth 
G. Clark. Mr. Joseph Guild, husband of one of these 



I20 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

ladies, bought a house on Vermont Street, and gave the free 
use of it for a year. At the end of the year a larger house 
was needed, and secured on Virginia Street. Another year 
brought needs of a still larger home, and it came as a 
generous gift from Mr. George W. Tifift, who conveyed to 
the society a commodious building on Seneca Street, which 
had been used for a water-cure establishment, and was 
admirably fitted to all the purposes of the Ingleside Home 
for a number of years. Time, however, made unfavorable 
changes in the neighborhood, and in 1884 a fortunate 
opportunity occurred for securing what was known as the 
Alberger Homestead, at Cold Spring, No. 70 of what is 
now Harvard Place. There, in a roomy and convenient 
house, with ample and pleasant grounds, stocked with fruit, 
the Home has been established ever since. Several addi- 
tions to the house have been made, the latest, in 1904, ex- 
tending two large wings. Its capacity is for 70 inmates. 

The Buffalo State Hospital, for the care and treatment of 
the insane, was established in pursuance of an Act of the 
Legislature passed April 23, 1870. The City bought 203 
acres of land on Forest Avenue, adjoining Delaware Park, 
and gave it to the State for a site. The cornerstone of the 
building was laid with Masonic rites on the i8th of Septem- 
ber, 1872, the Hon. James O. Putnam delivering a notable 
address. The central structure, for administrative offices, 
and the long stretching east wing, containing eleven wards, 
were finished and opened in November, 1880. Between 
1 89 1 and 1895 the corresponding west wing was added. In 
1897 ^ separate building on Elmwood Avenue for the acute 
and infirmary was finished and brought into use. The 
number of patients has risen steadily, and on the ist of 
March, 1908, was 1,871, being 43 more than the calculated 
capacity of the institution. A training school for nurses 



THE HOMEOPATHIC HOSPITAL 1 2 1 

was opened in 1884, and was the second to be established in 
this country in an institution for the insane. 

The first superintendent of the hospital was Dr. Judson 

B. Andrews, who died in August, 1894, and was succeeded 
by Dr. Arthur W. Hurd. 

The Homeopathic Hospital, incorporated in 1872 by the 
Buffalo Homeopathic Hospital Association, opened its 
doors to its first patients (two in number) in June of that 
year, in a building at the corner of Washington and North 
Division streets, equipped with three beds. It remained 
in that location two years, at the end of which time the 
property it now occupies, at the corner of Cottage and 
Maryland streets, was bought by the trustees, and the con- 
siderably large house included in the purchase was properly 
fitted up. It served fairly for ten years; then a wing was 
added, containing four wards, four private rooms, and a 
surgery. Subsequently, at successive times, a nurses' cottage 
of two stories, a children's and maternity cottage of two 
stories, and a building of twelve rooms for the hospital 
servants, were added. These are now entirely outgrown, 
and a scientifically perfected new building is being erected 
on a lot at the corner of Linwood and West Delevan 
avenues. A large fund for the building has been sub- 
scribed, and it is likely to be finished and in use by the time 
this writing goes into print. The need of it is being severely 
felt. 

Mr. Jerome Fargo was the first president of the board of 
trustees. The first president of the board of associate man- 
agers was Mrs. Warner, wife of the physician who was 
called "the father of Homeopathy in Bufifalo." Mrs. J. F. 
Ernst, Mrs. J. T. Cook, Mrs. Charles E. Selkirk and Mrs. 

C. J. North have held that executive post since. 

The Buffalo Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 



122 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Children, and to bring to justice those guilty of it, was or- 
ganized in 1874, and incorporated in 1879 as the Queen City 
Society. It aims also to rescue children from depraved and 
vicious surroundings, and to place them in good homes. 
Likewise, it gives temporary aid to children in need of it. 

The Buffalo Eye and Ear Infirmary, incorporated in 
1876, was conducted for some years in various temporary 
locations on Washington Street, but acquired a permanent 
establishment in its own building, at 673 Michigan Street, 
near Genesee, in 1893. 

The Church Home of the German Evangelical Churches 
of Buffalo and vicinity, for old, feeble and homeless people, 
and for orphan children, was incorporated in 1877. Pastor 
Schelle, of St. Stephen's United Evangelical Church, 
appears to have been the leader in the undertaking. It was 
placed outside of the city limits, on twenty-five acres of land, 
where it has ample buildings, with orchards and gardens 
and many pleasant surroundings. 

In a preceding account of the Charity Organization 
Society, mention has been made of the Fitch Creche, or day 
nursery for the infant children of working mothers during 
the hours of their absence from home, which was founded 
by that society in 1880. 

Although the Children's Aid Society did not assume an 
organized and incorporated form until 1882, the beginning 
of interest and action which created it appears to date from 
a Thanksgiving Dinner to news-boys and boot-blacks, given 
in 1872 by the Y. M. A. of Grace M. E. Church. The final 
organization of this interest is ascribed to a published letter 
by William Pryor Letchworth, in which he urged the need 
of some provision of a home for many of the boys who win 
their own living from employments of the streets. The 



THE children's AID SOCIETY 1 23 

Aid Society was formed soon afterwards with this im- 
mediate object, and opened what has always been known as 
the News-Boys' and Boot-Blacks' Home, in a building at 
No. 29 Franklin Street, which was bought for the purpose 
and properly fitted up. 

The original Home was maintained until 1908, when the 
Society had been enabled, by a generous bequest from Mrs. 
Helen Thornton Campbell, to erect and furnish a large and 
beautiful fireproof building, in a fine situation on Delaware 
Avenue, north of Chippewa Street. Here it offers hospi- 
tality to about one hundred boys, having 75 single rooms and 
three dormitories, with steam heat and electric light 
throughout, and with the perfection of all equipments for 
comfort and health. Dining hall, club room, gymnasium, 
library, play ground, and the apparatus for many indoor 
games, seem to afford every attraction that can operate to 
keep the young lodgers from harmful places of resort. 
They pay for their bed and board according to the amount 
they earn. All under fifteen years of age are required to 
attend school. The city has no wiser or more beneficent 
institution. 

The building vacated by the Children's Aid Society, at 29 
Franklin Street, v\^as taken by the county and became the 
County Lodging House, where some thousands of homeless, 
but respectable, men have found temporary shelter and 
food since its doors were opened to them. 

Fitch Provident Dispensary, for medical relief to the 
poor, was opened by the Charity Organization Society in 
1883, and discontinued in 1901, when other similar agencies 
were appearing to satisfy the need. 

In 1885 the District Nursing Association, to provide free 
nursing for indigent people in sickness, and to conduct a 
diet kitchen and a flower mission, was organized mainly by 
the efforts of the late Miss Elizabeth C. Marshall. 



124 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Fitch Accident Hospital was opened, in the Fitch Insti- 
tute, by the Charity Organization Society, in 1886, but dis- 
continued in 1901, when the present Emergency Hospital 
was built. 

A movement which gave rise to the Fresh Air Mission in 
Buffalo was started in the Sunday School of the Universalist 
Church of the Messiah, in 1888. It was taken up by the 
Christian Endeavor Society, which collected funds and took 
part in the work involved. The Charity Organization 
Society interested itself promptly in the undertaking, and its 
agencies found the children that needed most to have a 
summer week or two of country air. At first, the hospi- 
tality of farm houses and village homes, not far from 
Buffalo, was appealed to for the entertainment of such chil- 
dren, either as boarders or as guests, for short terms, and 
many were received in that way by good people in the sur- 
rounding towns. Then property was obtained at Angola, 
on the shore of the lake, and beginnings made in the estab- 
lishment of quarters for a summer colony of these boys and 
girls, to be taken to it in relays. This Angola summer resort 
was intended to be named Ga-ose-ha Beach; but somebody 
dubbed it more fittingly Cradle Beach, and so it is known. 

The development of the Fresh Air Mission from small 
beginnings to an important organization of exceptionally 
benevolent work is said to have been due primarily "to the 
arduous pioneer service of Alice O. Moore and Paul 
Ransom." Too many to be named, however, have been 
earnest workers in it since, and it has had generous monetary 
support from many, though always less than it needs. 

A hospital for cholera infantum was established tempo- 
rarily at Angola in 1893, ^"d permanently at Athol Springs, 
on the lake shore, the next year, when the Athol Springs 
Hotel was bought and excellently fitted for that use. The 
Society for Christian Endeavor was a large contributor to 



FRESH AIR MISSION, ETC. 1 25 

the fund which this new undertaking required. The 
Hospital is a separate organization, distinctly incorporated, 
but none the less identified with the Fresh Air Mission. 
It has been, from the first, under the medical direction of 
Drs. DeWitt H. Sherman and Irving M. Snow. Many 
beds in the hospital have been endowed. 

An interesting agency connected with the raising of 
money for the support of the Fresh Air Mission has been 
that of the "Cradle Banks," originated and managed by Mr. 
William H. Wright, Jr. These little receptacles of small 
change, scattered everywhere through the city, in hotels, 
banks and stores, every summer, allow nobody to forget the 
little folk who need a taste of fresh air. In the first seven 
years of their silent begging they collected no less than 
$13,614. 

Kindred in object to the Children's Aid Society Home 
for Boys is the Working Boys' Home, founded in 1888 by 
the late Bishop Ryan, under the direction of the Rev. Daniel 
Walsh. Until 1897 it was established in a purchased 
private residence. Then the present Home on Niagara 
Square, large and well-provided in every particular, was 
opened in October. The director is assisted in the conduct 
of the house by several Sisters of St. Joseph, and an auxil- 
iary Ladies' Aid Society affords help to the institution in 
various ways. The inmates of the Home receive religious 
and moral as well as industrial instruction. 

A well-equipped Children's Hospital, promoted and 
maintained principally by Mrs. Gibson T. Williams, Mr. 
and Mrs. George H. Lewis, Miss Martha T. Williams, 
Mrs. C. W. Pardee, Mr. William A. Rogers and Mr. Frank 
Goodyear, was opened at 219 Bryant Street, in 1892. A 
new and much-enlarged building was erected on the same 
site in October, 1908, its cost being borne by Mrs. Pardee. 



126 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

The institution of the German Deaconess' Home and 
Hospital resulted from a meeting held in February, 1895, 
at the St. Paul's German United Evangelical Church. The 
Deaconess' Association was then organized, with the object 
of gathering and training young women and widows for 
works of Christian charity, and of founding and main- 
taining institutions for such work. A hospital was opened 
in a rented building. No. 27 Goodrich Street, and the first 
patient admitted on the 14th of November, 1895. Within 
the following twelve months a permanent building had been 
planned, located and completely erected on Kingsley Street, 
near Humboldt Parkway. It was dedicated and occupied 
on the 2ist of November, 1896. This building provided 
centrally for the home of the deaconesses and working 
women of the institution, with a hospital in its east wing 
and a home in the west wing for aged and friendless men 
and women. Miss Ida Tobschall, formerly a teacher in 
the public schools of the city, was the sister superior in 
charge of the institution from its opening until her resigna- 
tion in 1908. 

In 1896 several Lutheran Churches of the city and county 
united in establishing the Lutheran Church Home, for the 
aged and infirm of their congregations who need its shelter 
and support. The Home was first located at 390 Walden 
Avenue; but in 1906 a large, three-story fireproof brick 
building for it was erected at 217 East Delevan Avenue, at 
a cost of about $50,000, on a site covering three and a half 
acres of ground. The building is planned on the most 
approved sanitary lines. Mr. William F. Wendt is the 
president of its board, the other officers of which are the 
Rev. F. A. Kahler, Rev. T. H. Becker, Dr. Franklin C. 
Gram and F. W. H. Becker. 

In 1896 the German Hospital, projected at a public 
meeting held in June of the previous year, at Schwable's 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS 1 27 

Hall, was opened temporarily in a building at 621 Genesee 
Street. In 1901 it entered an excellent and well-equipped 
hospital building of its own, at 742 Jefferson Street, erected 
on ground given by the heirs of Gerhard Lang. A Free 
Dispensary is connected with the hospital. 

The Prison Gate Mission was organized in 1896 by Mrs. 
Jonathan L. Slater, "to help discharged women prisoners, 
to look after their spiritual and temporal welfare, and to aid 
prison reform in the State of New York." From the Home 
first established for it the work was taken, in 1900, to the 
Salvation Army Rescue Home, on Humboldt Parkway. 
Since that time the prison visiting and caring for released 
homeless women has been performed by Salvation Army 
workers, supported by the Prison Gate Mission funds. The 
service of a woman probation officer, for adult women, has 
been added of late to the work of the Mission, and women 
are sentenced to its Home by the courts. This probation 
work is growing. The present location of the Home is at 
69 Cottage Street. 

The King's Daughters' Home, for temporary hospitality 
to friendless young women, especially those convalescent 
from hospitals, was opened at 134 Mariner Street in 1898. 

A University of Buffalo Dispensary was opened in 1899. 

In connection with the Church of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, and at the instance of Bishop Quigley, St. James 
Mission, for poor children, was established in 1902. 

A second Creche, or day nursery for infants whose 
mothers are called from home by their work, was opened in 
1903, at 79 Goodell Street, by the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae. 

Under the name of the Day Nursery of the Infant Jesus, 
a third Creche was founded in 1904 by Bishop Colton, in 



128 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

connection with St. Felix Home for Working Girls, and 
is conducted by the Felician Sisters, on Fillmore Avenue, 
near Broadway. A fourth is in contemplation by the Angel 
Guardian Mission Association, to be connected with the 
institution for which it is preparing to build on Eagle 
Street, overlooking Bennett Park. 

In a building adapted from a private residence on Tifft 
Street, the Sisters of Mercy opened a hospital in Sep- 
tember, 1904. The work of their order in Buffalo was 
begun in i860, when several of the Sisters came from Pitts- 
burg, on the invitation of Bishop Timon, and took charge 
of the parochial school in St. Bridget's parish. Other 
schools were placed under their care in after years, and their 
sphere of labor had been educational until this hospital 
service was taken in hand. A Mercy Hospital Aid Society, 
having a large membership, gives financial and sympathetic 
support to the hospital, and it promises to become an im- 
portant addition to the humane institutions of the city. A 
new building, of brick, is already in contemplation. At 
once, on the opening of the hospital, a school of nurses was 
formed. 

The City established a new Municipal Hospital in 1904, 
for the care of smallpox patients, replacing an old Quaran- 
tine Hospital which had become unfit for use. 

The St. Felix Home, for working girls, on Fillmore 
Avenue near Broadway, and the St. Charles Home, for the 
same purpose, have both been established by Bishop Colton 
since he came to the administration of the Catholic diocese, 
in 1903. 

In December, 1906, the Union Rescue Mission was estab- 
lished by Major B. A. Arnold and Mrs. Arnold. Its work 
includes the maintenance of a "Christian Home for 



HOSPITALS, ETC. 1 29 

Women," at 387 Washington Street, and a "Relief Home 
and Industrial Department for Men," at 53-55 Broadway. 
The Fitch Tuberculosis Dispensary, in the Fitch 
Institute, was opened by the Charity Organization Society 
in 1907. 

At present the Poles of the city are preparing to establish 
a hospital on ground already bought for the purpose, at the 
corner of Fillmore Avenue and Stanislaus Street, to be 
under the care of Polish Sisters. The building contem- 
plated is expected to cost not less than $100,000. 

An Act of Congress passed in 1902 provided for the 
erection of a Marine Hospital at Buffalo; but contracts for 
the building were not let until the spring of 1908, and it was 
not expected to be finished until the end of March, 1910. 
The selected site is on Main Street, near Robie Avenue. 
The building is to be of three stories, partly constructed of 
light-colored granite and partly of light-colored limestone 
or sandstone, and is planned for the latest improvements in 
every equipment. 

There has been long discussion of the need in the city of 
special hospitals for contagious diseases and for the treat- 
ment of tuberculosis, as well as the need of some better 
public hospital of the general character than is supplied in 
connection with the County Almshouse. Action has been 
delayed by the troublesome question of sites, and by dis- 
agreements between city and county; but at present the city, 
alone, seems likely to make provision for a large general 
institution that will satisfy all the public hospital require- 
ments at one place. 

Of the many private hospitals, special and general, that 
have been and are being opened in the city, it is hardly 
necessary to speak. 



CHAPTER V 
EDUCATION 

AN interesting account of the first school house in Buf- 
falo, written by Mr. Crisfield Johnson, the historian 
of Erie County, was published in the Buffalo Com- 
mercial Advertiser, in 1875, and reprinted in the first vol- 
ume of the Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society. 
With less detail the story appears also in Mr. Johnson's 
History. 

As early as 1801 the few inhabitants of the village secured 
from Mr. Ellicott, of the Holland Company, the assign- 
ment of a lot for a school house; but it was not till 1807 
that the building of the house was taken in hand. On the 
29th of March, that year, a meeting of the inhabitants was 
held "at Joseph Landon's Inn," "for the purpos to arect a 
School Hous in Sd Village by a Subscription of the Inhab- 
itance," says a minute of the meeting in a little book which 
the Buffalo Historical Society has the good fortune to pos- 
sess among its archives, and which it preserves with great 
care. The undertaking was voted, and subscriptions, dated 
the next day, are entered in the book. They number six- 
teen, pledging sums that range from eighty-seven and a half 
cents to $22, which largest contribution was made by Sam- 
uel Pratt. The total is $127.87. 

Building accounts kept in the same little book show that 
work on the school house was begun at once ; but, according 
to the same accounts, it cannot have been shingled till a 
year and a half later, and the building accounts were not 
closed till May, 1809. It had four years and a half of use, 
and then, with the rest of the village, it was burned by the 
British invaders of 1813. It did not go out of history, how- 
ever, for another twenty-five years, the indemnity paid for 

130 



PRIMITIVE SCHOOLS I3I 

it by the United States having become the subject of litiga- 
tions which reached their decision in 1838, and which de- 
voured much more than the sum in dispute. 

All that can be known of the educational work which fol- 
lowed the building of this first school house is recounted 
in a paper prepared for the Buffalo Historical Society in 
1863 by the late Oliver G. Steele. Mr. Steele had been, not 
quite the first superintendent of schools in Buffalo, after the 
village became a city, but the first who organized a public 
school system, in the proper sense of the term, and no one 
else of the last generation had so much personal knowledge 
of the early school history of the town. From an older in- 
habitant, Benjamin Hodge, he obtained the following de- 
scription of a school antedating that for which the house 
was built. It was kept by a Scotchman "born in Ireland," 
named Sturgeon, about 1807, in a house far out Main 
Street which had but one window, and that without glass. 
"Plenty of light, however, was admitted through the open- 
ings between the logs. A small pine table and three 
benches made of slabs constituted the whole furniture. 
Mr. Sturgeon at first taught only reading, but afterwards, 
at the urgent request of parents, added spelling. Some 
twenty scholars attended," and Mr. Hodge, who gives this 
description of the school, was one of them. 

The first teacher of the school for which a better house 
was built was a Presbyterian minister, Samuel Whiting, and 
the next was Amos Callender, "whose name occurs," says 
Mr. Steele, "in nearly every movement connected with 
morals, education, religion and good order." "About 1810 
or 181 1, some of the inhabitants thought something more 
was wanted for their children, and Gamaliel St. John in- 
duced a Mr. Asaph Hall to open what was called a gram- 
mar school, in the court house. This was continued for 
some little time, but could not be sustained." After the 



132 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

war, and the partial resurrection of the village from its 
ashes, a school was started, and kept in such rooms as could 
be obtained. Deacon Callender again taught, and also a 
Mr. Pease. "A school was usually kept on the Lancasterian 
plan, with some success. At one time a vote was obtained 
for the district to raise $4,000 for a house and lot, but it was 
afterwards rescinded. About 1830 a tax was levied, with 
the proceeds of which the trustees bought the lot on Church 
Street, now [1863] occupied by school No. 8 [since re- 
moved]. Several efforts were made to build a house upon 
it; but nothing was accomplished until the new system was 
established." "I have heard," continues Mr. Steele, "of 
quite a number of private school teachers, who taught at 
sundry times and with varied success. Among the names 
I have heard mentioned, as being quite successful, was that 
of Mr. Wyatt Camp, a brother of Major John G. Camp, 
who is mentioned with much regard by his pupils." 

Until 1 82 1 the village was one school district; then it was 
divided into two, Court Street being, apparently, the divid- 
ing line. Of early school teaching in the upper district, 
which was No. 2, Mr. Steele speaks as follows: "A school 
was established in hired rooms, in various places. I cannot 
learn who were the first trustees, or the name of the first 
teacher. In 1822 a school was kept in a house on the west 
side of Main Street, between Mohawk and Genesee streets. 
Our fellow citizen, Mr. Fillmore, commenced his career as 
a public man as teacher of this school. He was, at the same 
time, a student with the law firm of Rice & Clary. I will 
here take occasion to state that Mr. Fillmore afterwards 
taught the school at Cold Spring for one winter, 1822-3. 
During that time he was also a deputy postmaster, and came 
in after school in the afternoon to make up the mails. 
When the stage left for Albany in the morning his practice 
was to ride out on the box, with the driver, to open his 
school at Cold Spring at the usual hour." 



EARLY PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 1 33 

In 1830 a third school district was organized and a school 
established on the far eastern side of the town, in the neigh- 
borhood known as "the Hydraulics." Between that year 
and 1838 four others were created, with schools located re- 
spectively on Perry, Goodell, South Division and Louisiana 
streets. In that period, as we are told by Mr. Steele, a 
number of ambitious institutions sprang up and enjoyed a 
brief career. A high-school association, formed in 1827, 
went so far as to erect a fine building on what is now Pearl 
Place, and to maintain a school for some years; but it did 
not win an enduring support. It was succeeded by a mili- 
tary school, which flourished for a time, and disappeared. 
In the end, the school house became part of the old Hospital 
of the Sisters of Charity. In 1833 the University of Buf- 
falo was projected, but not realized even in its medical 
school until some years later. 

Then came the financial catastrophe of 1837, by the effects 
of which, says Mr. Steele, the private schools of the city 
"were so paralyzed as to be of little service; and thoughtful 
men began to cast around for some general and effective 
system, which would bring the means of education within 
the reach of all." "Few people took any interest in the dis- 
trict schools, and few children except those of the poorer 
classes attended them." "It soon became the custom of the 
trustees to find some person who would take the school for 
the smallest rate of tuition, during the time required by 
law, to enable them to draw public money; giving them the 
public money and taking their own risk of collection from 
the pupils. This easy and slipshod way of doing business 
produced such results as might be expected. In some popu- 
lous districts the teacher could do very well, and would 
sustain a very fair school. In others it would be kept a few 
months to fulfill the requirements of the law, and then closed 
for the remainder of the year. The whole system was with- 



134 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

out supervision or accountability, except such as was barely 
sufficient to comply with the state law. Such was the con- 
dition of the common schools in 1837." 

Serious attention was now given to the matter, and meas- 
ures for acquiring a better educational system were taken 
in hand. Legislation to authorize the appointment of a 
city superintendent of common schools was obtained, and 
Mr. Roswell W. Haskins, who accepted the office, strove 
vainly for several months to give it some effect; but the ex- 
isting law endowed him with no adequate powers, and he 
resigned. Mr. Steele was then prevailed upon to assume 
the task of superintendency with the promise from leading 
citizens of their earnest co-operation in endeavors to secure 
a more efficient law. General interest in the movement was 
aroused by a series of public meetings at the old Court 
House, in the summer of 1838. A committee of four from 
each of the five wards of the city was appointed at one of 
these meetings to inquire into the condition of the schools, 
and to report some plan for their improvement. O. G. 
Steele, N. K. Hall, Noah H. Gardner, Horatio Shumway, 
S. N. Callender, Lucius Storrs, were among the active mem- 
bers of the committee, and Albert H. Tracy presided at all 
the public meetings. 

In September the committee submitted a thoroughly full 
report, setting forth the wretched state of the schools, ex- 
posing the dreadful fact that more than half of the children 
of the city were receiving no education, and urging recom- 
mendations, the grand feature of which was the creation of 
a system of entirely free schools, the whole cost of which, 
over and above the moneys obtained from the State school 
fund, should be defrayed by a general tax. After long and 
sharp discussion of the report, at two meetings, this, the 
vital part of it, was adopted by the general meeting. 
Amended in some other particulars, the plan sent to the 



FREE-SCHOOL DISTINCTION OF BUFFALO 1 35 

Common Council, embodying the wish of the assembled citi- 
zens, provided for a division of the district schools into de- 
partments, and for a central high school "where all the 
higher branches necessary for a complete English education 
shall be taught." The recommended high school was not 
established until some years later; otherwise the ground 
work of the public school system of Buflfalo, as built up 
since, was laid substantially by laws and ordinances enacted 
in 1838-9. Our city has claims to no mean distinction, in 
the fact of its being the first in the State to establish schools 
wholly free, supported by a general tax. The older free 
schools of the city of New York were made so by private 
generosity, and not by a public act. 

It is easy to believe that Mr. Steele was quite within the 
truth when he wrote, in his account of the important change, 
that "the office of superintendent of schools, during the or- 
ganization of the system and the building of the first set of 
school houses, was one of the most difficult and responsible 
of the offices under the city government." Undoubtedly he 
went through a hard experience, especially in having to be 
the active and visible agent of public measures which laid 
suddenly new taxes upon the people, and taxes that were 
not light. The building of five new school houses in the 
first year of the educational reformation was a heavy bur- 
den in itself, upon a town which had suffered so great a 
collapse as that of 1837, only two years before. We need 
not wonder, as he did not, that "his name was left ofif the 
slate for reappointment" in the spring of 1840, when his 
term expired. 

The undesired office was then thrust upon Mr. Dennis 
Bowen, against his wish, and he resigned it in a few months. 
From Mr. Bowen it passed to Mr. Silas Kingsley, Mr. S. 
Caldwell, and Mr. E. S. Hawley, in yearly succession, and 
returned, in 1845, to Mr. Steele, who put his shoulder to the 



136 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

wheel for one more year. In that year he secured the 
organization of what was then styled the "third department" 
of the public schools, out of which the Central High School 
was developed in 1852. This third department was con- 
ducted at first in part of the school house erected on South 
Division Street, in District No. 7. A little later it was 
transferred to the upper floor of School No. 10, on Dela- 
ware Street, where it remained till the opening of the Cen- 
tral High School. The principal of the third department, 
at School No. 10, was Ephraim F. Cook, whose pupils (of 
whom the present writer was one) regarded him with much 
affection and little fear. There was little of strictness in 
the discipline of his school, and not much of system in his 
teaching, but he did interest his classes in many matters of 
knowledge, outside as well as inside of text-books, and give 
a self-educational impulse to their minds. 

In 1852 the Central High School was established, in a 
purchased building, on the site (Court Street and Niagara 
Square) which it occupies at the time of this writing, but 
from which it will soon be removed. Plans have been 
adopted for a noble building, to be erected on spacious and 
beautiful grounds, fronting on West Chippewa Street, at 
its junction with Georgia Street, this fine site being a gift 
to the city by Mr. and Mrs. Edward H. Hutchinson. By 
purchasing a large part of the property that lay between 
the grounds given and Johnson Park, at the north, the city 
has perfected the site. 

In 1854, on the annexation of Black Rock to Buffalo and 
the enactment of a new city charter, the office of Superin- 
tendent, hitherto filled annually by the Common Council, 
was made elective, as it has remained ever since. The term 
was lengthened at the same time to two years. The popular 
election of the head of its school department, and the re- 
tention in the Common Council of a legislative control of 



io ?,loori9f^ aJuvJKj \i:ij. ... ..... . 

5(i) to TJilni^ffi ,>Ini.il Ir.iioMi./ ■'■■ 

h.boA [iftB >ivr) TSih. I Vfifiir: Ui:r. .ii-iVja' 

L'oh^b 10VS !lii'iOiri'jO V II.) ■,.]■ .;.;!• i! .!j;t , 
iri) jo nmnitH-i jry 
.<jui J >iji i.ir.' tji.c!/ 



tiri") [cqo'Jciq.'I 




^\ <>'/' 



-.. EVOLUTION 

.v.ar. In that year he secured the 
•vas then styled the "third department" 
. 'o, out of which the Central High School 
II 1852. This third department was con- 
; lU part of the school house erected on South 
Street, in District No. 7. A little later it was 
i'-iTed to the upper floor of School No. 10, on Dela- 
ware Street, where it remained till the opening of the Cen- 
'.'' High School. The principal of the third department, 
^>- r^phraim F. Cook, whose pupils (of 
EDWARD HOWAfl'DiMirEgesi«fe^Hm with much 
Merchant and capitalist; born ''Buffafe''" N^^w^'^^BfRp^ m 
March 7, 1852: educated in pubhc' and'^rivate schoo'lSlbfl'l his 
Buffalo; director Marine National Bank; member ofi.thR'TS of 
Buffalo Chamber of Commerce; Buffalo Historical Society; .,. 
chairman of the Finance Committee St. Paul's Protestant 
Episcopal Church; president of the board of trustees of 
Buffalo City Cemetery, and many other civic and social 
bodies. Was elected in 1888 Alderman from the Tenth 
Ward as a Democrat, being the only Democrat ever elected '-^ut 
in that ward ; was fire commissioner and chairman of the : een 
board in 1891-93; member of the Manufacturers' Club, .n^ 
Buffalo. Donated site for, Hutoh^nscp High School, at, ^^ ^^ 

Whitney "."vc? ^^g.P^Pj^^^.^t^^l'h^S^SIVtl^^^^^^^ gift 
ir and Mrs. Edward H. Hutchinson. By 
■f^e part of the property that lay between 

:. and Johnson Park, at the north, the . '". 



uiicil, 
•^ ^i . The term 

w A^ The popular 

election ' ', and the re- 

tention in . t ve control of 





/D 



RECENT EDUCATIONAL ADVANCES 1 37 

the schools, are features peculiar to the school system of 
Buffalo. Its excellence is open to doubt. At times in the 
past it has exposed the schools to mischievous political in- 
fluences, and may do so again ; though such influences have 
been mostly suppressed in recent years, by a measure of 
great importance adopted in 1892. This created a Board 
of School Examiners, by whom all candidates for employ- 
ment as teachers in the public schools are subjected to exami- 
nation and their fitness determined. Appointments by the 
Superintendent must be made from lists of the eligible can- 
didates reported to him by the board. It is the further duty 
of the members of the board to visit and inspect the schools 
with regularity and report upon the conditions found. 

The introduction of physical exercises under a regular 
instructor was another mark of progress in 1892. In the 
next year the city assumed the expense of providing free 
text books for all pupils in the schools. A supervisor of 
primary grades was added that year to the Superintendent's 
staff. In 1895 manual training was introduced. Instruc- 
tion in sewing followed, in 1896. A teachers' training 
school was established that year; a supervisor of grammar 
grades was appointed, and a beginning was made in the 
creation of a Teachers' Retirement Fund. In 1897 a sec- 
ond high school, the Masten Park, was opened; a Truant 
School was established; free public lectures at the schools, 
with stereopticon illustration were instituted; school ma- 
terial used by pupils was made free. In 1898 ten kinder- 
garten schools, opened and maintained since 1891 by a Free 
Kindergarten Association, were brought into the public 
school system. Vacation schools were opened and main- 
tained by the voluntary service of teachers, and were so 
carried on for that and the following year. In 1899 an 
important experiment of alliance and co-operation between 
the public library and the schools was initiated, by the turn- 



138 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

ing of ten school libraries into the public library, the latter 
replacing them with changeable collections of books from 
its larger store. From year to year since, this arrangement 
has been extended to other schools, and forty were thus con- 
nected with the Public Library in 1910, circulating 400,000 
volumes. In 1900 the city took upon itself the support of 
the vacation schools. In 1902 nearly $40,000 were added 
to the Teachers' Retirement Fund by the proceeds of a 
great bazaar. In 1903 a third high school, the Lafayette, 
was opened, an evening manual training school established, 
and a business course added to the high school course of 
study. In 1904 a fourth high school, the Technical, was 
opened, and a special department of domestic science in- 
stituted in two grammar schools, centrally placed. The 
erection of a suitable permanent building for the Technical 
High School has been a determined resolve for some time, 
but agreement as to the site of the building was not reached 
until the latter part of 1910. It is to be excellently placed 
on Bennett Park, between Clinton and William streets. 

The last two years of the late decade were marked by 
many notable advances and improvements in the work of 
the public schools, including regular courses of daily lec- 
tures at the rooms of the Society of Natural Sciences, to 
which classes from the schools are taken in turn, the lec- 
turer. Dr. Carlos E. Cummings, being engaged by the So- 
ciety; the appointment of five medical inspectors and a 
trained nurse for systematic attention to the physical state 
of the pupils; the instituting of special instruction for de- 
fective children, in separated classes; the extension of man- 
ual training to all schools and classes; and, finally, the 
opening in September, 1910, of a Vocational School, in the 
old No. 5 building, on Seneca Street, to be the first, proba- 
bly, of more, in which seventh and eighth grade boys will 
be given a two years' practical course preparatory to en- 
trance on some industrial vocation. 



THE SCHOOL ASSOCIATION 1 39 

An important wakening of general interest in the public 
schools, which appeared in the closing years of the late 
century, brought about the formation of a School Associa- 
tion, constituted by the election of delegates to it from a 
large number of widely different organizations in the city — 
literary, scientific, social, commercial and political. Mr. 
Henry A. Richmond was made president of the association, 
and its main work during a number of years after 1896 was 
performed by a visiting committee, which had for its chair- 
man for a time, until Columbia University called him. Pro- 
fessor Frank M. McMurry, then principal of the Franklin 
School. The more active members of the committee, in a 
quite prolonged service, were Mrs. Lucien Howe, Mrs. 
John S. Noyes, Mrs. Herman Mynter, Mrs. Charles Ken- 
nedy, Mrs. Arthur Millinowski, Miss Maria M. Love, Mrs. 
Lily Lord Tifft, Mrs. Frank H. Severance, Mr. Henry A. 
Richmond, Dr. P. W. Van Peyma, Mr. Isadore Michael, 
Dr. T. M. Crowe, Dr. Dewitt H. Sherman, and Mr. J. N. 
Larned. 

The first and most important work of the committee was 
a very thorough examination of the public school buildings, 
and an elaborate report to the public of defective and often 
dangerous conditions found in them. By pursuing this ex- 
amination from year to year, and urging and re-urging 
specific facts upon the attention of the authorities and the 
public, the School Association was able to bring about ex- 
tensive changes for the better in matters connected with 
safety from fire, ventilation and heating, light, overcrowd- 
ing, and many other particulars. The results obtained were 
not only a bettering of the old buildings in use, but an im- 
provement of the construction of new ones. Not working 
intrusively, but in cordial co-operation with the School De- 
partment and the Bureau of Buildings, the association per- 
formed a very highly useful work. 



140 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

The present Superintendent of Education, Henry P. Em- 
erson, has held the office, by repeated election (latterly for 
a term of four years), since 1893. ^is administration has 
greatly improved the schools. The quality and character 
of the teaching force has been raised and a different spirit 
put into its work. A Women Teachers' Association, 
formed in 1889, is an organization for self-improvement 
which shows no relaxation of vigor after more than twenty 
years. It has owned its own building, named the Chapter 
House, containing lecture hall and parlors, since 1895. The 
men teachers have been organized in a Principals' Associa- 
tion, for meetings to discuss school topics, for many years. 
The department throughout shows manifest life. 

According to the annual report of the Superintendent, 
made in December, 1910, the total registration of pupils in 
the public schools was 62,651; the average attendance 
46,463. The report of the previous year had shown a total 
registration of 62,217, of whom 49,070 were born in Buf- 
falo, but only 29,704 are entered as of "American nation- 
ality," the remainder being of German, Polish, Irish, 
Italian, Scandinavian and Canadian extraction. The 
teachers employed in 1910 numbered 1,580, of whom 1,484 
were women and 96 were men; 54 of the latter being prin- 
cipals of schools. 

In the high schools the registration of 1910 was 4,458, of 
which 2,262 was of boys. The average daily attendance 
was 3,702. The pupils of American parentage in the high 
schools in 1909 numbered 2,971. 

Full statistics of the attendance in schools outside of the 
public school system are not attainable, there being no ob- 
ligatory report. The Superintendent of Education collects 
them annually as far as he can do so, and has reported for 
1910, 23,846 pupils in 74 private and parochial schools. 

Adding this number to that of the pupils registered in the 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 141 

public schools makes a total of 86,497 children under educa- 
tion to some extent in the city. By a school census in 1906, 
the children between 5 and 18 years of age in the city num- 
bered 84,530. 

The evening schools of 1909-10 registered 8,947 pupils; 
the vacation schools 3,600. 

The State Normal School in Buffalo was opened in 1871, 
occupying a building erected at the cost of the city and 
county, on a fine square of high ground, substantially but 
not wholly given for the purpose by Jesse Ketchum, a ven- 
erable friend of the schools. The Normal School was or- 
ganized and conducted until 1886 by Principal H. B. Buck- 
ham, with an excellent staff. During part of this period the 
faculty included one, in the person of Professor William 
Bull Wright, who impressed himself upon the school and 
upon all who knew him in a remarkable way, leaving one 
of those memories which seem to give distinction and char- 
acter to some few favored years in the past of a town. It 
was only for a few years that we had this wise young scholar, 
poet, philosopher among us, for Death called him early; 
but he planted an influence that has stayed. 

Principal Buckham was succeeded by Dr. James M. Cas- 
sety, who came from the Cortland Normal School, and who, 
in turn, has been succeeded recently by Mr. Daniel Upton, 
previously principal of the Technical High School of the 
city. 

By the ambitions that were embodied long ago in its 
charter, by the dignity of its name and by the courage of 
the great hopes which it still inspires, the University of 
Buffalo has claims to the leading place in a survey of the 
educational institutions that have risen in the city outside 
of the system of its free public schools. The pity is that it 
cannot take that place in a commanding way. It has stood 



142 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

in our history for more than sixty years as the project of a 
university, and is realized now in but four departments, of 
professional education: Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry 
and Law. 

There were plans for the founding of a University of 
Buffalo in the excitedly generous minds of the bold specu- 
lators of 1835-36. Those schemes vanished in the bubble- 
bursting of 1837, but came to thought again in 1846, with 
a special stimulation from the very able physicians of that 
day in Buffalo, who desired the establishment of a medical 
school. Such notable men of the profession as Frank H. 
Hamilton, Austin Flint, James P. White and Charles A. 
Lee were undoubtedly prime movers in the incorporation 
of the University of Buffalo, which laid a broad foundation 
for the school they were prepared to undertake. 

The story of its origin was told in a recent address to 
the Alumni of the University by its then vice-chancellor, 
Mr. Charles P. Norton. 

"Some professional and business men," said Mr. Norton, 
"met in a dingy little office on Main Street, to discuss 
whether it would be practicable to establish a college, a 
university or a medical school in Buffalo. Although then 
as now there were plenty to point out the folly and useless- 
ness of such a great undertaking, to the credit of the medical 
profession be it said that the physicians present, after hot 
debate, persuaded the meeting to attempt, not only a med- 
ical school, but a university with academic, theological and 
medical departments. Accordingly, on May 11, 1846, a 
university charter was granted by the Legislature, authoriz- 
ing a capital of $100,000, and requiring the organization of 
some kind of a college within three years; providing that 
$20,000 of stock should be subscribed for and ten per cent, 
paid down. It was decided to start the movement with a 
medical school, and, in the summer of 1846, $20,000 was 



THE BUFFALO UNIVERSITY I43 

subscribed to the stock and ten per cent, paid in by the 
medical faculty, aided by patriotic citizens. The physi- 
cians did not stop there. During the next eighteen months 
they secured subscriptions from one hundred and thirty 
citizens, varying in amount from $20 to $500, though aver- 
aging $100. This subscription aggregated $12,000. With 
it they bought one hundred feet of land on Main Street by 
200 feet on Virginia Street, and erected there the medical 
college building, dedicated November 7, 1849, which stood 
during so many years for all there was of the University of 
Buffalo." 

The lists of the incorporators and of the original council 
of the University show how well the undertaking was sup- 
ported by the best men of the city. The council was com- 
posed as follows: Millard Fillmore, chancellor; Joseph 
G. Masten, Thomas M. Foote, Isaac Sherman, Gaius B. 
Rich, Ira A. Blossom, William A. Bird, George W. Clin- 
ton, George R. Babcock, Theodotus Burwell, James O. 
Putnam, Herman A. Tucker, John D. Shepard, Elbridge 
G. Spaulding, Orson Phelps, Orsamus H. Marshall. Mil- 
lard Fillmore held the position of chancellor for twenty- 
eight years. His successors in the office have been, Orsa- 
mus H. Marshall, 1874-84; E. Carleton Sprague, 1885-95; 
James O. Putnam, 1895-1902; Wilson S. Bissell, 1902-03; 
Charles P. Norton, vice-chancellor and chancellor, 1903- 

The Department of Medicine was organized in the year 
of the incorporation of the University, with a faculty com- 
posed of Doctors James Hadley, Charles B. Coventry, 
James Webster, Charles A. Lee, Frank H. Hamilton, 
James P. White, Austin Flint, Corydon L. Ford. The five 
gentlemen first named held chairs in the Geneva Medical 
College, which held sessions in the early part of the winter, 
and the session at Buffalo came later. Lectures were given 
during the first three years in the old First Baptist Church, 



144 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

at the corner of Washington and Seneca streets. Mean- 
time a substantial building for the college was erected, of 
brown stone, at the corner of Main and Virginia streets. 
This was occupied in 1849, and from that year till 1893, 
when the Medical Department entered into possession of 
its present fine building, on High Street, erected at a cost 
of $130,000. 

In the faculty of the earlier years. Dr. White served 
thirty-five years. Dr. Thomas F. Rochester thirty-four, Dr. 
George Hadley (who filled his father's chair) thirty-two 
and Dr. Edward M. Moore thirty. The faculty of later 
times has included many of eminence in the local profes- 
sion, among them Doctors William H. Mason, Charles 
Gary, Julius F. Miner, Matthew D. Mann, Roswell Park, 
Gharles G. Stockton, John Parmenter. 

Since 1898, an important pathological laboratory, devoted 
specially to the study of cancer, has been connected with 
the Medical Department of the University, receiving State 
aid. In 1901 Mrs. W. H. Gratwick, and a few other 
friends of the work, erected a beautiful building for the 
laboratory on High Street, and it has been named the 
Gratwick Research Laboratory. Its director is Dr. Ros- 
well Park. 

For forty years after the incorporation of the University 
of Buffalo it was represented by the Department of Medi- 
cine alone. Then, in 1886, the Department of Pharmacy 
was added, and has been conducted with success. 

Five years later, in 1891, the Buffalo Law School, which 
had been organized in 1887 and affiliated for a time with 
the University of Niagara, became a Department of Law 
in the University of Buffalo. This school has a record of 
remarkably good work. In the last two years every grad- 
uate it has sent to the State examining board has passed 
and received his diploma. 



THE BUFFALO UNIVERSITY 1 45 

The latest permanent addition to the University was 
made, by the organization of the Department of Dentistry, 
in 1892. Its classes have been very large; so large as to 
require at the end of four years a building for itself, which 
was erected on Goodrich Street, contiguous to the main 
University building, at a cost of $36,000; and this building 
needed the addition of a fourth story in 1902. Much of 
the success of the school is attributed to its leading organizer 
and first dean. Dr. William C. Barrett, who died in 1903. 

A School of Pedagogy, established as a fifth department 
of the University in 1895, ^^^ discontinued in 1898 for lack 
of adequate support. It had been founded by a number 
of liberal friends of education with the hope that it might 
develop into a department of arts, and they bore the con- 
siderable cost of it bravely for the three years. With Pro- 
fessor Frank M. McMurry (later of the Teachers' College, 
Columbia) at its head, and Professor Herbert G. Lord (also 
of Columbia, later) in its faculty, its work was of the 
highest order, and would have won a firm footing for it in 
time; but it needed a permanent endowment to give it the 
needed time, and that was not secured. The dissolution of 
this school was one of the serious losses of the city. 

Within the last few years a most resolute endeavor to put 
the University on a broader foundation of endowment, and 
to uplift it into broader and more inspiring fields of work, 
has been led by Chancellor Norton, with great promise of 
success. A fine site of one hundred acres on the northern 
border of the city, now occupied by the Almshouse, has been 
secured by purchase from the county, and this gives a hope- 
ful footing of practicality to the undertaking. Hundreds 
of the rising generation of leading spirits in the city are 
enlisted in it, heart and soul, and they do not mean to fail. 
By an act of the State Legislature of 1910 the city of Buf- 
falo is authorized to appropriate $75,000 annually to the 



146 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

support of enlarged undertakings for higher education by 
the University, and the act has been officially approved by 
the Mayor and Common Council. 

In 1840 the Rev. J. A. A. Grabau and the German Lu- 
theran Synod of Buffalo established the German Martin 
Luther Theological Seminary, for the education and train- 
ing of German Lutheran pastors. The seminary was 
opened in a private house on Goodell Street, but trans- 
ferred in 1854 to ^ building erected for it on Maple Street, 
Nos. 153-4, which it occupies at the present day. It is 
supported by the forty congregations of the Lutheran Synod 
of Buflfalo. 

St. Joseph's College and Cathedral Parochial School 
(Catholic) was established under the direction of the clergy 
of the Bishop's residence in 1848, being opened in two 
brick houses on Niagara Street, near Main. Christian 
Brothers took charge of the college in 1861. From 1872 
to 1892 it occupied a building erected for it on Delaware 
Avenue. For the next five years it was provided for tem- 
porarily at the corner of Prospect Avenue and Jersey Street, 
and took possession of its present fine building, on Main 
Street near Bryant, in 1897. 

In 1 85 1 a part of the former congregation of St. Louis 
Church, withdrawing from that body, met for a time in the 
basement of St. Peter's Church (French), at the corner of 
Washington and Clinton Streets, where services were con- 
ducted by Jesuit Fathers. Bishop Timon then conveyed 
to the Jesuits, for a nominal sum, a piece of property that 
he had acquired on Washington Street, above Chippewa, 
subject to the condition that they build a church for the 
Germans and establish a college. This was the origin of 
St. Michael's Church and of Canisius College. The col- 
lege, however, was not founded until 1870. When founded 



CANISIUS COLLEGE.— BUFFALO SEMINARY 1 47 

it was to realize the purpose of Bishop Timon, and its 
buildings, when erected, were on part of the ground which 
the Bishop intended for that use. 

The college is conducted by the Fathers of the Society 
of Jesus. It receives both day scholars from the city and 
boarder-students from elsewhere. In 1906 its charter was 
so amended as to authorize the organization of an academic 
department. It now affords, therefore, both a high school 
and a collegiate education. Since its incorporation in 1883 
by the Regents of the University it has power to confer 
degrees and academical honors. The college has a library 
of about 26,000 volumes. Its president and prefect of 
studies at this time is the Rev. Augustine A. Miller, S. J. 
The professors in its faculty are nine in number, with seven 
additional instructors in special branches. The roll of its 
students in 19 10 numbered about 400 in all. Recently, by 
general subscription, a large fund for new buildings has 
been raised. The buildings planned are four in number, 
namely: The college proper, a college of science, a chapel 
and a gymnasium. They are to be placed on grounds ten 
acres in extent, at the corner of Main and Jefferson streets. 
Five acres of the ground will be used as an athletic field. 
The old college building will be continued in use as the 
seat of a preparatory school. 

On the suggestion of the Rev. Dr. M. L. R. P. Thomson, a 
few gentlemen met at the residence of Stephen G. Austin, 
in the spring of 1851, to consider the need of an academic 
school for girls. The result of their conference was the 
calling of a more public meeting, at the hotel then known 
as the Phelps House, at which the project was undertaken, 
stock subscriptions for it opened, and a board of trustees 
chosen. The first president of the board was Samuel F. 
Pratt, who was succeeded by Horatio Shumway. Mr. 
Shumway was the friend and legal adviser of Jabez 



148 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Goodell, and his influence was helpful, no doubt, in deter- 
mining Mr. Goodell to make a generous gift of land and 
money to the contemplated institution, amounting in value 
to $15,500. 

The Johnson Cottage (former residence of Dr. Ebenezer 
Johnson) was acquired, and a school building, to be known 
as Goodell Hall, was erected on the Cottage ground, but 
facing Johnson Park. This was dedicated on the 6th of 
July, 1852. Meantime, the school had been opened in the 
Cottage, under the name of the Buffalo Female Academy, 
with the Rev. Dr. Charles E. West, of Brooklyn, as its prin- 
cipal, and it had an assured success from the beginning. 
Dr. West was succeeded in 1859 by the Rev. Dr. Albert T. 
Chester, and the latter by Mrs. Charles F. Hartt in 1887. 
In 1889 the name of the school was changed to that of the 
Buffalo Seminary. Mrs. Hartt resigned in 1899, and her 
place was taken by Miss Jessie E. Beers, until 1903, when 
Miss L. Gertrude Angell, who had been associate principal 
for the past two years, became the head of the school. 

By this time the northward movement of population in 
the city had made the site of Goodell Hall an inconvenient 
one for the pupils of the Seminary, and it was moved to 
temporary quarters in the building of the Twentieth Cen- 
tury Club, pending arrangements for a new building of 
its own. The Graduates' Association of its alumnae, a 
strong and much devoted organization, took the enterprise 
in hand. An excellent site on Bidwell Parkway was pur- 
chased, and a fine building made ready for opening in Sep- 
tember, 1909. 

At one time and another there have been many com- 
mercial schools and colleges in Buffalo, but one only among 
those now existing dates far back in time. Bryant & Strat- 
ton's Business College was established in 1854, being one of 
the first in a chain of affiliated schools which reached forty- 



BISHOP TIMON'S CREATIONS 1 49 

eight cities in the end. Mr. J. C. Bryant was at the head of 
the institution in Buffalo until his death, not many years 
ago, since which time it has been conducted by his son. In 
1895 the college took possession of a capacious building, 
erected for its own use, on West Genesee Street, near 
Niagara Square. 

Miss Nardin and three companions of the community of 
the Sacred Heart of Mary came to Buffalo in 1857, and 
opened, in a rented building on Seneca Street, the school 
which has been known familiarly as Miss Nardin's 
Academy. Property adjoining St. Joseph's Cathedral, on 
Franklin Street, was bought and built upon for the academy 
in 1863, and that was its residence until 1890, when it 
entered its present commodious home, on Cleveland 
Avenue. 

Le Couteulx St. Mary's Institution for the Improved 
Instruction of Deaf Mutes owes its existence to a "Benevo- 
lent Society for the Deaf and Dumb," which Bishop 
Timon, — the originator of so many of the works of benevo- 
lence conducted in Buffalo, — organized in 1853. Louis Le 
Couteulx, generous supporter of the good bishop's kindly 
undertakings, gave an acre of land on Edward Street to the 
society, and three small framed dwelling houses were 
bought and removed thereto. It was not, however, until 
1859 that the St. Mary's Society was prepared to give 
special instruction to mutes. Three Sisters of St. Joseph, 
who had mastered the sign language, came then from St. 
Louis to be teachers ; but funds for the support of the school 
were insufficient, and it had to be suspended for a time. 
Sister Mary Anne went, however, in 1861, to Philadelphia, 
and prepared herself at an institution in that city to take up 
the work of deaf-mute teaching, which she has conducted 
and directed in the Le Couteulx St. Mary's Institution ever 
since. 



150 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Before the return of Sister Mary Anne from Phila- 
delphia, Bishop Timon had brought about the erection of a 
four-story brick building on Edward Street, and the school 
and home were reopened there in 1862. In its first year 
it had but eleven pupils; but at the end of four years it 
needed enlargement of its building, and an east wing was 
added. In 1899 it was removed to the fine building it now 
occupies, at 2253 Main Street, erected on twenty-three and 
a half acres of ground, which had been secured for it, with 
wise forecast, fifteen years before. Here it has accommoda- 
tion for 200 pupils, with a present attendance of 174. "The 
system of instruction in use is the 'combined' or American 
system, which includes all known methods. By it all grades 
of intellect can be reached. Speech and speech-reading are 
taught. The course of studies extends from the kinder- 
garten through the grammar course, the same as in the 
public and parochial schools. Pupils of the advanced 
grades take Regents' examinations." The industrial train- 
ing includes printing, tailoring, carpenter work, shoemak- 
ing, chair-caning, cooking and dressmaking. All the 
clothes and shoes worn by the students are made in the 
institution. 

The institution is maintained mainly by a per capita ap- 
propriation from the State and from counties sending 
pupils, being free to all deaf children of the State, of any 
race or creed. It is one of the largest and best of its kind 
in the country. Sister M. Dositheus is the assistant prin- 
cipal; the Hon. George A. Lewis is president and Bishop 
Colton vice-president of the board of trustees. 

The Holy Angels' Academy was founded in 1861 by a 
few Grey Nuns, who had been teaching previously in a 
parochial school. It was opened in a rented dwelling on 
Niagara Street, and acquired a prosperous footing very 
soon. Becoming a chartered institution in 1869, its building 



DR. BRIGGS' CLASSICAL SCHOOL 151 

on Porter Avenue was erected in 1872-3, but partially 
burned in 1879 and rebuilt the same year. Wings added to 
the building in 1887 and 1899 denoted the steady growth of 
the Academy, and a remarkable evolution was wrought in 
the next few years. By act of the Legislature of the State, 
in April, 1908, the institution was reincorporated, under the 
title of D'Youville College and Academy of the Holy 
Angels, and was invested with authority to confer degrees 
and diplomas, except in medicine and law. A fine build- 
ing for the new college was erected on ground contiguous 
to that of the Academy, fronting on Prospect Avenue and 
Prospect Park, at a cost of $125,000, and it was opened for 
instruction in September, 1908. 

In a privately and choicely printed thin volume, entitled 
"Memoranda of the Buffalo Classical School," it is related 
that "in September, 1863, some three or four prominent 
citizens of Buffalo, having sons whom they wished to send 
to college, began to cast about for a school in the city at 
which a suitable preparation for entering upon an advanced 
course of study could be obtained. At that date Buffalo was 
lamentably deficient in schools of that character. Parents 
who desired to give their sons a liberal education were com- 
pelled to exile them at an age when they reasonably thought 
they needed the fostering care of home, rather than the 
regime of the average boarding school. 

"After careful deliberation, these gentlemen, Pascal P. 
Pratt, Bronson C. Rumsey, E. P. Beals, and James M. 
Ganson, decided that a private school, supported and con- 
trolled by themselves, offered the best means for attaining 
the end sought. In pursuance of their purpose they opened 
a house once fronting on Emily Street. This house for 
several years stood near the center of Mr. Bronson C. 
Rumsey's extensive grounds, and was in sight from Dela- 
ware Avenue." 



152 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

For principal of the school thus planned and provided for 
its promoters made a wise and fortunate choice. They 
engaged Horace Briggs (made Doctor Horace Briggs a 
little later by the reception, from Williams College, of the 
honorary degree of Ph. D.) who had been in charge of the 
Latin and Greeli classes of the Buffalo Central High School 
for the past two years. Doctor Briggs, or Professor Briggs, 
as he came to be known more familiarly, began then an edu- 
cational work which proved singularly important to 
Buffalo, because of the number and quality of the liberally 
educated young men who came under his influence and 
passed through his hands in the shaping years of their youth. 
In the first term of the school it had but five pupils; in the 
first year but thirteen. From year to year the number grew, 
but seems never to have gone far beyond forty; and the 
entire roll of its students for the twenty-two years of its 
existence counts only two hundred and thirty-one; but it is a 
surprising list of the familiar names of men who have had 
lead and prominence since in the public and private life, 
in the business and the professional activity, of the town. 

At the end of the school year in 1885 Professor Briggs, 
still in full possession of everything that had made the school 
a success, felt nevertheless, as he has said, that he "had 
reached an age when he did not delight to bear heavy bur- 
dens," and that "it was time for him to step out of the ranks 
and leave the battle to younger men." The school survived 
his retirement from it only two years. At the time of this 
writing, in 1910, Dr. Briggs is still with us, in his 93d year, 
as erect, as firm of step, and as alert of mind as the youngest 
of his pupils. 

The memorial of the school, mentioned above, was 
printed in 1902 by those who had been "boys" in it, and in 
whose memory it is cherished fondly. 

From a small school for girls, opened by Sisters of St. 




'<^otqin'j artj ril ajiv/ ni Sisriv/ ,W9&}?9V/^ moii ^in ; 

V ihiv/ qiriaTji]ji;;q e !''jrmol \f;8i nT .nob 

hi.i, ■,'.ii . .7 1'. (:4i8i itl , .eifiSi 

boib b'l' _ 




Uvyj iloifl',' 
) r. l)3rrn<.>'i 



■iHII 



a:LTURAL E^■01L n-'X 

iii^pai oi the school thus planned and provmt i loi 
i >iers made a wise and fortunate choice. They 
..!_^ai;>.vi iiorace Briggs (made Doctor Horace Briggs a 
little later by the reception, from Williams College, of the 
honorary degree of Ph. D.) who had been in charge of the 
Latin and Greek classes of the Buffalo Central High School 
for the past two years. Doctor Briggs, or Professor Briggs, 
as he came to be known more familiarly, began then an edu- 
cational work which proved singularly important to 
Buffalo, because of the number and quality of the liberally 
educated young men who came under his influence and 
passed through his^ham^^n ^hll?lft'iS^ years of their youth. 
In the first term of the school ir h.v>l Sut five pupils; in the 
first -^'?'''^,P^^r,Ip,tte,.,Chittende;[j Coqnty, Vermont, .J^ne!;?6, ^^ew, 
"1810. Came from Westfield, where he was in the employ^ . ' 
of Aaron Ruhisey, one of the pioneer tanners of this sec- 
Clltition.' In 1837 fofnifed a partnership with Aaron Rumsey, 
exiWhlch continued about f out years. In 1844 Mr. Howard 
Slii formed a co-partnership in the tanning business with Mr. f)ad 
Jt>;i Myron P. Bush, which lasted, about thirty-five years, ; aq^^. [ife 

Augusf 30 i88r,. at Buffalo, 00 n ^ o- 

At the end ^ ! year in 1885 Professor Briggs, 

still in full posscssioii <ji everything that had made the school 
a success, felt nevertheless, as he has said, that he "had 
reached an age when he did not delight to bear heavy bur- 
dens," and that "it was time for him to step out of the ranks 
and leave the battle to younger men." The school sir \ ^vrd 
his retirement from it only two years. At is 

writing, in 1910, Dr. Briggs is still with ;i=; car, 

as erect, as firm of step, and as a ■■ >oungest 

of his pupils. 

The memorial of the school, mmfiuiied above, was 
printed in 1902 by those who had been "boys" in it, and in 
whose memory it is cherished fondly 

From a small school for girls, opened by Sisters of St. 



ST. VINCENT'S TECHNICAL.— ST. MARGARET'S 1 53 

Francis, in 1874, the Buffalo Academy of the Sacred Heart 
has been developed. The large building that it occupies at 
749 Washington Street was erected in 1897. 

In 1886 the Sisters of Charity, who conduct St. Vincent's 
Female Orphan Asylum, began the experiment of a training 
school in connection with it, in order to prepare young girls 
for self-support. The experiment had entire success, and 
resulted in what has been conducted for many years under 
the name of St. Vincent's Technical School. When the 
Orphan Asylum, in 1901, was removed to the large new 
fireproof building which it now occupies, on the corner of 
Riley and EUicott streets, its previous home, in the adjacent 
building at 13 13 Main Street, was appropriated to the 
Technical School. It is announced to be a self-supporting 
institution, for which charity is never solicited. "The cur- 
riculum of the school embraces domestic science, plain and 
fancy sewing, dress-making, millinery, and a commercial 
course." "Independently of the above named branches, 
which belong exclusively to the school, care is taken to 
secure special training for pupils showing marked talents 
and dispositions for other avocations." Applicants must be 
over fourteen and under seventeen years of age. The 
majority of the pupils have been transferred from the chil- 
dren's department of the Orphan Asylum after finishing 
their grammar course; but other girls wishing to learn 
trades are received. 

St. Margaret's School was founded in 1884 by an asso- 
ciation composed of members of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church who desired to provide for the education of their 
daughters and for other young girls. The prime movers in 
the foundation were Dr. M. D. Mann, General Rufus L. 
Howard, Dr. H. E. Hopkins, William Meadows, James R. 
Smith, A. J. Barnard, Edward S. Dann, Thomas Loomis. 



154 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Dr. Mann has been the president of the association since it 
was formed, except during an interval of four years, in 
which General Howard presided. The first principal of 
the school, for five years, was Miss Isabella White, who 
was succeeded for about ten years by Miss E. Currie Tuck. 
The present principal is Mrs. Helen Holmes Van Winkle. 
The school was opened in the old Kip homestead, 640 
Main Street, but removed in the first year to its present 
location, at the corner of Franklin and North streets. Its 
pupils have averaged between 100 and 150 in number since 
its first year. The school is under the regents, and its cer- 
tificate admits to Wellesley, Vassar and Smith colleges, and 
to the Woman's College of Baltimore. 

The Elmwood School, a primary and grammar grade 
school for boys and girls, grew from a kindergarten, estab- 
lished in 1889, on West Utica Street, by Miss Emma Gib- 
bons and Miss Jessica E. Beers. At the end of two years 
these ladies were preparing to close the school, for purposes 
of study elsewhere ; but a few ladies who were interested in 
the beginning it had made persuaded Miss Beers to remain 
in the work, undertaking to enlarge its scope and make its 
footing secure. These energetic ladies, — Mrs. Adelbert 
Moot, Mrs. Austin R. Preston, Mrs. Louis A. Bull, Mrs. 
Charles A. Sweet and Mrs. Alexander M. Curtis, — carried 
out their undertaking so effectively that, within a little more 
than a year the school was planted in a new building of its 
own, at 213 Bryant Street, erected and equipped, to a high 
degree of perfection, at a cost of about $30,000. 

In 1895 the Elmwood School was incorporated, with Mr. 
Edward R. Rice in the presidency of its board of trustees, 
as he has continued to be since. His recent associates in the 
board are Miss Jessica E. Beers (principal of the school), 
Mrs. Carlton R. Jewett, Mrs. Louis A. Bull, Adelbert 
Moot, William B. Hoyt, Henry Ware Sprague, Stephen M. 



ELMWOOD AND FRANKLIN SCHOOLS 1 55 

Clement, John B. Olmsted. The school has twelve instruc- 
tors; occupies two buildings; can accommodate about 200 
pupils; has among its equipments a shop for work in wood 
and metal, a studio, with models, for art work, a large gym- 
nasium, and an attractive school garden. 

In 1899 an educational union between the Elmwood 
School and the Buffalo Seminary was arranged, combining 
the work of the upper grades in the latter with the primary 
work of the former. 

A class of mothers who met to study methods of teaching 
children became the founders of an important school. 
Their first undertaking was a kindergarten, and in 1894 they 
brought about the institution of the Franklin School, under 
the direction of Dr. Frank McMurry, now a professor in 
the Teachers' College connected with Columbia University. 
President Eliot, of Harvard, and President Butler, of 
Columbia, were advisers in the planning of the institution. 
In December, 1894, the school was chartered by the Regents 
of the University of the State of New York, the incorpo- 
rators being Charles G. Stockton, M. A. Crockett, Seward 
A. Simons, Robert L. Fryer, Frank F. Williams, William 
A. Rogers, Charlotte S. Glenny, Mary L. Rochester, Eliza- 
beth C. Mann, and Harriet E. Green. A lot on Park 
Street, between Allen and North, was bought, and a build- 
ing erected which needed to be doubled in size in 1898, 
when it represented an investment of about $40,000. 

Dr. McMurry, the first principal of the school, remained 
with it but a few years, during which its work was modelled 
on fine lines. He was called to the Teachers' College in 
1898, and Professor Herbert G. Lord, who succeeded him 
after a short interval, was drawn away to Columbia Univer- 
sity in 1900. The Franklin School was then united in man- 
agement with the Nichols School, which had been con- 
ducted for a number of years by Mr. William Nichols, at 



156 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

83 Ashland Avenue. Since the making of that arrangement 
the Franklin School takes boys from the kindergarten 
through their studies to the age of twelve, when they pass 
to the Nichols School; but girls are carried to the end of 
the course, which prepares them for college. 

Within the past year the Nichols School, still bearing the 
name of its deceased founder, has been placed on a noble 
footing by a number of wealthy patrons, whose liberality 
has endowed it with one of the most perfect of school build- 
ings, equipped with remarkable completeness, and situated 
admirably, in ample grounds, on the northern edge of Dela- 
ware Park, at the corner of Amherst and Colvin streets. 
The successor to Mr. Nichols as head-master is Mr. Joseph 
Dana Allen, lately at the head of one of the largest private 
schools of Philadelphia. 

"To give Jewish children of both sexes a knowledge of the 
Jewish religion, language and history," the Buffalo Hebrew 
School was founded in 1904 by the Jewish residents of the 
east side of the city. Four teachers give instruction in it to 
about 300 children in daily attendance. The officers of its 
board of trustees are Mr. H. Harriton, president; Mr. M. 
Aronson, vice-president; Mr. A. S. Cohen, treasurer; Mr. 
M. Diamond, secretary. 



CHAPTER VI 

LITERARY INSTITUTIONS AND 
ORGANIZATIONS 

AS early as 1816 a little village collection of books, 
about 700 in number, was formed and styled "The 
Buffalo Library" by a small company of stock- 
holders, who maintained it till 1832. Near the close of 
1830 another library and literary society was organized 
under the name of the Buffalo Lyceum, which showed much 
activity for a time, but had no long life. The undertaking 
which accomplished the real planting of a durable bibli- 
othecal institution was started on the 20th of February, 
1836, by a published notice, requesting "the young men of 
Buffalo, friendly to the founding of a Young Men's Asso- 
ciation, for mutual improvement in literature and science," 
to meet at the Court House on Monday, the 22d day of 
February, at 7 p. m. 

At the meeting, duly held, with the Hon. Hiram Pratt 
in the chair, a constitution, based on that of the Albany 
Young Men's Association, was adopted, and the meeting 
adjourned for one week. At its second session the Asso- 
ciation was organized completely by the election of the 
following-named officers: Seth C. Hawley, president; Dr. 
Charles Winne, Samuel N. Callender and George Brown, 
vice-presidents; Frederick P. Stevens and A. G. C. Coch- 
rane, corresponding and recording secretaries; John R. Lee, 
treasurer; Oliver G. Steele, Henry K. Smith, William H. 
Lacy, George W. Allen, Charles H. Raymond, Henry R. 
Williams, George E. Hayes, Halsey R. Wing, Rushmore 
Poole, and Hunting S. Chamberlain, managers. 

This was early in the last year of that mad period of 

157 



158 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

speculation and paper wealth which preceded the great 
collapse of 1837. Everybody was feeling rich, and it was 
easy to give the new institution a splendid launching on its 
long career. A subscription amounting to $6,700 was 
raised; a large purchase of books was made; the surviving 
collections of the old Buffalo Library and the Lyceum were 
turned in, and before the year ended the Y. M. A. Library 
had about 2,700 volumes on its shelves. Its greater pride, 
however, was in the 44 weekly, 10 monthly and 6 quarterly 
publications on file in its reading room, making it the com- 
pletest of any west of New York. 

That the Association was not broken down by the stress 
of hard times, which came on it soon, is proof of sturdy 
pluck in the young men who held it up. It carried a burden 
of debt for many years, and lived pinchingly, but it lived. 
Its first rooms were on the upper floors of a building three 
doors below Seneca Street, on Main. When open they were 
under the eye of a portrait painter, Mr. B. W. Jenks, who 
occupied adjoining rooms. Some time passed before the 
attendance of a regular librarian was secured. The first to 
hold that office was Mr. Charles H. Raymond, to whom 
Mr. Charles D. Norton, in a historical address, on the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the Association, awarded high 
praise for the labor he performed and the patience and reso- 
lution "with which he persisted in his unrewarded toil." 
Dr. Raymond was succeeded by Mr. Phineas Sargent in 

1839- 

In 1841 the Association removed its rooms to South Divi- 
sion Street, near Main, where a small lecture room was fitted 
up. In these quarters it was greatly cramped, and in 1848 
an ambitious effort was made to raise funds for a building 
of its own. The project failed; but four years later com- 
modious quarters were secured by lease in the American 
Block, on the west side of Main Street, half way between 



THE YOUNG MEN'S ASSOCIATION 1 59 

Eagle and Court, the lease including the fairly large and 
excellent American Hall, on the third floor, with the library 
placed underneath. Here the Association won a footing 
which made its future secure. The Hall became a source 
of considerable income. Annual courses of lectures by 
famous speakers were undertaken, with pleasure to the 
public and profit to the library. The annual election of 
officers became a contest which excited the town and added 
constantly to the membership list. The Y. M. A. was now 
distinctly at the front of the intellectual life of the town. 

Mr. Sargent had resigned the post of librarian in 1850, 
because of failing health, and Lewis Jenkins, who took his 
place, withdrew in 1852. Then the office was taken by 
William Ives, whose connection with the library lasted 
through fifty-three years. Though still in firm health, but 
feeling the weight of nearly ninety years, Mr. Ives retired 
from service in January, 1905. 

In 1856 a munificent proposal by Mr. George Palmer 
encouraged a new project of building. Mr. Palmer prof- 
fered a gift of land valued at $12,000, with $10,000 in 
money, on the condition that $90,000 more be raised from 
other sources. The condition could not be fulfilled. In 
1861, near the eve of the outbreak of our dreadful Civil 
War, the Association celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary, 
with notable public exercises, distinguished by one of the 
finest of the poems of the late David Gray. 

The years of the ensuing war were years of prosperity 
and progress in the history of the Association. It was in 
that period that it acquired its first actual endowment, by 
the subscription of a building fund which amounted to the 
sum of $81,655. This came at the end of an effort, pro- 
longed through two years, to unite the Y. M. A., the Gros- 
venor Library, the Fine Arts Academy, the Buffalo His- 
torical Society and the Society of Natural Sciences in the 



l6o CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

erection of a building for their common use. The outcome, 
in the spring of 1864, under the presidency of S. V. R. Wat- 
son, was excellent, though not in accordance with the 
original plan. A fine property, embracing the St. James 
Hotel and St. James Hall, on Main, Eagle and Washington 
streets, was purchased for the Association from the Messrs. 
Albert and George Brisbane, under conditions which pro- 
vided quarters in the hotel building, when reconstructed, 
for all of the institutions named above, and temporarily for 
some others, as well. The Grosvenor Library, however, 
was removed in a short time to another place. 

The Association was now in happy circumstances. Its 
library was well placed, with room for considerable growth, 
and its property yielded a revenue which extinguished the 
debt on it within thirteen years. By an issue of bonds in 
1869, under the presidency of Henry A. Richmond, a spe- 
cial fund for large purchases of books was raised, whereby 
the total of volumes on the shelves was raised from about 
16,000 in 1870 to 25,000 in 1872. 

A change in the working organization of the library was 
made in the spring of 1877, by the creation of the office of 
superintendent and the appointment of J. N. Larned to the 
place. During the next two years the books were classified 
and rearranged throughout, on what is known as the Dewey 
system of relative location and decimal notation, which 
holds the volumes of each class together, whatever the 
growth in numbers may be. The system is now in quite 
general use, but its first complete practical application was 
here. 

With an increasing income, the library grew rapidly dur- 
ing the next half dozen years, and the collections of all the 
societies in the building, artistic, literary, scientific and his- 
torical, were rising to a value which made their exposure 
to the chances of fire a subject of anxious thought. Once 



THE YOUNG MEN'S LIBRARY l6l 

more there were building projects mooted, and action taken 
by nine public-spirited gentlemen, in the fall of 1882, 
focussed them to a decision the next year. To save the fine 
site of the Old Court House (bounded by Washington, 
Broadway, Ellicott and Clinton streets) from being sold for 
commercial uses, these gentlemen bought it, under agree- 
ment to transfer it at any time within twelve months to one 
or more of several societies and institutions named which 
might determine to buy and build on the ground. The 
citizens associated in this action were Sherman S. Rogers, 
James M. Smith, Sherman S. Jewett, Francis H. Root, 
Charles Berrick, O. P. Ramsdell, Dexter P. Rumsey, Pascal 
P. Pratt, George Howard. 

At once there was wakened a feeling that the opportunity 
secured for a united establishment of our most representative 
institutions of liberal culture, in so central and admirable a 
situation, must not be lost. Again the project contemplated 
a side by side planting of the Young Men's Library and the 
Grosvenor Library, with the Fine Arts Academy, the 
Society of Natural Sciences and the Historical Society 
grouped around them. There was failure to bring the two 
libraries together; but in its remaining features the scheme 
was carried through. An energetic and resourceful presi- 
dent of the Young Men's Association, Edward B. Smith, 
led the undertaking to success, raised a building fund of 
$1 17,000 by public subscription, in sums which ranged from 
$5,000 to $1. A building committee of five, composed of 
Edward B. Smith, Jewett M. Richmond, John G. Milburn, 
George B. Hayes and J. N. Earned, was given large powers 
for the supervision and direction of the contemplated work. 
A tentative outline of floor plans, with a full description of 
the wants to be satisfied and the conditions to be met, were 
sent to a number of architects, who were invited to submit 
competitive designs. From eleven designs submitted that 



1 62 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

of C. L. W. Eidlitz, of New York, was preferred, and the 
construction of the building was placed under his charge, 
with August Esenwein, of Buffalo, as resident superinten- 
dent of the work. 

Ground was broken on the 8th of October, 1884. On the 
13th of September, 1886, the removal of the library from 
its old to its new home was begun ; but the formal opening 
of the completed building, with the Art, the Science and 
the History collections in place, did not occur till the 7th 
of February, 1887. Before that time, the Young Men's 
Association had been authorized, by act of the Legislature, 
to assume the more appropriate name of The Buffalo 
Library. 

The vacated building, at the Main and Eagle streets 
corner, which remained the property of the Library, was 
now remodelled once more, and restored to its original use 
as a hotel, named the Richmond House, in compliment to 
Mr. Jewett M. Richmond, who had succeeded Mr. Smith 
in the presidency of the Library. A dreadful tragedy re- 
sulted from the change; for the Richmond House and the 
adjoining St. James Hall were burned in the night of the 
1 8th of March, 1887, and fifteen lives were lost. 

For the support of the Library it now became necessary 
to make a costly improvement of the ground, involving a 
heavy debt. One of the finest of fireproof hotel buildings 
was erected and favorably leased, receiving the name of 
The Iroquois. During the next decade the income of the 
Library was slender and the demands on it large. It did 
what it could to supply the need of a free public library, 
opening its reading and reference rooms to all comers and 
distributing a large number of free tickets in the public 
schools; but the privilege otherwise of borrowing books for 
home use could be extended only to its members, life or 
annual, the latter of whom paid three dollars per year. 



THE BUFFALO PUBLIC LIBRARY 1 63 

The major part of the income derivable from the hotel 
property of the Library depended on the continuous ex- 
emption of that property from taxation, as belonging to 
an educational institution. By legislation enacted in 1896 
this exemption was withdrawn, and the Library came sud- 
denly face to face with a situation in which the means for 
any usefulness of existence were suddenly taken away. In 
this desperate emergency proposals for making it a free 
public library, as a municipal institution, won instantly a 
surprising weight and earnestness of support. The project, 
widened to include the Grosvenor Library, grew in favor as 
the discussion went on. Conferences- between committees 
representing the libraries and the city government resulted 
in agreements which the Legislature, by an act that became 
law on the 13th of February, 1897, empowered the city and 
the two libraries to enter into. These agreements, em- 
bodied in a formal contract on the 24th of February, were 
in effect as follows : 

The Buffalo Library conveyed to the city of Buffalo its 
books and pamphlets in trust for a period of 99 years, to- 
gether with the net annual income from the Library prop- 
erty. The city accepted the trust, and bound itself to main- 
tain the Library, by annual appropriation of a sum not less 
than four-fifths of three one-hundredtbs of one per centum 
of the total assessed valuation of taxable property in the city 
(appropriating, also, not less than one-fifth of three one- 
hundredths of one per centum of such assessed valuation 
to the maintenance of the Grosvenor Library each year). 
The Library to be known as The Buffalo Public Library, 
and to be free to the residents of the city for all of its uses; 
to be open every day, during stipulated hours; to be under 
the control and management of a board of ten directors, 
five of them representing the city and five the life members 
of The Buffalo Library, as previously constituted; these 



164 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

latter having been incorporated with the power of perpetual 
succession, and having the control and management of the 
library real estate. 

On the 9th of March this corporation of life members of 
The Buffalo Library was organized by the election of 
Nathaniel W. Norton president; George L. Williams vice- 
president; Joseph P. Dudley, James Frazer Gluck and 
Charles R. Wilson managers. These, with the Mayor of 
Buffalo, the Corporation Counsel, the Superintendent of 
Education, and two citizens, John D. Bogardus and Mathias 
Rohr, appointed by the Mayor, formed the first board of 
directors of The Buffalo Public Library, with Mr. Norton 
to preside. 

This momentous change in the circumstances of the 
Library — in its relations to the public and in its educational 
power — was striven for by no one more ardently than by 
the writer of this narrative of the event, who had been the 
superintendent of the library for twenty years. From the 
day it became a certainty he labored strenuously on prepara- 
tions for the reorganization of library work which the ser- 
vice of the whole reading public of the city would involve. 
He hoped to have a hand in that service for some brief time, 
and then retire; but a few weeks of experience convinced 
him that he could not work in harmony with the presiding 
officer of the new board of directors, and in April he re- 
signed. Mr. Henry L. Elmendorf was appointed his suc- 
cessor in the following June. 

During the summer extensive changes in the interior of 
the building were made and it was not opened to the general 
public until the beginning of September. In thirteen 
years since that opening, the educational service of the 
Library to the city has gone far beyond every expectation. 
It has far more than realized the highest hopes that were 
entertained when its resources were enlarged and it was 



THE GERMAN YOUNG MEN'S ASSOCIATION 1 65 

made free. That its collection of books in 19 10 numbered 
no less than 284,176 volumes, and that its circulation had 
expanded from 768,000 in the first full year of its free open- 
ing to 1,368,425, are the least significant of descrip- 
tive facts. The influence of its methods and agencies, in 
introducing good literature to its great reading public, — 
giving prominence to it, — luring attention to it, — advertis- 
ing it, — is what gives real and immense importance to its 
enormous daily output of books. Its big "open shelf room," 
where readers browse as in a private library, among care- 
fully selected books, and pick for themselves; its children's 
room, where boys and girls do the same; its class-room 
libraries in the public schools; its traveling libraries, in 
parochial and private schools, in Sunday schools, in social 
settlement houses, in clubs, in factories, in hospitals, in 
police stations and firemen's quarters; — these are what give 
its mighty influence to the Public Library, as a stimulating 
center of intellectual life. 

On the death of Mr. Elmendorf, in July, 1906, his 
assistant, Walter L. Brown, became the head of the Library, 
and was succeeded in the assistant's office by Mrs. Elmen- 
dorf, who had been, before her marriage, the librarian of 
the Milwaukee Public Library, and recognized as one of 
the ablest of the people engaged in library work. 

The unnamed writer of the "History of the Germans of 
Buffalo," published in 1898, who gives an extended account 
of the German Young Men's Association, ascribes its origin 
to the Buffalo Apprentices' Society, which existed for a 
number of years after 1833. Several young Germans were 
among the members of the Apprentices' Society, some of 
whom on leaving it, when they had reached a certain age- 
limit prescribed in its constitution, became instrumental in 
organizing, on May 10, 1841, the German-English Litera- 
ture Society with F. A. Georger as president, John Hauen- 



1 66 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Stein vice-president, Carl Neidhardt secretary, and the 
brothers Jacob and George Beyer, George F. Pfeififer, Wil- 
helm Rudolf and Adam Schlagder among its members. 
The purpose of the society was: mutual education in the 
different branches of German and English literature, science 
and art, the general spreading of useful knowledge, and the 
providing of a good library. Meetings were held every 
Monday night in a very plain room in the rear of Dr. Del- 
lenbaugh's drug store, on Main near Court Street. This 
meeting room was, in accord with the modest means of the 
society's members at the time, furnished very plainly. Here 
the society met until 1843. 

Although the founders of the society intended to foster 
the English language as well as the German, they discov- 
ered, after the first month of its existence, that they 
were not able to succeed in this matter. They did not drop 
the English entirely, but they had to neglect it. To indi- 
cate this action also externally, they changed the name of 
the society to the German Young Men's Association of the 
City of Buffalo. This took place on the nth of Septem- 
ber, 1 841. 

A series of annual balls, continued for a number of years, 
provided a fund by which a library was gradually built up. 
It numbered 750 volumes in 1846 and a catalogue was 
printed that year. For a time after leaving Dr. Dellen- 
baugh's drug store the association had its meetings, lectures 
and dances in the Eagle Tavern. In the winter of 1843-4 
it established rooms in the Kremlin Block, where it re- 
mained until 1854. 

The immigration of political exiles from Germany in 
1848 brought some important additions to the membership 
of the association, among them August Thieme, who had 
been a member of the Frankfurter Parliament; Carl Adam, 
the future musical director; Dr. H. Baethig, Dr. K. Weiss, 



THE GERMAN YOUNG MEN'S ASSOCIATION 1 67 

Carl Gruener, artist, and Julius Rieffenstahl. Thieme 
went to Cleveland in 1852; the others made Buffalo their 
permanent home. 

The first published report of the executive committee 6i 
the association was issued in January, 1851. It showed a 
membership of 120, and a library of 1,090 volumes, 890 of 
which were in the German language. In that year the 
association gave a reception to the German patriot Kinkel, 
who had escaped from a fortress prison with the help of 
Carl Schurz, and in the next year it took a leading part in 
the reception to Kossuth. 

The period of hard times and general depression which 
began in 1857 lowered the membership and the spirit of 
the association, as of most other institutions, for a number of 
years. It had established fine quarters in the Hauenstein 
Block, corner of Main and Mohawk streets, just before this 
occurred; but its membership had dropped by 1861 down 
to 54. Then recovery began. In the course of the decade 
after 1870 it brought some quite notable lecturers to the 
city, including Dr. Gerhard Rohlfs, the African traveler, 
and the poet, Friedrich von Bodenstedt. 

In 1882 the association rose to a great achievement in 
response to a great need. To properly accommodate the 
Twenty-third Saengerfest of the German Saengerbund of 
North America, appointed to be held in Buffalo in 1883, a 
suitable hall was desired, and it was determined that the 
German Young Men's Association should undertake the 
work. Its charter was accordingly amended, empowering 
it to hold property to the amount of $500,000, and a board 
of real estate commissioners was created, consisting of J. P. 
Schoellkopf, Philip Becker, Albert Ziegler, John Greiner, 
and F. C. M. Lautz, all men of great business experience 
and solid wealth. A large piece of ground on Main, 
Franklin and Edward streets was purchased from the 



1 68 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Walden estate. General help was given to the enterprising 
Germans in raising funds for this excellent project, and it 
was carried out with success. This first Music Hall in 
Buffalo had a too short life. It was burned on the evening 
of the 25th of March, 1885, and the library of the German 
Young Men's Association, which had rooms in the building, 
was almost totally destroyed. It had then grown to 7,451 
volumes, of which only 384 were saved. 

Two days after this catastrophe it was resolved that the 
hall should be rebuilt, and $20,000 were subscribed on the 
spot. The corner-stone of the new Music Hall was laid 
in May, 1886, and the finished building was opened with a 
grand concert, ball and banquet in November of the next 
year. It had cost $246,600, and the association was now 
heavily burdened with debt; but a unique and extraordi- 
narily successful "Prize Fair," organized the next year, 
cleared off more than $43,000 of this debt. 

In 1 89 1 the fiftieth anniversary of the association was 
celebrated, on which occasion F. A. Georger and Dr. John 
Hauenstein, who had been president and vice-president in 
its first year, 1841, held the same places of honor again. 

The adoption of the Buffalo Library by the city, in 1897, 
and its conversion into an entirely free institution, rendered 
the maintenance of such collections of books as that of the 
German Young Men's Association no longer an important 
need. Ten years of experience convinced the members of 
the association that their library would gain in usefulness 
if transferred to the free public institution. Accordingly 
they made a generous offer of it to the latter, and the oflfer 
was accepted in the spirit in which it had been made. A 
bronze tablet commemorating the gift has lately been placed 
on the walls of the library vestibule. The release of the 
German Y. M. A. from one of the functions for which it 
was organized does not, however, involve its dissolution. 



THE BUFFALO HISTORICAL SOCIETY 1 69 

It continues in existence for other purposes, which bear on 
German interests in the city. 

The circumstances of the origin of the Buffalo Historical 
Society were related to the present secretary of the society, 
Mr. Frank H. Severance, by the late Lewis F. Allen, and 
recorded by Mr. Severance in some notes which are printed 
in the fifth volume of the B. H. S. Publications, as follows: 
"I was coming up Court Street one day," said Mr. Allen, 
"when I met Orsamus H. Marshall. I knew him well, — 
knew that he was one of the few men in BufTalo who gave 
any thought to the preservation of the records or relics of 
our history. * * * He spoke of something that he 
wanted to get, or that had been destroyed, I don't remember 
now just what. 'Marshall,' I said, 'we ought to do some- 
thing about these things. Somebody should take care of 
them.' It was a raw, windy day, early in spring, along in 
March, 1862. He said, 'Come up in my office and we'll 
talk it over.' The result of that talk was that we got a few 
others interested and published a call for another meeting 
to be held at Mr. Marshall's office. The rest of it," said 
Mr. Allen, "is a matter of record. We named a committee 
to draw up a constitution and by-laws, which were sub- 
mitted to a meeting of citizens held in the rooms of the old 
Medical Association on South Division Street. Millard 
Fillmore was made chairman of that meeting, and a little 
later, at our first election, he was chosen the first president 
of the society." That meeting at which Mr. Fillmore pre- 
sided was held April 15, 1862. Mr. Allen was chairman 
of the earlier meeting, in Mr. Marshall's office, and was the 
first vice-president of the society. 

The history of the early years of the society is sketched 
very interestingly in a paper written by Oliver G. Steele, 
in 1873, and printed in the first volume of its Publications. 
Its maintenance for five years was secured at the beginning 



170 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

by a pledge from fifty gentlemen of $20 each per year; and 
this was done on the suggestion of Mr. Fillmore, who was 
one of the most earnest of its founders. It was especially 
to the interest in it felt by him, by Mr. Marshall, by Mr. 
Lewis F. Allen and Orlando Allen, by William Clement 
Bryant, E. P. Dorr, Elias S. Hawley, William P. Letch- 
worth, William Dorsheimer, James Sheldon, James M. 
Smith, George S. Hazard, William H. H. Newman, Wil- 
liam Hodge, Emmor Haines, William D. Fobes, Alonzo 
Richmond, James Tillinghast, William K. Allen, Julius H. 
Dawes, Dr. Joseph C. Greene, and some others, that the 
society was kept in life through its first quarter century or 
so, until later energies, working in more favoring times and 
circumstances, built under it the broad and stable founda- 
tions on which it rests to-day. But how much of our early 
local history was saved from oblivion in those years, by the 
exertions of the founders of the Historical Society to have 
it recorded while those lived who could record it, can only 
be known to one who has had occasion, as the present writer 
has had, to appeal to the contents of the society's shelves 
and drawers. 

The collections of the society in its first three years were 
deposited and its meetings were held in the office of William 
Dorsheimer, on Court Street. From 1865 till 1875 it had 
rooms, with kindred organizations, in the Young Men's 
Association Building, southeast corner of Main and Eagle 
streets. Then it obtained safer quarters in the Western 
Savings Bank Building, on Main and Court streets, where 
it remained until it went again into co-tenancy with the 
Young Men's Association, in the new Library Building 
which was opened in 1887. There, on the third floor, it had 
large rooms and safety, but stair-climbing, which grew irk- 
some as stairs in public places went more and more out of 
use. A remarkable opportunity for obtaining relief from 



THE BUFFALO HISTORICAL SOCIETY 171 

this irksomeness, and from other handicaps, came in con- 
nection with the preparations that were begun in 1899 for 
the Pan-American Exposition to be held at Bufifalo in 1901, 
and the Historical Society was fortunate in a president and 
other officers who could recognize the opportunity with 
promptitude and improve it with vigor and ability. 

Mr. Andrew Langdon had been president since 1894, 
and had been devoting himself, with the support of the 
board of directors, to efforts towards the placing of the 
society in a home of its own, with a better provision of sup- 
port. Through State Senator Henry W. Hill, one of the 
directors of the society, legislation had been procured in 
1897-8 which authorized the construction of a Historical 
Society Building on park lands in the city, and which au- 
thorized the City to appropriate $25,000 toward the con- 
struction of such building, as well as $5,000 annually for 
its maintenance, at the same time making the Mayor and 
five other city officials ex officio members of the society's 
governing board. Thus it was given the character of a 
semi-municipal institution. 

Now, in the arrangements making for the Pan-American 
Exposition, the State of New York planned a building for 
temporary use, on the Exposition grounds, and the happy 
idea was conceived of an alliance with the State, to make 
its building a permanent structure, to plant it on the park 
land which adjoined the Exposition grounds, and to secure 
the reversion of it to the Historical Society. This happy 
idea was realized, in a beautiful building of the classic 
order, constructed of white Vermont marble, overlooking 
a very beautiful park lake, built at a cost of $175,000, to 
which the State contributed $100,000 (about the sum that 
would, probably, have been wasted on a structure of staff, 
to be torn down), the Historical Society $45,000, the city 
of Bufifalo $30,000. The building is enriched by two sculp- 



172 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

tured bronze doors at its main entrance, which are the gift 
to it of President Langdon. 

The building had been planned by its architect, Mr. 
George Gary, of Buffalo, to fit the final uses for which it 
was intended, and does so, in most respects, most admirably. 
But its large spaces are already quite filled by the society's 
collections, and some addition will soon be a need. It has 
become one of the places of most interest in the city, and 
draws thousands of visitors to its historical museum and 
to the lectures and addresses which are given freely to the 
public on most Sunday afternoons of the year, and occasion- 
ally at other times. The instituting and arranging of these 
has been one of the greatly valuable services of Mr. Frank 
H. Severance, who has been secretary of the society for the 
past fourteen years, and actively in charge of its works since 
1903. His greater service is in the high character he has 
given to its annual Publications. 

Mr. Langdon was continuously chosen president of the 
society for sixteen years, and on asking to be released from 
oiHce in 1910 was made honorary president. The other 
present members of the board of directors (not including 
the members ex officio) are Dr. A. H. Briggs, Willis O. 
Chapin, Robert W. Day, Charles W. Goodyear, R. R. Hef- 
ford, Henry W. Hill, Henry R. Howland, Hugh Kennedy, 
Andrew Langdon, J. N. Larned, O. P. Letchworth, L. L. 
Lewis, Jr., John J. McWilliams, G. Barrett Rich, Henry 
A. Richmond, Frank H. Severance, Dr. Lee H. Smith, 
George A. Stringer, James Sweeney, Charles R. Wilson. 

The library of the Historical Society contains at the pres- 
ent time 17,600 volumes. In the Lord Library (bequeathed 
to the city by the Rev. Dr. John C. Lord), of which it is 
the custodian, there are about 12,000 volumes. 

The Buffalo Catholic Institute is the outgrowth of a 
literary society that was formed in 1866 by Catholic young 



CATHOLIC INSTITUTE.— GROSVENOR LIBRARY 1 73 

men of St. Michael's Church, and its name for a few years 
was the German Catholic Young Men's Association. Par- 
ish and racial limitations were soon outgrown, and the 
broader organization and title were adopted in 1870. In 
1872 the Institute was incorporated, with Charles V. Fornes 
for president, Joseph Krumholz vice-president, Peter Paul 
and J. L. Jacobs secretaries, and Joseph A. Gittere treasurer. 
A library and reading room had then been established in 
the American Block since 1869. In 1874 it bought the 
building on the northeast corner of Main and Chippewa 
streets, occupying the upper floors and deriving income 
from the stores below. The Institute was well accommo- 
dated in this place for nearly a quarter of a century; but 
improved its situation in 1897-8 by buying property at the 
corner of Main and Virginia streets and building hand- 
somely there. With a library of 13,425 volumes, organized 
on the most approved principles and conducted by well- 
trained librarians, in commodious rooms, and with an excel- 
lent lecture hall, the circumstances of the Institute seem 
to be most satisfactory in all respects. The officers of the 
Institute were recently John F. Cochrane, president; Ralph 
H. Rieman, secretary; Marie X. Sevasco, librarian. 

A North Buffalo Catholic Institute, organized as a social 
club in 1885, now occupies its own building, and maintains 
a library, with reading rooms. 

The Grosvenor Library, opened in 1870, was founded 
upon a bequest to the city, made in 1857 by Seth Grosvenor, 
formerly of Buffalo, but resident at the time of his death in 
New York. The total sum bequeathed was $40,000, of 
which $10,000 should be applicable to the purchase of 
ground and the erection of a building; the remainder "to 
be invested forever and its income to be used in the purchase 
of books, to be always kept open for the use of the public ; 
the books not to be lent out nor rented, and only used for 



174 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

reading in the building." It was stipulated in the testator's 
will that the city should make provision annually for the 
current expenses of the library, and that obligation was 
assumed in the acceptance of the gift. 

The original trustees of Mr. Grosvenor's bequest, Messrs. 
O. H. Marshall, George R. Babcock and Joseph G. Masten, 
wisely judged it to be expedient to allow some considerable 
accumulation of the fund at their disposal before attempting 
a collection of books for reference use by the public, and 
when they organized and opened the Grosvenor Library, 
in 1870, it was with a fair showing of well-chosen books on 
its shelves. They were book-loving men, of studious tastes, 
qualified excellently for their trust, and assisted very com- 
petently by Alexander Sheldon, the first librarian in charge. 

For more than twenty years the library was well placed 
on the upper floor of the then Buffalo Savings Bank Build- 
ing, at the corner of Washington Street and Broadway. In 
1 89 1 its building fund had grown sufficiently to enable the 
trustees to purchase ground on Franklin and Edward 
streets and build the attractive home which the library now 
enjoys. As related already in the preceding historical 
sketch of the Buffalo Public Library, the Grosvenor Library 
was included in the public library undertaking of 1897, the 
city then assuming its maintenance in a more definite way. 
One-fifth of three one-hundredths of one per centum of the 
total taxable assessed valuation of property in Buffalo was 
then pledged as an annual appropriation to the library; 
which has had, as the consequence, a much more satisfactory 
growth in the past dozen years. It now (1910) contains 
82,000 volumes. 

The first librarian of the Grosvenor Library, Mr. Shel- 
don, was succeeded in 1874 for a few months by W. W. 
Valentine, and the latter, in the same year, by James W. 
Ward. Mr. Ward, who was in service till his death, in 



LESSER LIBRARIES 175 

1896, was followed by the present librarian, Edward P. Van 
Duzee, who had been the assistant librarian for a number 
of years. The present trustees are Edward H. Butler, J. 
H. Lascelles and William Gaertner, M. D. 

Of other libraries in the city, the largest and most im- 
portant is the Law Library for the Eighth Judicial District, 
which the State maintains, and which reports a collection 
of 25,000 volumes. The Buffalo Medical Library reports 
8,000; the Young Men's Christian Association reports over 
10,000 volumes in its library; the Lutheran Y. M. A. over 
6,000; the Czytelnia Polska, in the Dom Polski, over 8,000; 
the Adam Mickiewicz Library, on Fillmore Avenue, 3,000; 
the Erie Railway Library Association 4,000; the Harugari 
Library 18,500. 



CHAPTER VII 
SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS 

FROM an early day Buffalo had men among its citizens 
who interested themselves deeply in matters of 
science, and pursued studies in some branches of it 
to such extent as they could, with the limited opportunities 
of the time. Roswell W. Raskins, Dr. Lucien W. Caryl, 
Dr. W. K. Scott, Judge George W. Clinton, Dr. George E. 
Hayes, David F. Day, were distinctly representatives of the 
scientific order of mind, who exercised an individual influ- 
ence in wakening and widening attention to the knowledge 
of the natural world, long before the organizing of such 
influences was begun. 

A few young lads who had tasted of that knowledge, who 
found it delightful, and who were drawn together by the 
common discovery, were the first to attempt an associated 
pursuit of the study. They met in the spring of 1858 and 
formed a Buffalo Society of Natural Science, which had 
existence till near the end of the following year, undergo- 
ing two changes of its original name. Its eight or ten 
members maintained a room for meetings, at which scien- 
tific questions were discussed. But something of vitality 
was lacking in the society, and it went to decay, — at the top, 
but not at the root; for a new growth sprang in part from 
the latter within the next two years, and the new growth 
was a Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences which is vigorous 
in life to-day, and large in rank and place among the insti- 
tutions of the city that are durably fixed. 

The history of this society is admirably sketched by its 
present superintendent, Mr. Henry R. Howland, in the 
eighth volume of its Bulletins, and the facts to be given 
here are drawn from that sketch. The prime mover in the 

176 



SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 1 77 

new organization was a young banker of the period, Cole- 
man T. Robinson, who ofifered in his sadly shortened life a 
very beautiful example of the grace that can be lent to a 
vocation of business by avocations of studious taste. The 
society was planned at a meeting in the studio of Charles 
Caryl Coleman, the artist, on the evening of October 5, 1861, 
and its organization perfected at a more public meeting, in 
lower St. James Hall, Thursday evening, December 5th. 
The older and younger lovers of natural science were now 
acting together. Mr. Haskins was chairman of the com- 
mittee which reported the adopted constitution. Judge 
Clinton presided at the meeting and was elected to the presi- 
dency of the society. Rev. A. T. Chester and Dr. Charles 
Winne were made vice-presidents. Samuel Slade and 
Theodore Rowland became the secretaries, corresponding 
and recording. Dr. Leon F. Harvey was chosen treasurer 
and Richard K. Noye librarian. The nine curators elected 
were Dr. George E. Hayes, Professor William S. Van 
Duzee, Dr. Charles C. F. Gay, Hiram E. Tallmadge, 
Charles D. Marshall, Coleman T. Robinson, Charles S. 
Farnham, David F. Day, Charles F. Wadsworth. 

For twenty years Judge Clinton was kept in the presi- 
dency of the society by annual re-election. So long as he 
could be with it there was no possible thought of any other 
in his place. He was its more than father, — its presiding 
genius, — the impersonated spirit which has animated and 
actuated its life. The love he had for Nature, as simple 
in pure sentiment as it was scientifically profound, exercised 
an infection which nothing in his company could resist. 
In its gently subtle way it gave vital inspirations to the 
society that never lost their effect. 

The first rooms of the society were on Erie Street, near 
Pearl, and the first lectures it secured were given by Pro- 
fessor Benjamin Silliman, in February, 1862. In the fol- 



178 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

lowing spring it removed to apartments in West Seneca 
Street, which the liberality of Coleman Robinson furnished 
with cases for collections contributed by Augustus R. Grote, 
and others, as well as by himself. The museum grew so fast 
that larger quarters were soon demanded, and a transfer to 
Main Street, opposite St. Paul's Church, was made. In 
January the society was incorporated under the law of the 
State. 

And now came the movement of enterprise in which the 
Young Men's Association of Buffalo had the help of several 
younger institutions of kindred character (as related else- 
where) in acquiring the St. James Hotel property and re- 
constructing the hotel building for their common use. The 
Society of Natural Sciences was one of the tenants thus 
provided for, and opened attractive rooms in the remodelled 
St. James on the loth of January, 1865. Thenceforward, 
till the present day, it has been housed with the Young 
Men's Association — the Bufifalo Library of later years. 

Soon after this entrance of the society into a more per- 
manent home it experienced a great loss in the death of 
Coleman T. Robinson, whose residence and business had 
been removed to New York, but whose interest in the insti- 
tution he had helped to create had undergone no change. 
By his will Mr. Robinson left his library, his valuable col- 
lections, and his fine microscope to the society, together with 
$10,000 for the beginning of a permanent endowment fund. 

The summer of 1866, when Charles Linden was ap- 
pointed Custodian of the now quite extensive museum of the 
society, is marked by that event very distinctly as an epoch 
of importance in its history. Mr. Howland is within the 
truth when he says : "Charles Linden was an extraordinary 
man. Born at Breslau, Germany, about 183 1, educated 
first at the gymnasium there and then taught by his own 
efforts in the book of Nature, both as a student and later as 



SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 1 79 

a teacher of science, he was an enthusiast who had the rare 
gift of inspiring others." Three years after his connection 
with the Society of Natural Sciences was formed he was 
called to the Central High School as teacher of science, and 
continued as such until his death in 1888. "For seven years^ 
however, he was the Custodian of the society's collections, 
and labored faithfully for their growth and welfare. 
* * * Each year as summer came the spirit of the ex- 
plorer seized him and he wandered, now to Florida, to 
Hayti, to Europe, to Brazil, to Labrador, to many strange 
and out-of-the-way places, whence he returned always richly 
laden with additions to the museum collections. No man 
was ever more beloved by his pupils and his friends." 
Bronze tablets to his memory on the walls of the Central 
High School and on those of the Museum bear double testi- 
mony to the impression he had made in both; but his im- 
portance to the city in the twenty-two years of his life in it 
is witnessed better by the hundreds of people who, as stu- 
dents in his classes or as members of the Field Club whose 
country rambles he led, were wakened by him in their youth 
to an interest in the lore of Nature which has flavored all 
their lives. 

When the school duties of Mr. Linden compelled him to 
resign the directorship of the Museum of Natural Science, 
in 1873, he was succeeded by Mr. Augustus R. Grote. Mr. 
Grote, an early member of the society and an enthusiastic 
naturalist, of more than local reputation, added greatly to 
the value, the extent and the educational usefulness of the 
collections under his charge, during the seven years of his 
service. His collection of North American Noctuidae, 
which the society relinquished to him, was purchased for 
the British Museum and now reposes there. The publica- 
tions of the society, now in their eighth volume, were begun 
in the first year of the directorship of Mr. Grote. On re- 



l8o CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

signing from the Buffalo Society in 1880 he became resident 
in Germany, until his death, in 1903, continuing work which 
gave him rank among the foremost entomologists of the 
time. 

In 1882 Judge Clinton, invited by the State to edit an 
official publication of the Clinton Papers, removed his resi- 
dence to Albany, taking a rare personality from the city, 
and more of an inspiring influence from the Society of Nat- 
ural Sciences than can be described. As Mr. Rowland has 
said, "its indebtedness to Judge Clinton cannot be measured 
by words. * * * The great Clinton Herbarium which, 
with the enormous labor of years, he built up for this 
society, and which includes more than 24,000 exhibits, is 
a testimony to the unselfish satisfaction which he ever took 
in his devotion to its interests." Three years after leaving 
Buffalo the beloved old gentleman died suddenly while 
strolling through a rural cemetery, and was found lying 
peacefully on the green herbage of the place, with flowers 
which he had gathered in his hand. In the words of 
George William Curtis before the Board of Regents of the 
University of the State of New York, of which Judge 
Clinton was Vice Chancellor, "Nature seemed to have 
reclaimed the old man, whose heart the love of her had 
kept as warm and unwasted as a child's. Like Enoch, in 
that tranquil, beneficent, blameless life, he walked with 
God, and God took him." 

Judge Clinton was succeeded in the presidency of the 
society by Dr. George E. Hayes, who died within less than 
three months, leaving a will which provided for an ultimate 
division of his estate, after the death of his wife, equally 
between his daughter and the Society of Natural Sciences. 
The bequest to the latter was for the endowment of a free 
school of natural science, "or for the purpose of advancing 
the interests of natural science in the city of Buffalo." In 



SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCIENCES lOI 

the end this munificent legacy from Dr. Hayes will place it 
in the power of the society to put some notable crown on 
its educational work, which it has developed already to fine 
results. 

Since going with the Buffalo Library into the splendid 
new building of the latter, in 1887, and especially within 
the last few years, the Society of Natural Sciences has had 
more space, not only for better arrangements and a more in- 
structive exhibition of its collections, but for popular lec- 
tures, given freely and abundantly to old and young. 
Evening lectures weekly, through a long winter season, very 
often by men of high distinction in science, from all parts 
of the country, and very commonly with lantern illustra- 
tions, are enjoyed by large audiences every year. Added 
to these, by arrangement with the City Department of Edu- 
cation, a permanent lecturer, Dr. Cummings, gives regular 
daily talks to classes from the public schools, on the subjects 
of their lessons in physiology, anatomy, hygiene and natural 
history, with illustrative exhibits, experiments and pictures. 
Thus the educational work of the society has been developed 
and systematized already to a notable degree. 

In the years that have elapsed since Mr. Grote resigned 
the directorship of the Museum, it has been successively 
under the care of Dr. Julius Pohlman, Dr. W. C. Barrett, 
Mr. Frederick K. Mixer and Miss Elizabeth J. Letson, and 
many superb additions have been made to its collections. 
As inventoried and appraised in 1907 by Mr. Charles H. 
Ward, of Rochester, the Museum then contained, in its 
thirteen sections, 63,052 specimens, valued at $61,678. 

Among the presidents of the society in these later years 
have been many who were pillars of strength to it from the 
beginning. It is an honor-roll of useful citizens: Dr. 
Lucien Howe, David F. Day, Dr. Leon F. Harvey, Pro- 
fessor D. S. Kellicott, Henry P. Emerson, William H. 



1 82 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Glenny, Dr. Roswell Park, Dr. Lee H. Smith, and the Hon. 
T. Guilford Smith, the latter of whom has been called 
upon, from time to time, to put the effective impress of his 
quiet energies on some important period in the administra- 
tion of many of our greater institutions. 

By gift from the late Dexter P. Rumsey and the heirs of 
Bronson C. Rumsey, the Society of Natural Sciences, in 
1903, received a beautifully situated plot of land, contigu- 
ous to the southern boundary of Delaware Park, having a 
frontage of 150 feet on Elmwood Avenue and a depth of 
280 feet. On this ground, which is valued at $30,000, it 
is hoped that the society may soon be able to build a worthy 
home for itself, and become the near neighbor of the Al- 
bright Art Gallery and the Buffalo Historical Society in a 
noble group. 

Prior to 1821, when Erie County was "set off" from 
Niagara County, there had been a Niagara County Medical 
Society existing for some years. When the separation 
occurred an Erie County Medical Society was formed, with 
a charter membership of twenty-four, of which number 
Buffalo contributed thirteen, namely: Cyrenius Chapin, 
Ebenezer Johnson, John E. Marshall, Benjamin C. Cong- 
don, Lucius H. Allen, Josiah Trowbridge, Thomas B. 
Clark, Sylvester Clark, Jonathan Hurlburt, William Lucas, 
Charles McLowth, Elisha Smith, Sylvanus S. Stuart. Dr. 
Ebenezer Johnson retired from practice that year. In the 
following decade the rising village received a number of 
important accessions to its medical practitioners. Dr. 
Moses Bristol came in 1822; Drs. Henry R. Stagg, Bryant 
Burwell and Judah Bliss in 1824; Dr. Alden S. Sprague in 
1825 ; Dr. Lucien W. Caryl in 1830. Drs. James P. White 
and Gorham F. Pratt came as students in 1830, and Dr. 
Orson S. St. John, a native of Buffalo, entered practice 



ERIE COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY 183 

that year. All these became members of the County 
Society. 

The records of the Erie County Medical Society are the 
main source of information concerning the advent in Buf- 
falo of the men who acquired prominence and eminence in 
the medical profession. Those records have been sum- 
marized chronologically in the work on "Our County and 
Its People" which was edited by Judge Truman C. White 
and published in 1898. As shown by them, Drs. Josiah 
Barnes, Joseph R. Jones and James E. Hawley came to the 
young city in 1832; Dr. Charles Winne in 1833. Dr. 
James P. White took his degree at Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege and joined the society that year, entering on a distin- 
guished career. Dr. Charles H. Raymond obtained mem- 
bership in 1835. The year 1836 was made important in 
the local annals of medicine by the coming of Dr. Austin 
Flint, who acquired very soon a leading influence in the 
profession, and whose celebrity, as a writer and a prac- 
titioner, drew him eventually to the larger field offered at 
New York. Dr. Flint was the founder of the Buffalo 
Medical Journal, in 1845, and he was foremost in the 
efforts which established the Medical College of the Uni- 
versity of Buffalo in the following year. Dr. Horatio N. 
Loomis, who had come to the city some time previously, 
became a member of the society in 1837, and it was joined 
also by Dr. Samuel M. Abbott that year. 

In 1842 the society received into its membership Dr. 
Timothy T. Lockwood, afterwards Mayor of the city, and 
Dr. Sylvester F. Mixer, who held a notable rank in his 
profession throughout the next forty years. In the next year 
it was joined by Dr. William K. Scott, already a veteran 
physician, from Troy, holding a diploma of the date of 
1809, and by Drs. Silas Hubbard, Horace M. Conger and 
Charles H. Wilcox, the latter of whom died nineteen years 



184 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

later in the service of his country, as surgeon of the first 
regiment that went from Buffalo into the field of the Civil 
War. The accessions of 1844 included Dr. William Treat, 
who came to his death in the same patriotic service, in 1861 ; 
Drs. George N. Burwell, John Hauenstein and John B. 
Samo, whose names were among the most familiar and re- 
spected in the city for the next half century or more. 

In 1845 our city gave an opening to another career in 
medical science which paralleled that of Dr. Austin Flint. 
Dr. Frank H. Hamilton came to it from Geneva to be pro- 
fessor of surgery in the Buflfalo Medical College, and to 
achieve here a more than national reputation as one of the 
great surgeons of his time. He was called from Buffalo in 
i860 to round out his career in New York. 

Drs. Walter Cary, Phineas H. Strong and James M. 
Newman were enrolled in the County Society in 1847. In 
the next year an investigation, made for the Society, showed 
38 "regular" and 21 "irregular" physicians engaged in 
practice in the city. Names of note added to the member- 
ship list of the Society in 1849 were those of Cornelius C. 
Wyckofif, Charles W. Harvey, Lewis P. Dayton (after- 
wards Mayor), and John D. Hill. It received Drs. San- 
ford Eastman and Charles C. Jewett in 1851 ; Dr. John C. 
Dalton, — the subsequently famous teacher of physiology, 
who taught in the Buffalo Medical College for several 
years, — in 1852; Dr. John Boardman in 1853. The not- 
able accessions of 1854 were more numerous, including Dr. 
Thomas F. Rochester, who held a place of great eminence 
in the city, as a physician and as a citizen, for thirty-three 
years; Dr. Sanford B. Hunt, who succeeded Dr. Flint in 
the editorship of the Buffalo Medical Journal, and who 
became editor of the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser a few 
years later; Dr. C. C. F. Gay, one of the most skillful and 
successful surgeons of the day, and Dr. Edward Storck, 
whose uncommon energies were exercised in many fields. 



ERIE COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY 1 85 

Surgery, as practiced and as taught in Buffalo, was 
strengthened greatly in 1855 by the acquisition of Dr. Julius 
F. Miner. Dr. Austin Flint, Jr., came in 1857, taking the 
professorship of physiology at the Medical College, and the 
editorship of the Medical Journal in the next year. Dr. 
William H. Mason succeeded to the same professorship in 
i860, in which year Dr. John Cronyn, from Canada, became 
resident in the city, and Dr. Leon F. Harvey was received 
to membership in the County Society. Drs. Thomas 
Lothrop (afterwards Superintendent of Schools) and Elias 
S. Bissell joined it in 1861 ; S. W. Wetmore, in 1863 ; Joseph 
C. Greene and U. C. Lynde, in 1864; F. W. Bartlett, in 
1865; F. W. Abbott and William C. Phelps, in 1866; 
Conrad Diehl (afterwards Mayor), Milton G. Potter and 
Byron H. Daggett, in 1867; Henry R. Hopkins, in 1868; 
M. B. Folwell and A. H. Briggs, in 1870; P. W. Van 
Peyma, in 1872; Joseph Fowler, in 1873; Bernard Bartow, 
Edward N. Brush, W. H. Slacer, L. A. Long, in 1874; 
Lucien Howe, John A. Pettit, Philip Sonneck, E. B. Potter, 
in 1875; Herman Mynter, S. S. Greene, Samuel G. Dorr, in 
1876; C. O. Chester, H. M. Wernecke, Mary J. Moody 
(the first woman admitted), in 1877; Charles Cary, in 1878; 
A. E. Davidson, in 1879; Charles G. Stockton, in 1880; 
Judson B. Andrews (in charge of the State Hospital for the 
Insane), Benjamin H. Grove, Frederick Peterson, W. C. 
Barrett, J. B. Coakley, in 1881 ; Matthew D. Mann, W. W. 
Potter, Carlton C. Frederick, Clayton M. Daniels, Irving 
M. Snow, Walter D. Greene, Floyd S. Crego, in 1882; 
James W. Putnam, Frank H. Potter, Alvin A. Hubbell, 
John H. Pryor, Herman E. Hayd, Eli H. Long, George E. 
Fell, Willis G. Gregory, in 1883; Roswell Park (now a 
surgeon of more than national fame), F. A. Witthaus, Wil- 
liam Meisberger, B. G. Long, Carlton R. Jewett, William 
H. Thornton, Stephen Y. Howell, Herbert Mickle, in 



1 86 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

1884; John Parmenter, F. W. Hinkel, C. F. Howard, in 
1885; DeLancey Rochester, J. W. Grosvenor, William C. 
Callanan, Thomas Crowe, Arthur W. Hurd, Elmer Starr, 
in 1886; Harry A. Wood, Julius Pohlman, in 1887; Ernest 
Wende (subsequently the notable organizer of the Health 
Department of the city), H. G. Matzinger, W. S. Renner, 
Charles E. Congdon, William H. Heath, in 1888; Electa 
B. Whipple, in 1889; A. L. Benedict, M. A. Crockett, 
Sydney A. Dunham, in 1890. 

To follow the records of the Erie County Medical Society 
further would bring us into the younger generation of 
medical men whose reputations and standing are consid- 
erably undetermined, and from among whom it would be 
more hazardous than from earlier lists to attempt a selection 
of prominent names. 

In 1 83 1 and 1836 attempts were made to form a Buffalo 
Medical Society, distinct from the County organization, but 
they had no lasting success. In 1845, however, the Buffalo 
Medical Association came into existence and lived through 
nearly half a century. It gave way in 1892 to the Bufifalo 
Academy of Medicine, in which several other more special- 
ized associations — obstetrical, pathological and clinical — 
were united, becoming a group of sections under one admin- 
istration. The Academy has had a prosperous history since. 

In 1859 the Homeopathic system of medicine had ac- 
quired fifteen practitioners in Bufifalo and the villages of 
the county, and they organized the Erie County Homeo- 
pathic Medical Society. They had won their footing 
against bitter opposition, in a struggle which had then been 
in progress for fifteen years or more. The pioneer of the 
struggle had been Dr. N. H. Warner, who settled in Bufifalo 
as a practitioner of the older school of medicine, having 
charge of the Marine Hospital, about 1836. Becoming a 
convert to the medical doctrines of Hahnemann, Dr. 



HOMEOPATHIC MEDICAL SOCIETY 1 87 

Warner committed himself definitely to a practice in ac- 
cordance with them in 1844. For doing so he was expelled 
from the County Medical Society and suffered professional 
ostracism thenceforth. But he gained a supporting cli- 
entage and began, in a few years, to have comrades in the 
battle for Homeopathy. Dr. George W. Lewis came into 
the ranks in 1849, and was followed in the course of the next 
ten years by Drs. P. W. Gray, Dio Lewis, G. H. Blanchard, 
Simon Z. Haven, A. H. Beers, A. S. Hinckley, L. M. Ken- 
yon, A. R. Wright. These were among the organizers of 
the County Homeopathic Medical Society, of which Dr. 
Haven was the first president. Prominent accessions in sub- 
sequent years to the corps of Homeopathic practitioners in- 
cluded Drs. Nehemiah Osborne, Rollin R. Gregg, Augustus 
C. Hoxsie, J. W. Wallace, H. N. Martin, G. C. Hibbard, 
Lyman Bedford, Alexander T. Bull, Hubbard Foster, 
Henry Baethig, George F. Foote, S. N. Brayton, Joseph T. 
Cook, George T. Moseley, F. Park Lewis, D. B. Stumpf, 
Truman J. Martin, B. J. Maycock, A. M. Curtiss, John 
Miller, H. C. Frost, E. P. Hussey, D. G. Wilcox, W. H. 
Marcy, G. R. Stearns, George P. Critchlow, Clarence L. 
Hyde, C. W. Seaman, C. M. Kendrick, Jessie Shepard, 
Rose Wilder. 



CHAPTER VIII 

LOCAL LITERATURE— THE NEWSPAPER 
PRESS 

THOSE who aspire to a literary career are drawn, in all 
countries, by many attractions of opportunity and 
widened experience, to the largest centers of activity 
and concentrated life. London in Great Britain, Paris in 
France, New York in America, are more engrossingly the 
seats of productive work in literature and in all of the 
higher forms of art than of any which has to do with the 
production of more material things. Edinburgh could hold 
its ground for a time against London, as a provincial literary 
capital, and Boston could even lead New York in the output 
of letters during many years; but both gave way in the end 
to the pull of the bigger social mass. Hence, naturally, 
other cities have made but a modest showing in the history 
of American literature. 

Buffalo can claim, however, a yield in letters that will 
compare more than favorably with that of other communi- 
ties of its class. It is safe to say that none could supply 
material for a finer collection of local verse than is con- 
tained in a volume representative of "The Poets and Poetry 
of Buffalo," compiled and edited by James N. Johnston and 
published in 1904. The poems, selected from no less than 
one hundred and thirteen writers, fill four hundred and 
sixty-two octavo pages of print. An unborrowed true 
poetic quality is deniable to very few of them, if to any. In 
a surprisingly large number the unmistakable voice of in- 
spired thought, feeling and imagination speaks thrillingly 
to the reader's spirit and melodiously to his ear. Perhaps 
that pure strain of inspiration is felt most distinctly in the 

188 



LOCAL AUTHORSHIP 1 89 

verse of David Gray, Robert Cameron Rogers, Dr. William 
Bull Wright, Annie R. Annan (Mrs. William H. Glenny), 
Amanda T. Jones, James N. Johnston; but it is hazardous 
to draw lines of distinction between the singers in a group 
which includes Arthur Cleveland Coxe, Anson G. Chester, 
Irving Browne, Frederic Almy, Dr. Frederick Peterson, 
Carleton Sprague, Philip Becker Goetz, Charlotte Becker, 
Rev. Patrick Cronyn, Katherine E. Conway, Bessie 
Chandler (Mrs. Leroy Parker), Mary Ripley, Mary E. 
Mixer, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Olmsted, William Mcintosh, 
Henry R. Rowland, Frank H. Severance, John Harrison 
Mills, Jabez Loton, Mrs. H. E. G. Arey, Julia Ditto 
Young. 

In prose writing, even if books only are considered, the 
local product has been too abundant for more than a partial 
cataloguing of authors' names. More or less important 
contributions to History and Biography have been made, 
first and last, by Judge Samuel Wilkeson, O. H. Marshall, 
William Ketchum, Rev. Dr. John C. Lord, W. L. G. 
Smith, Jesse Clement, Crisfield Johnson, General A. W. 
Bishop, John Harrison Mills, Orton S. Clark, George H. 
Stowits, Daniel G. Kelly, C. W. Boyce, Frank Wilkeson, 
General James C. Strong, E. G. Spaulding, William Dor- 
sheimer, Charles C. Deuther, Bishop John Timon, E. Carle- 
ton Sprague, Henry Tanner, Rev. Thomas Donohoe, Rev. 
Sanford Hunt, Rev. Professor Guggenberger, F. H. 
Severance, George S. Potter, Rev. William B. Wright, F. 
J. Shepard, Samuel M. Welch, Jr., L. G. Sellstedt, Judge 
Truman C. White, Robert Pennel, D. S. Alexander, J. N. 
Larned. 

Books of Travel have been written by Horace Briggs, 
Bishop Coxe, F. S. Dellenbaugh, Henry P. Emerson, Mrs. 
E. A. Forbes, Josiah Letchworth, Charles Linden, James 
N. Matthews, O. G. Steele, Charles Wood. 



190 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

In Medical and Surgical Science works receiving more 
than pamphlet publication have been written by Drs. A. L. 
Benedict, F. E. Campbell, Austin Flint, F. E. Fronczak, 
C. C. F. Gay, F. H. Hamilton, Lucien Howe, F. Park 
Lewis, M. D. Mann, Herman Mynter, Roswell Park, R. V. 
Pierce, James P. White. On other subjects of Science the 
local writers have included Lewis F. Allen, Albert H. 
Chester, E. E. Fish, R. W. Haskins, D. S. Kellicott, 
Charles Linden, A. R. Grote. 

On subjects in the domain of Politics, Sociology, Law 
and Education the published books include writings by Al- 
bert Brisbane, James O. Putnam, Grover Cleveland, Wil- 
liam P. Letchworth, Irving Browne, Mrs. H. E. G. Arey, 
Rev. S. H. Gurteen, Charles Ferguson, E. C. Mason, E. C. 
Townsend, Charles P. Norton, W. H. Hotchkiss, W. C. 
Cornwell, Leroy Parker, James F. Gluck, Robert 
Schweckerath, Frederick A. Wood, H. E. Montgomery. 

Religious literature has had many contributors from our 
city, among them Bishops Timon, Ryan and Coxe, Rever- 
ends Henry A. Adams, C. C. Albertson, G. H. Ball, Gott- 
fried Berner, J. L. Corning, J. P. Egbert, W. F. Faber, 
R. S. Green, C. E. Locke, John C. Lord, S. S. Mitchell, J. 
A. Regester, Montgomery Schuyler, Thomas R. Slicer, S. 
R. Smith, Henry Smith, J. Hyatt Smith, M. L. R. P. 
Thompson, J. B. Wentworth, William B. Wright, George 
Zurcher. Other religious writings hare come from the 
pens of James H. Fisher, E. C. Randall, Mrs. C. H. Wood- 
ruff, Mary Martha Sherwood. 

In fiction, the books catalogued at the Bufifalo Public 
Library as being of local authorship are by George Berner, 
Allen G. Bigelow, J. E. Brady, Bessie Chandler (Mrs. 
Leroy Parker), Jane G. Cooke, H. L. Everett, Mrs. Gilder- 
sleeve-Longstreet, David Gray, Jr., George A. Hibbard, W. 
T. Hornaday, Elbert Hubbard, James H. W. Howard, 



THE NEWSPAPER PRESS 191 

Carrie F. Judd, William F. Kip, H. T. Koerner, J. H. Lan- 
gille, Mrs. E. B. Perkins (Susan Chestnutwood) , Mrs. 
Charles Rohlfs (Anna Katherine Green), Robert Cameron 
Rogers, W. L. G. Smith (who tried in 1852 to stem the effect 
of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" by a different picture of slavery), 
G. A. Stringer, Dorothy Tanner (Mrs. Montgomery), D. 
E. Wade, Ida Worden Wheeler, O. Witherspoon, George 
A. Woodward, Julia Ditto Young. 

"Art in Buffalo" is the subject of a recently published 
history by the veteran artist, Lars G. Sellstedt, and an im- 
portant contribution to the literature of Art was made 
some years ago in Willis O. Chapin's illustrated work on 
the Masters and Masterpieces of Engraving. A book on 
Landscape Gardening by E. A. Long, and one on Floricul- 
ture by W. Scott, seem to complete the tale of local litera- 
ture in the department of Art. 

Neither interest nor importance could be given to an 
account of everything in journalism that has been under- 
taken in Buffalo since types and press were first brought to 
it. The wrecked ventures have been numerous; the sur- 
vivals for any considerable period have been few. The 
latter only will be recounted, as a rule, though exceptional 
interest may occasionally be found in the circumstances of 
a wreck. 

Among the newspapers now published in Buffalo the 
Commercial Advertiser and the Courier represent long lines 
of descent, that of the former going back to the first two 
printing presses that were operated at this extremity of the 
State of New York. The earliest of those presses to arrive 
was brought from Canandaigua, in 181 1, by the brothers, 
Smith H. and Hezekiah A. Salisbury, who began at once the 
publication of a small weekly paper, the Buffalo Gazette, 
the first number of which was issued on the 3d of October in 
that year. Nearly full files of the Gazette, preserved in 



192 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

the Buffalo Public Library and the Buffalo Historical 
Society, are among the most precious records of early local 
history that we possess, notwithstanding the meagreness of 
its reporting of the village news. The printing equipment 
of the Salisburys was saved from the destructive invaders 
of December, 1813, by its timely removal to Harris Hill, 
where the publication of the Gazette went on for some time. 

Smith H. Salisbury was the editor of the Buffalo Gazette 
until January, 1818, when he transferred his interest in the 
paper to William A. Carpenter ; but Carpenter sold it in the 
following April to H. A. Salisbury, who renamed his paper 
the Buffalo Patriot in 1820. On the first of January, 1835, 
the publication of a daily newspaper, in association with the 
Patriot, was begun at the office of the latter, its editor being 
Guy H. Salisbury, son of Smith H. This was the Daily 
Commercial Advertiser, which thus traces its parentage to 
the primitive press of the city. Four years later the Com- 
mercial Advertiser added to this relationship with our most 
ancient journalism another tie, by happenings as follows : 

A second weekly newspaper had been founded at Buffalo 
in 1815 by David M. Day. Its original title, the Niagara 
Journal, was changed to the Buffalo Journal in 1820, when 
Erie County was separated from Niagara County, and under 
that name it was published by Mr. Day, in association dur- 
ing part of the time with Roswell W. Haskins and Oran 
Follett, until 1834. Then it was sold to a Colonel Roberts, 
who attempted to publish with it an ambitious Daily Ad- 
vertiser, which lived no longer than six weeks. In the next 
year the Journal was suspended, and Mr. Day, who had 
started a new weekly, the Buffalo Whig, bought back its 
title and added it to that of his Whig. Soon afterwards he 
took Mitchenor Cadwallader and Dr. Henry R. Stagg into 
partnership, and the new firm started a daily Buffalo 
Journal, in February, 1836. From this connection Mr. 



THE NEWSPAPER PRESS 1 93 

Day retired in 1837, and the establishment, with its news- 
papers, was bought by Elam R. Jewett, in the fall of 1838. 
Meantime, changes had occurred in the ownership of the 
Patriot and the Daily Commercial Advertiser. In Janu- 
ary, 1836, Bradford A. Manchester had bought one-half of 
the establishment, and, six months later, H. A. Salisbury 
retired from business. Dr. Thomas M. Foote, who had 
been connected editorially with the daily for a short time, 
and Guy H. Salisbury, then became associated with Mr. 
Manchester in the publication. In the summer of 1838 they 
were joined by Almon M. Clapp, who had been publishing 
a weekly paper at East Aurora for three years past, and who 
now merged it in the Patriot, becoming one of the editors 
and proprietors of the Commercial Advertiser and the 
Patriot. Soon after this Mr. Manchester withdrew from 
the business, and, in May, 1839, Messrs. Salisbury and 
Clapp sold their interests to Dr. Foote and Elam R. Jewett, 
the latter of whom, as noted above, had become the pro- 
prietor of the Daily Journal. That newspaper was now 
merged in the Commercial Advertiser, which acquired, 
under the proprietorship of E. R. Jewett & Co., the substan- 
tial footing it has since maintained. 

If lineage is traced back through weekly progenitors, the 
pedigree of the Commercial Advertiser is unrivalled; but 
the Courier finds somewhat earlier parentage in a daily 
publication. Its primary ancestor was a weekly paper, the 
Buffalo Republican, started in 1828 by William P. M. 
Wood, from whom it passed through several hands in the 
next half dozen years, until it became the property of 
Charles Faxon, who bought, furthermore, from James 
Faxon, a daily newspaper, the Star, which the latter had 
undertaken in the summer of 1831. The Star, daily, and 
the Republican, weekly, were published by Charles Faxon 
until late in 1838, when, after going through a disastrous 



194 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

fire, he sold them to Quartus Graves. Graves, in turn, sold 
the establishment in 1842 to Henry Burwell, who changed 
the title of the daily paper to the Mercantile Courier and 
Democratic Economist. The next purchaser, Joseph 
Stringham, cut the title down to Mercantile Courier, and 
carried on both publication and editorship of the paper for 
several years. 

Meantime, Bradford A. Manchester and James O. 
Brayman had started another daily newspaper, the National 
Pilot, and this, on the ist of July, 1846, was united with the 
Mercantile Courier, -which then became the Buffalo Courier 
of the present day. In the editorial conduct of the several 
publications which came to this union, a number of notable 
citizens had taken part at various times. Horatio Gates, 
Israel T. Hatch, Henry K. Smith, Stephen Albro, R. W. 
Haskins, were of the list. Through all changes its stand, 
politically, was on the Democratic side. 

Compared with the Commercial and the Courier, the 
Buffalo Morning Express is young; compared with the re- 
maining "dailies" of the present time in the city it is old. It 
was planted on entirely new foundations in 1846, by Almon 
M. Clapp and Rufus Wheeler, and its first editor was James 
McKay. William E. Robinson, T. N. Parmalee and Seth 
C. Hawley were successive editors until about 1852, when 
Mr. Clapp, previously engaged with Mr. Wheeler in the 
business management, took the editorial direction of the 
paper on himself. About this time, or not long afterward, 
James N. Matthews became a partner in the job printing 
business connected with the newspaper publication, and 
raised it to importance very soon by his rare capabilities. 
Printing, to Mr. Matthews, was an art, and he led the de- 
velopment of it as such in Buffalo, from the day that the 
management of a printing establishment came into his 
hands. Until i860 the Express and the allied printing 



.8V/3HTTA I i 

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njR-AL EVOLL HON 

> Quartus Graves. Graves, in turn, sold 

1 t in 1842 to Henry Burwell, who changed 

. u daily paper to the Mercantile Courier and 

,'it Economist. The next purchaser, Joseph 

^ i im, cut the title down to Mercantile Courier, and 

. arned on both publication and editorship of the paper for 

«everal years. 

Meantime, Bradford A. Manchester and James O. 
Brayman had started another daily newspaper, the National 
Pilot, and this, on the ist of July, 1846, was united with the 
Mercantile Courier, which then became the Buffalo Courier 
of tf .'\ In the editorial conduct of the several 

puh 'JAMBStNrliMAiFYriHEWSjLimber of notable 

Printer and publisher; born Bangai% t:ounfy-ot^u#o*lli;'^'^*' 
England, November 21, 1828; came to thfe United' Stafe ^^'■ 
in 1846 ; married Harriet Wells of Westfield, N. Y., July 24, "' 
1851 ; was employed in various printing offices in Buffalo, 
1846-60; was editor and one of the publishers of the Com- ■ 
mercial Advertiser, 1860-77 ; a delegate-at-large to the Re- 
publican national conventions of 1872 and 1876; published '^^' 
>:-' the Buffalo Express from Janiiai-y 7, ' ife^S.^itiMy hls^^^^'; ^ ^ 
was jdied December ;2o, 1888^ \* tmndations in 1846, by Almon 
M. Clapp and Rutus Wheeler, and its first editor was James 
McKay. William E. Robinson, T. N. Parmalee and Seth 
C. Hawley were successive editors until about 1852, when 
Mr Clapp, previously engaged with Mr. Wheeler m the 
bus;!!c-? maiiaeement, took the editorial direction of the 
'! About this time, or not long afterward, 
\.s became a partner in the job printing 
• spaper publication, and 
by his rare capabilities. 
Printing, io A a art, and he led the de- 

velopment of II >. from the day that the 

management of .j j >*ishment came into his 

hands. Until i860 jnd the allied printing 




JJ.}lCa2^ 



THE NEWSPAPER PRESS 195 

establishment remained under this organization. Then a 
rupture of harmonious relations occurred. Mr. Wheeler 
parted company with Mr. Clapp, and formed a partnership 
soon afterwards with Joseph Candee and James D. Warren, 
in the firm of Rufus Wheeler & Co., which bought the 
Commercial Advertiser and its printing outfit. 

One previous change in the proprietorship of the Com- 
mercial had occurred since it passed into the hands of Mr. 
Jewett and Dr. Foote, in 1839. In 1850 they had associated 
C. F. S. Thomas and S. H. Lathrop with themselves in the 
printing department of the business, and in 1855 had sold 
their whole interest, the newspaper included, to those gen- 
tlemen; but the property had returned a few years later to 
Mr. Jewett. Dr. Foote, meantime, had been enjoying some 
years of diplomatic experience, as Charge d'Ajfaires at 
Bogota and Vienna. He died in February, 1858. His 
successors for a period in the editorship of the Commercial 
Advertiser were E. Peshine Smith, Professor Ivory Cham- 
berlain, afterwards editorial writer on the New York 
Herald, Dr. Sanford B. Hunt and Anson G. Chester. 

Mr. Candee retired from the firm of Rufus Wheeler & 
Co. in 1862, and Mr. Matthews, dissolving his partnership 
with Mr. Clapp, then entered it, the firm name becoming 
Wheeler, Matthews & Warren, until the retirement of Mr. 
Wheeler (followed soon by his death) in the spring of 1865. 
The firm was then Matthews & Warren, and Mr. Matthews 
assumed the chief editorship of the paper, Mr. William E. 
Foster beginning not long after, as associate editor, his long 
editorial connection with the Commercial Advertiser. 
After twelve years of association, Messrs. Matthews & 
Warren dissolved partnership in 1877, the latter buying the 
interest of the former, who, thereupon, purchased the 
Express. The Commercial Advertiser establishment has 
remained the property of Mr. Warren and his family to 



196 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

the present time. At his death, in 1886, the management 
passed to his eldest son, Orsamus G., who died in May, 1892. 
The business is now conducted by William C. Warren, 
Mr. Foster has been the editor of the paper since Mr. Mat- 
thews withdrew, and Mr. Frank M. Hollister has been 
associated with him for many years. 

In the years between the separation of Mr. Wheeler and 
Mr. Matthews from Mr. Clapp and the purchase of the 
Express by Mr. Matthews in 1877, that newspaper and 
printing establishment had undergone several changes. 
Mr. Clapp took his son, H. H. Clapp, into partnership with 
himself in the newspaper department of the business. After 
the withdrawal of Mr. Matthews from the printing depart- 
ment, in 1862, or early in 1863, several persons were joined 
in interest with the latter business for short periods during 
the next few years. In the newspaper the editorial 
associates of Mr. Clapp, from the time he assumed the pen, 
were, successively, Anson G. Chester, George W. Haskins, 
David Wentworth and J. N. Lamed. For a short time in 
1860-61, after his resignation from the Commercial Adver- 
tiser and before he entered the medical service of the army, 
Dr. Sanford B. Hunt had an editorial connection with the 
Express. 

In 1866 the Express property and business were con- 
veyed to an incorporated Express Printing Company, in 
which A. M. Clapp, H. H. Clapp, J. N. Larned, Colonel 
George H. Selkirk and Thomas A. Kennett held equal 
shares. Two years later Mr. A. M. Clapp received the ap- 
pointment of Congressional Printer, which required his 
withdrawal from private interests in the business of print- 
ing, and the shares of himself and his son were sold to the 
remaining members of the company. In the next year Mr. 
Kennett's shares were bought by Samuel L. Clemens (Mark 
Twain), and the readers of the Express enjoyed some of the 



THE NEWSPAPER PRESS 1 97 

best of Mr. Clemens' humorous sketches at first hands, while 
the editorial staff of the paper had the pleasure of his rare 
companionship and assistance, for about a year. He then 
sold his interest to Colonel Selkirk; and, in 1872, a majority 
of the shares of the Express Printing Company were bought 
by the proprietors of the Commercial Advertiser. After 
some further changes in the ownership, the whole property 
was bought in 1877, as stated above, by James N. Matthews, 
who proceeded to build upon it the notably prosperous 
structure of business, which he left, on his death in Decem- 
ber, 1888, to his son, George E. Matthews. 

In the business and the editorial management Mr. Mat- 
thews had equal success. The printing establishment, 
which he created, is one of the most notable in America, 
especially in the finer departments of the art. In color 
printing it has few rivals; in map-drawing and printing, 
almost none. The latter branch of its large and varied busi- 
ness has been developed from an establishment of relief line 
engraving which was founded originally by Elam R. 
Jewett, the former proprietor of the Commercial Adver- 
tiser. From Mr. Jewett this passed to Henry Chandler & 
Co., and thence to William P. Northrup & Co., from whom 
it came into union with the printing establishment of Mr. 
Matthews. 

On the death of J. N. Matthews his son took into partner- 
ship two members of his father's previous staff, James W. 
Greene and Charles E. Austin, organizing the firm of 
George E. Matthews & Co., which conducted the business 
until April, 1901. Then the J. N. Matthews Company 
was formed, under which designation the whole business 
is included, but with two organizations, namely that of The 
Buffalo Express and that of the Matthews-Northrup 
Works. The officers of the company are George E. Mat- 
thews president, William P. Northrup vice-president, 



198 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

George E. Burrows treasurer, Edward A. Kendrick secre- 
tary. In the editorial organization of the Express James 
W. Greene is editor-in-chief, M. M. Wilner assistant gen- 
eral editor, Brayton Nichols editor of the Illustrated Ex- 
press (Sunday). It should be said, by the way, that the 
Illustrated Express, established in 1883, has a wide circula- 
tion in the United States and Canada. On the business side 
of the newspaper organization William M. Ramsdell is 
publisher; James A. Pierce is general superintendent of the 
Matthews-Northrup Works. 

Returning now to the annals of the Courier, which were 
left at the point of time, in 1846, when it absorbed the A^'a- 
tional Pilot, we find that Mr. Stringham soon sold his 
interest to Messrs. Manchester & Brayman, and that Guy 
H. Salisbury was associated with Mr. Brayman in the con- 
duct of the paper editorially. But in 1849 the whole estab- 
lishment was bought by W. A. Seaver, who became both 
publisher and editor for the next few years. In 1857 James 
H. Sanford acquired an interest, and in the next year the 
important connection of Joseph Warren with the Courier, 
which had begun in 1854, when he was engaged as local 
editor or reporter, became fixed by his joining Gilbert K. 
Harroun in a purchase of the interest which Mr. Seaver 
had retained. The firm then formed, of Sanford, Warren 
& Harroun, was changed in a few years to Joseph Warren 
& Co., Messrs. Sanford and Harroun dropping out and 
being succeeded by Milo Stevens, William C. Horan and 
David Gray. 

David Gray entered the Courier staff in i860, as Mr. 
Warren had done six years before, in the capacity of a 
local reporter. He brought to the service of journalism in 
Buffalo the finest literary gifts that have ever adorned its 
work. Mr. Warren had brought talents as much needed, 
but of a different kind. He was an excellent writer, but 



THE NEWSPAPER PRESS 1 99 

more marked by his capacity for dealing with men in public 
affairs. He not only made himself and the Courier politi- 
cal powers, and succeeded naturally to the late Dean Rich- 
mond in the leadership of the Democratic party in Western 
New York, but he exercised a singularly quiet force in 
promoting local movements of public enterprise, such as 
gave us our Park System, our City and County Hall, our 
State Hospital, and much besides. The combination of 
Mr. Warren's force with Mr. Gray's charm was an exceed- 
ingly happy one for the Courier. 

About i860 or 1 861 an evening paper, the Republic, 
which had had a precarious existence since 1847, was 
merged in the Courier, as an afternoon edition of the latter, 
having the name of the Evening Courier and Republic. 
The Republic had been started by an association of printers, 
and never acquired a stable footing. Guy H. Salisbury, 
who had become a man of substantial means in the real estate 
business, was induced to take it in hand for the helping of 
friends, and was reduced near to poverty in his last years 
by the drain on his moderate estate. Its editor for a num- 
ber of years was Cyrenius C. Bristol, who succeeded Ben- 
jamin C. Welch. Henry W. Faxon, famed as a humorist 
in his day, and especially as the author of "The Silver Lake 
Snake Hoax," was the city editor of the Republic in its 
later years. In 1858, and until he went to the Express in 
the spring of 1859, the present writer was associated with 
Mr. Bristol in the general editorship of the paper. Thomas 
Kean became connected with the Republic a little later, and 
went with it when it passed under the control of the pro- 
prietors of the Courier. 

In 1869 the business of Joseph Warren & Co. was united 
with that of the printing house of Howard & Johnson, and 
the whole incorporated in the Courier Company, Mr. War- 
ren being its president, James M. Johnson vice-president, 



200 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Ethan H. Howard treasurer, Milo Stevens secretary. The 
printing establishment thus organized became one of great 
magnitude and importance, and holds its rank to the present 
day, especially in the line of large pictorial poster printing 
for theatres, menageries and the like. In September, 1876, 
Mr. Warren died, and William G. Fargo, who had become 
a considerable stockholder in the Courier Company, and 
was already its vice-president, succeeded to the presidency. 
Mr. Gray, who had been managing editor of the newspaper, 
became editor-in-chief. His health was broken by the 
labors of the next few years, and he was forced to resign in 
the fall of 1882. He was succeeded by Joseph O'Connor, 
who had been his associate during the previous two years. 
In 1885 Mr. Edwin Fleming, who had been the representa- 
tive and correspondent of the Courier in Washington since 
1877, was called to the editorial chair and filled it ably for 
the next twelve years. 

In 1880 Mr. Charles W. M'Cune, who had been secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Courier Company since 1874, was 
elected president and held the office till his death, in March, 
1885. George Bleistein, previously secretary, then became 
president, and is so at the present time. On the 6th of May, 
1897, the Courier, detached from the printing establishment 
of the Courier Company and from its whole former staff, 
was sold to William J. Conners and consolidated with the 
Buffalo Record, which Mr. Conners had been publishing 
since the previous year. The business of the Courier Com- 
pany in recent years has included no newspaper publication. 

The first successful Sunday paper in Buffalo was the 
Sunday Morning News, founded by Edward H. Butler in 
1873. The success of Mr. Butler in his first venture en- 
couraged him, in 1880, to undertake a daily publication, the 
Evening News, a one cent paper from the beginning, which 
has been even more of a success. Under the control of Mr. 



THE NEWSPAPER PRESS 201 

Butler as proprietor and editor-in-chief, with William Mc- 
intosh as managing editor and J. A. Butler as business 
manager, the News has had a remarkably prosperous 
career. 

A somewhat similar course of success in journalism has 
been run in connection with the founding of the Buffalo 
Sunday Times, in 1879, by Norman E. Mack. He, too, 
was soon encouraged to attempt a daily publication, and did 
so in 1883, issuing the Daily Times as a morning paper 
until 1887, when it was changed to an afternoon paper, at 
the penny price, with improved success. 

The present rivals of the Times as a Democratic organ 
are the two journals, morning and evening, now controlled 
by William J. Conners. The purchase of the Courier by 
Mr. Conners has been related above. He had previously, 
in 1895, acquired the Enquirer, an evening paper started 
in 1 89 1, and had established it, with an excellent equipment, 
under the able editorship of Joseph O'Connor; but Mr. 
O'Connor had not remained long in the chair. In 1896 
Mr. Conners had launched a morning issue, first as a morn- 
ing edition of the Enquirer, but soon independently, under 
the name of the Buffalo Record. On obtaining the Courier 
he consolidated it with the Record, the title becoming 
Courier-Record. This hyphenated title was abandoned, 
however, on the ist of January, 1898, and the old name of 
the Buffalo Courier was restored. Mr. Fleming, the for- 
mer editor of the Courier, returned to it as editorial writer 
in January, 1906. 

As early as 1837 a weekly newspaper in the German lan- 
guage, Der Weltbuerger, was undertaken by a German book- 
seller in the city, George Zahm, and got root sufficiently to 
live sixteen years independently, and then enter into union 
with a younger journal which is still prosperous in life. 
The next German paper was a product of the political cam- 



202 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

paign of 1840. It was a Whig organ, named the Volks- 
freund, published weekly, and it outlived the excitements of 
the Harrison canvass a very short time. In 1845 the Tele- 
graph was established as a weekly by H. B. Miller, who 
formed a partnership presently with Philip H. Bender. 

In that year, too. Dr. F. C. Brunck and Jacob Domedian 
bought the Weltbuerger from the estate of George Zahm. 
Three years later, in the presidential campaign of 1848, a 
German advocate of the Free Soil movement, called the 
Freie Demokrat, came out. This became the property of 
Frederick Held in 1850, and he converted it into a daily 
newspaper, renaming it the Buffalo Demokrat. In 1853 
the Demokrat and the Weltbuerger were consolidated, 
under the proprietorship of the firm of Brunck, Held & Co., 
with Dr. Brunck in the editorial chair. The paper ac- 
quired a large influence as a Democratic organ, and Mr. 
Brunck was an important personality in the city till his 
death. 

The Buffalo Telegraph was issued daily after 1853. 
Some time later Mr. Bender became the sole proprietor and 
maintained the paper for a number of years, selling it ulti- 
mately to Frederick Geib. Its publication was ended in 
1875. In the meantime another German daily, the Freie 
Presse, had come into existence, supporting the Republican 
party, as the Telegraph had done. It was a development 
from the weekly Allgemeine Zeitung, founded by Frederick 
Reinecke in 1856. The change of name was made in i860, 
when Mr. Reinecke attempted a daily publication, which 
failed of support. On the death of the founder of the 
paper, in 1866, its publication was continued by his son, 
Ottomar Reinecke, who established the daily Freie Presse 
in 1872, with entire success. The proprietors for many 
years past have been Reinecke & Zesch. 

The Volksfreund, the youngest in primary origin of the 



THE NEWSPAPER PRESS 203 

existing German dailies, was established in 1868, under 
Catholic auspices, and Mathias Rohr was its editor for many 
years. 

Polish readers support one daily newspaper in their own 
language, the Polak Amery Kanski, of which Stanislaus 
Slisz is the editor, and three weeklies — the Kuryer Buffa- 
loski, the Gazetta Buffaloska, and a Catholic religious paper 
named Warta. 

One weekly paper is published in the Italian language, 
bearing the title // Corriere Italiano. 

Aside from weekly editions of some of the daily news- 
papers, the oldest of existing weekly publications is the 
Catholic Union and Times, founded under the first of its 
names in 1872, and consolidated with the Catholic Times, 
of Rochester, in 1881. The company which issues it was 
organized by Bishop Ryan. The Rev. Patrick Cronyn, 
LL. D., was the editor from 1873 until his death, in 1907. 

A younger weekly which has obtained a good footing and 
is now in its twelfth volume is Truth, founded by the late 
Mark S. Hubbell, who died in 1908. 



CHAPTER IX 
ART 

IN 1842 there came to Buffalo a young Swede, Lars 
Gustaf Sellstedt, whose life has been identified so 
closely with Art in this city, down to the present day, 
that its annals are better recorded in his retentive memory 
than in any other repository. He was twenty-three years 
old when he came. Two forces were in his nature, one im- 
pelling him to the service of Art, the other to the adven- 
turous life of the sea. Thus far the latter had prevailed, 
and he had roved the world as a sailor since early youth. 
Coming from the ocean to try seafaring on the Great Lakes, 
he sojourned for a time at the "Sailors' Home," which a 
Bethel Society of ladies from different churches had estab- 
lished on Main Street, near The Dock. There he came 
under fortunate influences which encouraged him to a cul- 
tivation of gifts and tastes that he had always been exer- 
cising, in crude modes of picture-making and carving, and 
which gave him his chief pleasures in life. After a few 
years of indefatigable self-teaching, mostly from books, 
working with brush and pencil through the winter seasons, 
when lake navigation closed, he launched himself boldly at 
last into the career which he pursues at this writing. 

The sources of what will be told here touching the earlier 
appearances of Art in Buffalo are Mr. Sellstedt's delightful 
autobiography, entitled "From Forecastle to Academy," 
published in 1904, and a manuscript record of his recollec- 
tions concerning matters of art,* kindly loaned to the 
writer of this sketch. Naturally the work of the artist woke 
interest and found support in portrait painting first, and in 

* Since expanded by Mr. Sellstedt and published in an interesting volume entitled 
"Art in Buffalo." 

204 




y^TM^ 7~o^^ 



}'! ER IX 

ART 

"I ame to Buffalo a young Swede, Lars 

I "fjistedt, whose life has been identified so 

vvith Art in this city, down to the present day, 

s are better recorded in his retentiye memory 

jther repository. He was twenty-three years 

ame. Two forces were in his nature, one im- 

pc ) the service of Art, the other to the adven- 

tu' he sea. Thus far the latter had prevailed, 

an .0 the world as a sailor since early youth. 

C JO^N'^fl¥&M3<g^^^TftW_41?t! the Great Lakes, 

he •^'|J. urnc ■ " which a 

P i^PiT} Ayr, Scotland, April 11. 1845. .\t the age of sij^ ,. .^v 

caifie with his parents to" America and settled in Caledonia, 
"^in the Province of Ontario. Came to Buffalo in 1876, and 
unformed a partnership with his brother James and Mr. Kent 
ti'.tinder the firm name of Kent & Stewart. Later the Stewart cxei- 
^-ji Brothers became associated with Nelson Holland, under ^fig and 
ifirm name of Holland & Stewart. In 1884 the Stey,«"i g. f-y. 
Brothers purchased the Holland interest : retired from busi- , , 
y^^^ess in 1898. Tohn Th6ni,<;bn S'tewaft died March 7, ^i^oP ^OOkS, 
working vAJth 6;us}i and ptncjl through the v/inter seasons, 
when lake navigation closed, he launched himself boldly at 

; ler 

di . glitful 

Hi to Academy." 

. ,7 w,,.ii>,j^ .,.1 .^v w,d of his recollec- 

Uters of art,* kindly loaned to the 

...; Naturally the work of the artist woke 

und support in portrait painting first, and in 

' .^i'.<'< rx; . ^Ilntnlt lod publiihH in an interesting volume entitled 

■Art it 

204 




^v^ 7o^^^-^^^->^ 



EARLY ARTISTS AND ART 205 

that almost only for a considerable time. It is the testimony 
of Mr. Sellstedt that Art as exhibited in portraiture had 
become very creditably represented in the city when he 
knew it first, partly in paintings brought by incoming 
people from the east, but also in work executed here. 

"The new Buffalonian," he says, "brought from his 
eastern home, besides his kitchen utensils and penates, his 
parlor adornments as well. Thus it was that occasionally 
really excellent works of art were to be seen in their homes. 
Even in the parlor of the 'Sailors' Home' hung a fine por- 
trait by Gilbert Stuart, of the landlord, an old sea captain 
from Massachusetts, who had been, in his youth, a pupil of 
that great master of portrait painting." He adds that, be- 
fore their destruction by fire, in the old City Building, there 
were many fine portraits of the early makers of Bufifalo who 
had been mayors. Many of them were painted by A. G. D. 
Tuthill, an Englishman, who had studied under Benjamin 
West. Others were by a painter named Jackson, whose 
portraits, says Mr. Sellstedt, were recognizable by their 
harshness of outline and minute attention to dress and detail. 
Some were by Mr. Carnot Carpenter. One or two, painted 
by William John Wilgus, were superior to all the rest. 
None of the painters mentioned were to be classed "with the 
common limners who perambulated the country at the 
time." 

Of Wilgus, who was painting in Buffalo when Mr. Sell- 
stedt came, and who helped him in his studies, he speaks 
with great admiration and love. The two young men were 
of about the same age, but Wilgus had studied for three 
years in the art school of President Morse, of the National 
Academy of New York. The portraits he painted in 
Bufifalo during the few years of his stay in the city, before 
failing health drove him to a southern climate, were greatly 
superior, in Mr. Sellstedt's judgment, to any others painted 



2o6 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

here at the time. Some of his best work was in the por- 
traiture of Cattaraugus Indians, painted at the Reservation, 
and most of this, purchased by Caleb Lyons, of Lyonsdale, 
was burned subsequently by a fire which destroyed that 
gentleman's house. Mr. Wilgus died in his thirty-fourth 
year, in 1853. 

James M. Dickinson, "a very clever miniature painter," 
and the Rev. Benjamin Van Duzee, are other artists of the 
time whom Mr. Sellstedt recalls. In 1847 Thomas Le 
Clear appeared in Buffalo, and began here the career which 
ended at New York in the top-most rank of the portrait 
painters of the day. In 1850 William H. Beard arrived, 
to make Buffalo his home for many years, and to win before 
leaving our city his fame as a painter of animals studied 
with a humorist's eye. Another painter of the period with 
these was Augustus Rockwell, whose work was as popular 
as his personal popularity was great. Others were Mat- 
thew Wilson, an English gentleman, connected by marriage 
with a prominent family in the city, and coming fresh from 
the studio of the famous French painter. Couture; Joseph 
Meeker, a painter of landscapes; a "young and gifted artist 
in genre" named Libby, and a promising pupil of Wilgus, 
named A. B. Nimbs. 

The first art school in Buffalo was opened in these years 
by an old actor, who performed at the same time on the 
stage. His stage name was Andrews, but Mr. Sellstedt 
attributes to him the real name of Isaacs, and an East Indian 
birth. His school drew a large attendance and seems to 
have been a success. At least one vvho has risen to eminence 
in Art — Charles C. Coleman — received his first teaching, as 
a boy, in Andrews' school. 

Occasionally pictures of note were brought to the city for 
show; but until 1861 no attempt had been made to organize 
an exhibition of collected works of art. It was undertaken 



THE ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS 207 

then, in connection with the commemoration of the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the founding of the Young Men's Asso- 
ciation, and with great success. Two hundred and sixty- 
five paintings and eight pieces of statuary were brought 
together, at American Hall, and the attendance attracted 
brought $835 of gross receipts. The net proceeds were 
expended in the purchase of a landscape from the easel of 
George L. Brown. 

From this success came the stimulus of a movement which 
resulted in the organization of the Buffalo Academy of Fine 
Arts, accomplished at a meeting of gentlemen, in the office 
of Mr. Henry W. Rogers, on the nth of November, 1862. 
Those present were: Henry W. Rogers, John S. Ganson, 
O. H. Marshall, Rev. Dr. Grosvenor W. Heacock, George 
S. Hazard, John Allen, Jr., Thomas LeClear, L. G. Sell- 
stedt, S. F. Mixer, James M. Smith, Silas H. Fish, H. 
Ewers Tallmadge, Anson G. Chester, and Josiah Humph- 
rey. Mr. Rogers was elected president; Messrs. Hazard 
and Smith, vice-presidents; Mr. Humphrey, correspond- 
ing secretary; Mr. Tallmadge, recording secretary; Mr. 
Allen, treasurer. Mr. Humphrey was from Rochester, and 
represented the owners of a collection of pictures on exhibi- 
tion there. He made proposals for bringing the collection 
to Buffalo, and the new society effected arrangements with 
him which called for the raising of a picture fund of $6,000 
at once. The fund (and more) was raised promptly, in 
contributions of $500 each from thirteen gentlemen, as fol- 
lows: Henry W. Rogers, George S. Hazard, Sherman S. 
Jewett, David S. Bennett, Bronson C. Rumsey, L. C. 
Woodruff, S. V. R. Watson, Charles Ensign, C. J. Wells, 
John Allen, Jr., Pascal P. Pratt, F. H. Root, James Brayley. 
Rooms were secured in the Arcade Building, which stood 
where the Mooney Building stands now; pictures additional 
to the Humphrey collection were obtained by Mr. LeClear 



2o8 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

from New York, and the Academy opened its inaugural 
exhibition on the 23d of December, 1862. In accom- 
plishing this, Buflfalo had become the third city in the coun- 
try to establish a permanent public art gallery, only Boston 
and Philadelphia having done so at that time. It was a per- 
manent achievement, for the institution then founded has 
stood stoutly through many trials, and, after almost half a 
century, is one of the proudest boasts and splendid facts of 
the city. 

The arrangement with Mr. Humphrey proved rather un- 
fortunate, involving the Academy in some purchases of pic- 
tures which it would not have chosen for the expenditure of 
its fund; but its permanent collection started with eleven 
canvases, having good value in the greater part. The first 
gift to it came from Bierstadt, whose "Laramie Peak" it 
had bought. He gave it a choice bit of the beauty of Capri. 
The next donor was Mr. Sellstedt, who presented his por- 
trait of General Bennett Riley. In later years it received 
many gifts. 

For a short time Mr. LeClear was in charge of the 
Gallery; but he removed to New York, and Mr. Sellstedt 
was appointed superintendent, entering, in May, 1863, on a 
service of devotion to it which ran, heedless of discour- 
agements and unsparing of labor and time, through many 
years, till the Academy had grown strong. 

Other artists who made a name in the city within the next 
decade or two were now coming in. John Harrison Mills, 
disabled from further service with the Twenty-first Regi- 
ment by a severe wound, received in the second Battle of 
Bull Run, returned to devote himself to the palette and 
brush. Frederick Noyes entered the Art field in Buffalo at 
about the same time. A little later, by three or four years, 
came Albert N. Samuels, John C. Rother, and Miss Ellen 
K. Baker. Then, about 1870 or '71, Ammi M. Farnham 



THE ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS 209 

and Francis C. Penfold, — who are still seen at intervals 
among us with good work to exhibit, — and Amos M. Sang- 
ster, who died but a little time ago. 

In 1864 the Academy entered, with other institutions, into 
the arrangement with the Young Men's Association which 
secured the St. James Hotel building for their common use. 
Its rooms there, on the fourth and fifth floors, were opened 
on the 1 6th of February, 1865. Mr. Willis O. Chapin, who 
wrote a historical sketch of the Fine Arts Academy in 1899, 
states the truth when he says that these rooms, "although 
spacious and attractive, were up formidable stairs, with 
great danger from fire." They were occupied, however, 
for sixteen years. It was not until 1881 that the slowly ac- 
cumulating art treasures of the Academy were housed more 
safely in the Austin Building, at the corner of Eagle and 
Franklin streets, opposite the City and County Hall. 

Nine years previous to that time, in 1872, the Academy 
had passed the turning point in its affairs. It had been 
struggling, almost against hope, with debt and financial dis- 
couragement for several years, and a vigorous canvass for 
subscriptions to a permanent endowment fund was promis- 
ing slender results, when, suddenly, Mr. Sherman S. Jewett 
raised the sum he had pledged from One Thousand Dollars 
to Ten Thousand. This put new mettle into the movement 
at once. During that year and the next the endowment 
fund was pushed up to something beyond $23,000, and the 
foundation of the Academy was so far solidified that some 
kind of a perpetuation of its existence was ensured. Mr. 
Jewett's gift was set apart as a special fund, for the pur- 
chase of works of art to bear his name. 

By co-operation again with the Young Men's Association 
(changed in name to The Buffalo Library), and with other 
institutions, in the enterprise which created the noble build- 
ing now occupied by The Buffalo Public Library, the 



2IO CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

Academy of Fine Arts was provided in 1887 with a safe and 
capacious Gallery in that edifice, and with accompanying 
rooms. In 1889 Mr. Sellstedt resigned the office of super- 
intendent, in which he had served with unlimited devotion 
for twenty-six years. 

In the fall of 1887 an Art School was opened and con- 
ducted in immediate connection with the Academy until 

1 89 1, when it was united with the Students' Art Club, form- 
ing a distinct institution which took the name of the Art 
Students' League. The League has been a factor of increas- 
ing importance in the local cultivation of art. 

A print department of the Academy was founded in 1891 
by gifts from Dr. Frederick H. James, of his unequalled 
collection of Francis Seymour Haden's etchings, and from 
Willis O. Chapin of his large and fine collection of engrav- 
ings. In 1892 the Buffalo Society of Artists, lately 
founded, received the use of one of the Academy rooms for 
its library, meetings, lectures and exhibitions, and this active 
society has been in association with the Academy ever since. 

A bequest from Mr. Thomas C. Reilly, in 1883, added 
$4,000 to the Academy's funds. Another, from Mrs. Caro- 
line C. Fillmore, in 1885, gave it $5,000 more. A larger 
bequest, of $20,000, from Francis W. Tracy, came to it in 

1892. In the same year $2,000 was left to it on the death 
of the Rev. Frederick Frothingham, and $5,000 by Jonathan 
Scoville when he died. Two years later, by the will of 
John Browning, it received $413; and $5,000 was be- 
queathed to it in 1898 by Dr. Frederick H. James. 

Then, in 1900, came the great gift which has housed the 
Buffalo Academy of Fine Arts more nobly than almost any 
other institution of its character in the land. On the 15th 
of January in that year Mr. John J. Albright, by a modest 
letter to the secretary of the Academy, announced his will- 
ingness to assume the cost of the erection of an appropriate 



THE ALBRIGHT ART GALLERY 211 

building for its use, attaching one condition and one sug- 
gestion to the proposal. As the building, in his judgment, 
should be of white marble, and should be preserved from 
defacement by a smoky atmosphere in the future, he thought 
it proper to ask that a site for it be given by the city at a 
point which he designated in Delaware Park. Then he sug- 
gested that an effort should be made to enlarge considerably 
the endowment of the institution in its permanent funds. 

The response to this munificent offer was what it should 
have been. The site asked for was granted promptly by the 
Park Commissioners, and a vigorous canvass for subscrip- 
tions to the endowment had gratifying results. Local archi- 
tects, Messrs. Green & Wicks, were commissioned to prepare 
designs for the building, and very beautifully they justified 
the important trust. A more perfect example of classic art 
than the building which came from their hands after four 
years of construction is not found on this side of the sea. 
The Albright Art Gallery, as it is named, is a white marble 
structure, two hundred and fifty feet long, north and south, 
and one hundred and fifty feet deep, east and west. Cen- 
trally, its design is based on the Erectheum, at Athens. 
The porches of its two wings are still awaiting the finish 
they are to receive from statuary by St. Gaudens, the model- 
ling of which was the last work of the great sculptor before 
he died. 

On one of the most perfect days that the month of May 
ever gave us (it was the last of her thirty-one) in 1905, the 
beautiful building was dedicated, with ceremonies that 
were fitted to the occasion as exquisitely as was the day. 
They were conducted in open air, between the building and 
the Park Lake which it overlooks, in the sight and hearing 
of a great company of people. Beethoven's chorus, "The 
Heavens are Telling," sung by a choir of male voices from 
five singing societies, the Guido, the Teutonia, the Lieder- 



212 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

kranz, the Saengerbund and the Orpheus, conducted by Pro- 
fessor Parker, of Yale; an address by President Eliot, of 
Harvard; an ode by Arthur Detmers, set to music by Pro- 
fessor Parker ; a poem read by Richard Watson Gilder, of 
New York; a hymn written by Philip B. Goetz, made up a 
program that was flawless in every part. 

In his letter of 1900, which proffered the building, Mr. 
Albright intimated his willingness to expend upon it some 
$300,000 or $350,000. There seems to be little doubt that 
he will have expended, when the statuary still to come is in 
place, not less than double the largest of those sums. 

Besides this splendid property the Academy is now in 
possession of permanent funds to an amount that exceeds 
$235,000. Of these, $95,000 are specifically for the pur- 
chase of pictures, namely: $50,000, by bequest from Miss 
Elizabeth H. Gates; $20,000, by bequest from Albert H. 
Tracy; $10,000, by gift from Sherman S. Jewett; $10,000, 
from Mrs. Sarah A. Gates; $5,000, from Mrs. Charlotte A. 
Watson. 

Since the organization of the Academy its presidents have 
been the following: Henry W. Rogers, 1862-64; George 
S. Hazard, 1864; Sherman S. Jewett, 1865; Eben P. Dorr, 
1866-67; C. F. S. Thomas, 1868; Henry W. Rogers, 1869- 
70; William P. Letchworth, 1871-74; Sherman S. Rogers, 
1875; Lars G. Sellstedt, 1876-77; John Allen, Jr., 1878; 
Josiah Jewett, 1879-80; Dr. Thomas F. Rochester 1881-87; 
Sherman S. Rogers, 1888-89; Ralph H. Plumb, 1889-93; 
Dr. Frederick H. James, 1894; John J. Albright, 1895-97; 
T. Guilford Smith, 1898- 1902; Edmund Hayes, 1903-04; 
Ralph H. Plumb, 1905 (dying early in this term) ; Stephen 
M. Clement, 1905; Carleton Sprague, 1906-7; Willis O. 
Chapin, 1908- 

A Society for Beautifying Buffalo was organized in 1901, 
under the presidency of Dr. Matthew D. Mann. The main 



THE SINGERS OF A CENTURY AGO 213 

objects of its endeavors have been the securing of more 
public and private care for trees ; the promoting of the home 
cultivation of flowers; the suppression of the smoke 
nuisance, and of unsightly billboards and signs; the re- 
moval of overhead wires; the institution of public play- 
grounds for children; the stimulating of interest in the crea- 
tion of worthy monuments, and the organizing of influences 
in favor of true art, wherever public undertakings, in build- 
ing especially, come into touch with art. 

Kindred in aim to this is The Society for Beautifying 
Schools, organized at about the same time. 

An original manuscript document preserved in the library 
of the Bufifalo Historical Society offers the fittest possible 
and most interesting opening to a sketch of the history of 
Music in Buffalo. It is dated on the 29th of March, 1820, 
and its beginning reads as follows: "We, the subscribers, 
desirous of improving the style of singing in this village, and 
feeling that, in order to carry into effect the said object, it 
is necessary to have some rules by which we will be gov- 
erned," — therefore the subscribers join in forming a society, 
to be called the Musica Sacra Society, and adopt by-laws or 
regulations, the ultimate object of which is to give effect to 
the following: 

"It shall be the duty of all the officers of the society to 
inform themselves in the most modern style of performing 
music, and to consult the most eminent writers on the sub- 
ject (of whom we may consider Messrs. Hastings and War- 
riner, editors of the 'Musica Sacra,' at present entitled to 
our particular notice and respect), and shall endeavor by 
all means in their power to introduce into the society the 
style which they, together with the committee, shall ap- 
prove." 

About sixty signatures are appended to this document, 
the names of women being a little the more numerous, and 



214 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

most of them being names that have prominence in many 
connections, in the records of the village life of Buffalo. 
How long the Musica Sacra Society existed, and with what 
improvement of the style of singing in the village its officers 
studied Hastings and Warriner and other eminent writers 
on "the most modern style of performing music," it is not 
likely that we shall ever be informed. 

Apparently the singers of the village in 1820 had no 
teaching available to them, except such as they could obtain 
from books; for James D. Sheppard, who came to Buffalo 
in 1827, is said to have been the first professional musician 
that the town received; and Mr. Sheppard does not seem to 
have come as a teacher. He started a music store, opening 
it first in a corner room of the old Court House, but remov- 
ing it the next year to Main Street, adjoining the Eagle 
Tavern. Later it went to the corner of Main and Niagara 
streets, where it remained until 1857; then, for a single year, 
to Swan Street, near Main, and finally, in 1858, to 269 Main 
Street, where Mr. Sheppard was succeeded in the proprie- 
torship by Messrs. Cottier & Denton. 

From some time between 1830 and 1840 until one of the 
later decades of the century, Mr. C. F. S. Thomas was a 
resident of Buffalo who interested himself in everything 
that had to do with the cultivation or enjoyment of music. 
In 1866 he was persuaded to prepare for the Historical 
Society a paper which he entitled "Discursive Notes on the 
History of Music in Buffalo," and it is probable that no one 
else could have recorded so much on the subject. From the 
manuscript of his Notes, to be found in the archives of the 
Historical Society, some facts of considerable interest can 
be drawn. 

They tell us that Mrs. Walden, in Buffalo, possessed the 
only piano-forte west of Canandaigua in 1812; that the first 
organ in the city was placed in St. Paul's Church in 1829, 



I 



EARLY SINGING SOCIETIES 21 5 

and the second, one in the Unitarian Church, in 1834. 
They name the members of the early church choirs, and 
these are mostly familiar names of the pioneer citizens who 
were active in everything that went on in the town. The 
first musical society of which the writer had found any 
record was the Buffalo Harmonic, formed in 1828, with 
ninety members; but how long it existed is not told. In 
1829 a military band was made up, of raw material, in- 
structed and led by a Mr. Willoughby, who was also the 
musical leader of a Philharmonic Society, organized in 
1830, which had, says Mr. Thomas, "a very lively birth and 
a very quiet death." "From 1830 to 1838," he writes, "we 
do not hear of any movement in the way of an organized 
musical society. Music was very generally cultivated, and 
home concerts as well as professional concerts were well 
attended. * * * Both sacred and secular concerts were 
frequently got up." 

The year 1838 brought the organization of a Buffalo 
Handel and Haydn Society, with Noah P. Sprague for its 
president, Mr. Thomas for its secretary, George W. Hough- 
ton for leader. The meetings of the society were in the 
large room over James D. Sheppard's music store; and it 
is astonishing to be told that nearly one hundred singers 
and an orchestra of nearly fifty took part in a brilliant 
opening performance. Mr. Thomas proceeds to say "that 
this society had a brilliant existence for about two years; 
gave some really excellent concerts; numbered many very 
fine female and male voices; but died out in 1840, in conse- 
quence, it was said, of many of its best members having 
taken to the 'Log Cabin and Hard Cider persuasion,' and 
having entered so enthusiastically into that memorable cam- 
paign as to have entirely lost voice for any other musical 
occupation." Thus the "Harrison Glee Club" seems to 
have wrecked the Handel and Haydn Society, and did not. 



2l6 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

itself, survive the songful political campaign of 1840 very 
long. 

No other musical organization was known to Mr. 
Thomas until 1847, when one appeared which assumed the 
rather high-sounding name of the Buffalo Academy of 
Music. It had a brief life; and, says Mr. Thomas, "musi- 
cal matters, as far as regards associations, were now at a 
standstill." That a concert was given by Jenny Lind in the 
old North Presbyterian Church on the evening of the 30th 
of July, 185 1, is a fact not mentioned by Mr. Thomas. Ex- 
cepting an annual gathering of the musical folk of the town 
at his own house, which went on from 1842 until 1857, he 
has nothing to record until about 1862, when "a number of 
gentlemen associated themselves informally together, ap- 
pointed J. R. Blodgett their leader, and had social practice 
in vocal music. After a while they adopted the name of 
the Continental Singing Society. This association con- 
tinued until about December, 1863, when a new musical 
association was formed under the name of the Saint Cecilia 
Society, and the Continentals joined with the ladies and 
gentlemen constituting that society. They have tastefully 
fitted up a hall, in the Arcade building, for their exclusive 
use; give dress rehearsals about once a month, to which 
only the members and their families are admitted, and cer- 
tainly the Saint Cecilians give more promise of vitality 
than any of their musical predecessors." Mr. Thomas was 
the vice-president of this society, Captain D. P. Dobbins 
its president, Mr. J. R. Blodgett its leader and Mr. Robert 
Denton pianist. 

The Continental Singing Society was not absorbed in the 
St. Cecilia, but maintained its organization of male singers 
for a number of years, giving concerts at intervals, not only 
at home, but quite widely outside; on occasions at Roch- 
ester, Cleveland and Detroit. It celebrated its tenth anni- 



THE GERMAN SINGING SOCIETIES 217 

versary on the 30th of June, 1870, and gave what may have 
been its final concert in November of that year. Either 
then or soon afterward it came to the end of what seems 
to have been a highly creditable career. 

Long before this time, however, a more persisting and 
stably organized cultivation of music had been instituted 
among the Germans of the city. Many had been coming 
from the land of song in the two or three decades before 
the Civil War, and they were soon in such numbers as to 
be able to shape life for themselves in their new home, by 
the institutions and customs of their fatherland, and to take 
on the naturalized feeling of a German-American com- 
munity. That singing societies should arise among them 
as soon as they realized this feeling was a matter of course. 

According to the writer of an anonymous "History of 
the Germans of Buffalo," published by Messrs. Reinecke & 
Zesch in 1898, the first of such societies to appear was or- 
ganized in 1844, but was not maintained very long. Four 
years later a society had birth which now, after sixty years, 
is in vigorous life. This, the Buffalo Liedertafel, had its 
origin at a meeting of singers in the rooms of the German 
Young Men's Association, in the spring of 1848. Its first 
headquarters were at Weimer's Hall, on one of the corners 
of Batavia (Broadway) and Michigan streets. It gave its 
first public concert in Greiner's Hall, Genesee and Jeffer- 
son streets. Professor Carl Adam became its director in 
1852. 

In 1853 ^ second singing society, named the Lieder- 
kraenzchen, was formed by a number of the musical mem- 
bers of the German-American Workingmen's Union ; but 
part of this society withdrew from it and organized the 
Buffalo Saengerbund, under C. W. Braun, in 1855. The 
Saengerbund gave its first concert in Gillig's Hall in the 
fall of that year. Subsequently Mr. Frederick Federlein 



2l8 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

became director, and remained as such until 1886. In 1859 
the eleventh of the Saengerfests of the German Saenger- 
bund of North America was held at Cleveland, and both 
the Liedertafel and the Saengerbund took part in it. At 
the prize singing the Liedertafel won the first prize, a silver 
cup. The next Saengerfest, in July, i860, was held at 
Buffalo, and the New York Central Railroad Company was 
so accommodating as to allow its station on Exchange 
Street to be used for the principal concert, all trains being 
turned out of it for that occasion. The city had no other 
building that would answer the need. 

The Saengerbund gave its first public performance of an 
opera in 1862, and this was followed by home productions 
of German opera at intervals for a number of years. At 
the same time, in this decade of the Civil War and after, 
Buffalo was enjoying quite as much of opera, and of music 
in general, from foreign sources, as it has had in recent 
years; and it was better equipped for the enjoyment, in its 
St. James Hall and the little so-called Opera House of the 
old Brisbane Arcade, than it is with its big barn of a Con- 
vention Hall to-day. Between 1864 and 1867 it had a num- 
ber of brief seasons of Italian opera with Brignoli in the 
tenor parts; and Brignoli was to that generation what Ca- 
ruso is to this. In 1865 it had five continuous nights of 
Italian opera performed by Max Strakosch's company; 
three of German opera by Grover's troupe; four of English 
opera by Campbell and Castle's combination; with three 
nights of operatic concert by Parepa and Carl Rosa, and 
with recitals by Gottschalk and Camilla Urso besides. In 
what recent year have we had richer indulgence in music 
than this? 

The later years of that decade brought more of Brignoli, 
with Adelaide Phillips; more of Parepa and Carl Rosa; 
many prolonged seasons of the Caroline Richings English 



LATER MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS 219 

opera; Grau's Opera Bouflfe Company; the Mendelssohn 
Quintette; Carlotta Patti; Clara Louise Kellogg; Ole Bull; 
the first visit of Theodore Thomas and his orchestra; and 
the intervals were well filled with local song. 

By a secession of some of the younger members of the 
Saengerbund, in 1868, a new German singing society, the 
Orpheus, was formed. Professor Carl Adam, who re- 
signed the directorship of the Liedertafel that year, came 
to the Orpheus as its director in 1870, and remained at its 
head until 1887. At the same time Mr. Joseph Mischka 
was called to the directorship of the Liedertafel, and held 
it, with a short interruption, until 1894, when he was ap- 
pointed director of music in the public schools of the city. 
Mr. Mischka is the possessor of a most interesting and val- 
uable scrap-book of concert and operatic programmes and 
newspaper clippings on matters of local music, which Pro- 
fessor Blodgett began about 1863 and which Mr. Mischka 
continued into the early years of the next decade. For that 
period this scrap-book is a useful supplement to Mr. 
Thomas's historical paper, and is the source of facts given 
above. 

From this source we derive an impression that the St. 
Cecilia Society gave much ofifence by the exclusiveness with 
which its "dress rehearsals" were protected, as one writer 
of the time expressed it, "from the troublesome raids of a 
curious public." It was maintained for about four years, 
ending in 1867, and a clipping preserved in the scrap-book, 
from some newspaper not named, pronounced its obituary 
in these bitter words: "Its exclusiveness was a bar against 
the admission of talent; its mutual admiration tendencies 
aflforded no encouragement to art, and its excessive kid- 
glovism had no vitality to impart to anything. And so the 
St. Cecilia Society died." 

In 1869 a Beethoven Musical Society was formed, which 



220 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

gave orchestral concerts, with Professor William Gross- 
curth for its conductor that year, and under the lead of 
Signor Nuno in the following year. It was assisted in its 
concerts by the Continental Singing Society, the Lieder- 
tafel and the Saengerbund. In 1870, as mentioned before, 
the Continental Singing Society appears to have been dis- 
solved; but some part of its elements were reassembled in 
the Buffalo Choral Union, organized in 1871, at a meeting, 
as I find stated in a slightly later circular, of several gen- 
tlemen who had been members "of the then late Continental 
Singing Society." Its president was Francis H. Root, and 
it had a large active membership, giving frequent entertain- 
ments, until 1877, beyond which it is not traced. 

In German musical circles there was vigorous life 
through all these years, and it went on without break. For 
the second time, the great Saengerfest of the North Ameri- 
can Saengerbund was held in Buffalo in 1882, and not only 
the Liedertafel, the Saengerbund and the Orpheus, but 
seven other German singing societies were found then in 
the city to take part. They were the Harmonie, the Hel- 
vetia, the Arion, the Harugari Maennerchor, the Germania 
Maennerchor, the Teutonia Maennerchor, and the East 
Buffalo Maennerchor. 

In 1884 the Buffalo Philharmonic Society was formed 
"to establish and sustain a quartette of stringed instru- 
ments." For two years under the direction of Mr. Gustav 
Dannreuther, and for a third year under Signor J. Nuno, 
this fine quartette gave thirty concerts each season. 

Professor Carl Adam's long connection with the Orpheus 
was ended by his resignation in 1887, and he was succeeded 
by Mr. John Lund, who had come lately to a prominent 
place among the leading musicians of the city. In the next 
year Mr. Lund was called to organize and conduct an 
orchestra of the first order, with guarantees of support by 



RECENT CHORAL ORGANIZATIONS 221 

an association of subscribers which took form under the lead 
of Mr. Fred. C. M. Lautz. For seven seasons this Buffalo 
Orchestra (known in the later years as the Buffalo Sym- 
phony Orchestra) was upheld mainly by the persisting 
energy and liberality of Mr. Lautz, representing the finest 
achievement in music that Buffalo has been able to boast. 

During the same period and lasting somewhat longer, a 
large and excellent Vocal Society was well sustained. This 
had no equal successor until 1904, when the Guido Chorus 
was organized by Mr. Seth Clark, the organist and director 
of music at Trinity Church. The fourteen men of the 
choir of that church formed the nucleus of the Chorus, 
which has been expanded since to a large active and sub- 
scribing membership. It grew naturally out of rehearsals 
that were held during the winter of 1903-4 at the residence 
of Dr. Matthew D. Mann, "purely," says Mr. Clark, "for 
the pleasure of practicing male voice music once a week." 
The first public concert of the Guido Chorus was given on 
the 1 2th of January, 1905, with an active membership then 
of fifty-six. In each year since it has given three concerts, 
rehearsing from September to May, and the public delight 
in them has increased with every succeeding year. 

A second choral organization which gives great promise 
was formed in 1906. Of this, the Philharmonic Chorus, 
the original moving spirits are understood to have been 
Messrs. Hobart Weed, Frank Hamlin and Edmund Hayes. 
Associated with them in the supporting organization are 
S. M. Clement, Dudley M. Irwin, Edward Michael, Dr. 
Roswell Park, Dr. J. J. Mooney, J. G. Dudley, Carlton M. 
Smith, Truman G. Avery, Robert K. Root. The director 
of the Chorus is Mr. Andrew T. Webster. 

Two Polish singing societies, the Kolo Spiewackie, com- 
posed of about 150 men, and the Kalina, in which about 50 
girls are enrolled, meet weekly in the Dom Polski, on 
Broadway. 



CHAPTER X 

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 

CLUB organization and the club-house as a social insti- 
tution have acquired their whole present importance 
in the life of this city within the term of the genera- 
tion that is not yet very far down the slope to old age. 
Prior to late years in the decade of the sixties there was 
nothing to represent them more nearly than the engine and 
hose companies and houses of the old volunteer fire depart- 
ment, — which had a very markedly club-like social char- 
acter, — and certain attractive places of public entertain- 
ment, such as "Bloomer's" small hotel, on West Eagle 
Street, between Main and Pearl. Each had its circle of 
habitues, as faithful as club members in their nightly 
assembly. 

More or less of club organization in small ways had been 
going in the city from much earlier times, like that, for 
example, of "The Nameless," which took form in 1858, with 
the genial Guy H. Salisbury for its patriarch, and a further 
membership of men and women, then young, which in- 
cluded, first and last, William Pryor Letchworth, David 
Gray, James N. Johnston, Lyman K. Bass, William C. 
Bryant, Colonel George H. Selkirk, Dr. C. C. F. Gay, 
Charles D. Marshall, John Harrison Mills, John U. Way- 
land, Mrs. C. H. Gildersleeve, Miss Amanda T. Jones, 
Miss Mary A. Ripley, and the present writer. The Name- 
less Club maintained its own meeting place, where it held 
debates and enjoyed social evenings, throughout about a 
dozen years. If others of like kind in that period had as 
durable an existence this historian has no knowledge of 
them. 

The first purely social institution to be established in its 



BEGINNING OF SOCIAL CLUBS 223 

own distinct dwelling and to have a planting for large 
growth was the Buffalo Club, organized at a meeting held 
for the purpose in the rooms of the Law Library, on the 4th 
of January, 1867. Its first president was Millard Fillmore, 
ex-President of the United States. For nearly three years 
it leased the former residence of Mr. Julius Movius, at the 
corner of Delaware Avenue and Gary Street; then bought 
the home of Mr. James S. Ganson, at the corner of Dela- 
ware and Chippewa Street, where the club was in residence 
until 1887, when it purchased the larger mansion, built by 
the late S. V. R. Watson, on Delaware Avenue, at the corner 
of Trinity Street. This, by repeated extensions and im- 
provements, in 1889, 1894, 1899 and 1909, has been fitted to 
the increasing needs of the Club, down to the present time. 

The next club organization of social importance was the 
Falconwood, formed in 1869 for the establishment of a 
family club-house, for summer resorting, on Grand Island, 
in the Niagara River; and this was followed, in 1873, by 
another of kindred character, the Oakfield, whose club- 
house was built at a point farther down the Niagara, on the 
same island shore. 

The City Club, incorporated in 1877, and maintained 
for a few years in quarters at 354 Washington Street, mainly 
for luncheon use, was the next to appear. Then, in 1882, a 
Press Club was undertaken, but did not acquire a lasting 
life. In the same year a club organization, the Idlewood, 
for summer suburban residence on the south shore of the 
Lake was incorporated, and its planting has endured. A 
year later the Canoe Club began the prosperous career 
which has established its fleet, its club-house and its cottage 
colony on the Canadian shore of the Lake. 

The year 1885 gave birth to the lively Saturn Club, which 
caught, somewhere, the secret of perpetual youth. It was 
cradled in house No. 25 Johnson Park, and went thence into 



224 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

three successive residences on Main Street and Delaware 
Avenue, until 1890, when it bought and built its present 
home, at the corner of Edward Street and Delaware. An 
extensive remodelling of its club-house was executed in 1904. 

The Country Club, incorporated in 1889, occupied for ten 
years house and grounds on the northern edge of Delaware 
Park, where the Pan-American Exposition was located 
soon afterward. The Club, then, in 1900, bought 70 acres 
of land more remote, to the northward, on the east side of 
Main Street, where it built and began large improvements. 
A further purchase of 140 acres was made in 1903, and the 
club-house was then enlarged. 

The first club-house for women was projected in 1894 ^^'^ 
opened in 1896, by an organization, incorporated in the 
former year, which took Time by the forelock a little boldly, 
in order to assume the name of the Twentieth Century Club. 
It bought ground on which the Delaware Avenue Baptist 
Church had built a chapel, and placed its attractive club- 
house on the front, retaining the chapel for use as a con- 
nected hall. In 1905 this hall was rebuilt, and the third 
floor of the club-house was remodelled throughout. 

The University Club was organized in 1894, and opened 
house in the dwelling at 884 Main Street on the ist of 
March, 1895. ^^ October, 1897, it removed to a more com- 
modious residence at 295 Delaware Avenue, and seven 
years later had become able to erect the spacious club-house 
it now occupies, at the corner of Allen Street, on Delaware, 
which it dedicated October 29, 1904. 

The incorporation of the Ellicott Club, with agreeable 
provisions for luncheon and dining as its primary object, 
came in 1895. From the beginning the club has occupied 
one of the upper floors of the Ellicott Square Building, but 
has now in contemplation a home of its own making. 

The Park Club, instituted in 1903, and seated in what had 



women's clubs 225 

been the Women's Building of the Pan-American Exposi- 
tion, previously a part of the original premises of the Coun- 
try Club, is the latest of the club associations of a general- 
ized class. 

Club organizations of a more specialized or limited order 
have become too numerous in the city to be reported of in 
detail. It must suffice to mention a few, such as the Acacia 
(Masonic), the Elks, the Otowega (of the Central Park dis- 
trict), the Lawyers' Club, the Transportation Club, the 
Automobile Club, the Canadian Club, — and to leave un- 
named the many associations for study and discussion, for 
professional improvement, for athletic sport and other 
amusements, which have multiplied astonishingly, here as 
elsewhere, in recent years. Out of the first of these neg- 
lected categories there is need, however, to take for mention 
one, at least, which arose in 1891. That is the Liberal 
Club, whose purpose was announced to be "the careful con- 
sideration at monthly dinners of subjects having to do with 
religion, morals, education and public affairs," and which 
had for its noble motto — "In thought, free; in temper, 
reverent; in method, scientific." A second club of like pur- 
pose, the Independent, was formed soon after, and a third, 
the Equality Club, a little later, in connection with the Cen- 
tral Y. M. C. A. 

Along all lines of cultural development, the women of 
the city have contributed, from the beginning, even more 
than their share of action no less than of inspiration; but 
movements of organization among women distinctively in 
these fields is comparatively a recent fact. If there could 
be an exact enumeration of all now existing associations in 
BuflFalo for every purpose outside of business and politics, 
it is quite probable that those which unite women alone 
would outnumber the associations of men. And this would 
be true with certainty in the large division which has to do 



226 CULTURAL EVOLUTION 

with social service and with educational work. To a con- 
siderable extent, such coteries on the gentler side of the 
community have been co-operatively linked together, in a 
"Buffalo City Federation of Women's Clubs," organized 
some years ago by Mrs. John Miller Horton, its first presi- 
dent. By the influence concentrated in this federation, the 
women's clubs gave early evidence of their power for such 
good work, as the establishing of a penny luncheon for 
underfed children in the public schools; securing medical 
inspection of pupils in the schools, and a probation officer 
at the police court for the care of young girls ; raising the 
fund for a girl's scholarship in the University of Buffalo 
that is to be, etc. In 1910 the clubs affiliated in this federa- 
tion numbered fifty, representing a great variety of objects 
in their organization, — inclusive, for example, of the Polit- 
ical Equality Club, the Consumers' League, the Collegiate 
Alumnae, the Crippled Children's Guild, the District Nurs- 
ing Association, the Mothers' Club, the Scribblers, and 
other literary and study clubs, which form the most numer- 
ous order. 

Probably the largest single association of women in the 
city is that which constitutes the Buffalo Chapter, National 
Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, over which 
Mrs. John Miller Horton has presided as regent since 
1901. This chapter, having six hundred and fifty-five 
members, is the largest in the State of New York, and sec- 
ond largest in the nation, that of Chicago, alone, going be- 
yond it in numbers. It is active in work on both patriotic 
and educational lines : providing, on one hand, semi-weekly 
winter lectures to our foreign population on the history of 
this country, in halls and public schools, for audiences of 
Poles, Italians and Germans, each addressed in the language 
of its nationality; identifying, on the other hand, by careful 
research, the graves of soldiers of the Revolution in this 



PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATIONS 227 

vicinity, and marking them, with due ceremony and with 
durable markers in bronze. Closely allied in its objects 
with the Chapter of the D. A. R. is the Niagara Frontier 
Chapter of the Daughters of 1812, organized in 1904. 

The order of associations to which these belong, patriotic 
and genealogical in their significance, includes many others, 
in both sexes. It embraces six posts, two relief corps and 
two circles of the Grand Army of the Republic ; a camp of 
the Sons of Veterans; associations of the Veterans of the 
Twenty-first and the Hundredth Regiments of the War of 
the Rebellion ; a Buffalo Chapter of the Sons of the Ameri- 
can Revolution; the Buffalo Association of the Society of 
the Sons of the Revolution ; the Buffalo Association of the 
Society of Colonial Wars; the Buffalo Association, Society 
of Mayflower Descendants ; a "colony" of the National So- 
ciety of New England Women ; an organization of the 
Daughters of New England; the Buffalo Society of Ver- 
monters ; the Ohio Society of Buffalo ; the Old German So- 
ciety; the Niagara Frontier Landmarks Association, etc. 

The extent to which women and men — but women more 
than men — are being gathered, in this generation, into clubs 
and classes for investigation and study in all regions of 
knowledge, and for discussion of all the questions of the day, 
is one of the most significant and promising signs of widened 
culture that our age affords. If it could be exhibited 
rightly it might furnish, perhaps, as illuminating a chapter 
of local history as one could prepare; but the task of prepa- 
ration would be so difficult that I cannot undertake it. 



ROCHESTER 

PAST AND PRESENT 

ROCHESTER, beautiful for situation, on either bank 
of the Genesee river, near to its confluence with 
Lake Ontario, 372 miles from New York and 69 
from Bufifalo, prosperous, enterprising, enlightened, with 
its churches, its institutions of learning, its manufactories, 
its mercantile palaces, its asylums and hospitals, fair in the 
art with which man has embellished nature, with foliage 
and flowers and fruit, with broad avenues and spacious 
and tasteful dwellings, is of the best type of American urban 
development. Its citizens esteem it the finest residential 
town in the country and, as such, it has wide recognition. 

Yet, on the traveler's thought 

Where'er he roams, 
O'er lands where art has wrought. 
Lands with all memories fraught. 
Thine image comes unsought. 
City of homes. 

The span of its existence is comparatively brief. It post- 
dates the Revolution. It was a wilderness when the inde- 
pendence of the republic was declared. Hardly a century 
has passed since it was trailed by the Iroquois and the howl 
of the wolf was the refrain of the forest. It was not until 
1789 that the whir of the mill of "Indian Allan" — that 
strange compound of pioneer and outlaw — of lust and ad- 
venture — heralded its civilization and Jeremiah Olmstead 
gathered a harvest from the field adjacent to the recent site 
of the State Industrial School. The genesis of Rochester 
was in New England. Its early settlers were mainly of 
Puritan stock. They were the men or the sons of the men 

228 









G bo.f^ 


iidfijs^ vJoi nl 




. -n !bu: 


J ^rfj b'»siiij;<T!, 


.1 o(j3i nl 








ROCHESTER 

! AND PRESENT 

RO' beautiful for situation, on either bank 

■hcsee river, near to its confluence with 
Lake ( >ntario, 372 miles from New York and 69 
from Buffalo, prosperous, enterprising, enlightened, with 
its churches, its institutions of le'arning, its manufactories, 
its mercantile palaces, its asylums and hospitals, fair in the 
art with which man has embellished nature, with foliage 
and flowers and fruit, with broad avenues and spacious 
and tasteful duAJlTHUR GOULD YATES. . American urban 
devetoHlBftaatofficiaJ ; born East Waverly, I^few Vtifj^/ i^.^^^ti^l 
to\i» 1867- established a coal business in Rochester. In i%6t 'Un- 
organized the coal mining company of Bell, Lewis & Yates, 
which was purchased by the Buffalo, Rochester & Pitts- 
burg Railroad in 1896. In 1890 became president of the 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg Railroad ; residence, Roches- 
ter, New Yot*."^* '^"" ^^" lu^iito.,^-, j,..ugni, 
I hinc image comes unsought, 
City of homes. 

The span of its existence is comparatively brief. It post- 
dates the Revolution. It was a wilderness when the inde- 
pendence of the republic was declared. Hardly a century 
h.t; . v, I rn.:c t a; s trmled by the Iroquois and the howl 
^ of the forest- It was not until 
rvll of "Indian Allan" — that 
1 outlaw — of lust and ad- 
>n and Jeremiah Olmstead 
gathcicd A Ju .- field adjacent to the recent site 

of the State L iiool. The genesis of Rochester 

was in New F^ng -ii.d. Its early settlers were mainly of 
Puritan stock Thev were the men or the sons of the men 



ORIGINS AND LOCATION 229 

who had received the baptism of fire on the battlefields of 
the Revolution and who, in the schools and town meetings 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut, had learned those lessons 
of civil and religious liberty which, in the newer region, 
they formulated into law and vindicated in their lives — 
men of prescience, pluck and perseverance. Western New 
York, of which Rochester is the commercial center, was 
peopled by the western migration that set in from New 
England at the close of the eighteenth century and, through 
successive impulses, subdued the acres and moulded the 
character of the commonwealths of the Union west of the 
Hudson and north of the Ohio. 

The ground upon which Rochester stands is included in 
that imperial domain — some 6,000,000 acres — west of 
Seneca Lake, the pre-emption right of Massachusetts there- 
in having been acquired by Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel 
Gorham, in 1788, who also extinguished amicably a portion 
of the "native rights." Almost a third of the territory was 
transferred in 1790 to Charles Williamson, in trust for Sir 
William Pulteney, and nearly all of the remainder — over 
4,000,000 acres — became the property of Robert Morris, 
the patriot financier of American freedom. He disposed 
in 1793 of all lands west of the Genesee to a company of 
Dutch gentlemen, the tract thereafter being known as the 
"Holland Purchase" and the Indian titles therein, with cer- 
tain reservations, being surrendered by the Senecas, in the 
treaty at Geneseo (Big Tree), in September, 1797. Thus 
a vast area was opened to settlement. The proprietors 
invited it on liberal terms and the attractions of the 
region and the rewards that awaited the Puritan genius for 
conquest of the soil were not unknown ; for the soldiers of 
Sullivan's army, as they had threaded the woods and 
scourged the savage, had taken note of lake and river and 
loam and alluvial deposits and by the firesides of New Eng- 



230 ROCHESTER 

land had told of the valleys and tablelands waiting but the 
dexterity and the diligence of the husbandman to bloom as 
a garden. Many of the soldiers returned to verify their 
own descriptions. Nor were these exaggerated, as orchards 
of apple and of peach, great stretches of wheat, the busy 
mills of the Genesee and supremacy in the grain markets 
of the country soon testified. In rapidity of occupation and 
consistent thrift, Western New York is unrivalled in the 
annals of previous American communities, and this was due 
both to its natural advantages and the intelligence with 
which they were utilized. 

Rochester itself was somewhat slow in starting. Until 
181 2 it was not even a hamlet. The first log house on the 
west side was constructed by Col. Josiah Fish, in 1797, and 
the first blockhouse by Charles Hanford, in 1807, on Mill 
Street, while, in 1808, Enos Stone built a saw mill on the 
east bank of the Genesee and, in 18 10, erected a frame house 
on South St. Paul Street. No one seemed to know where to 
begin. Many there were with faith that somewhere in the 
section, so favored by nature, a sightly mart would arise. 
The streams sang of it and the opulent acres proclaimed it; 
but its precise location was intangible and illusory. It was 
to be at Williamsburg, at Mount Morris, at Lima, at Car- 
thage, at Charlotte, at Tryonstown, at Hanford's Landing, 
at Braddock's Bay — where not in the groping? But one 
man divined the spot, and became the founder of the city 
which bears his name and now numbers over 200,000 in- 
habitants — a city of the first class, third in rank of the 
municipalities of the Empire State. This was Nathaniel 
Rochester who, born and bred in Virginia, passed his early 
manhood in North Carolina, where he held various civic 
and military trusts. Removing to Hagerstown, Md., in 
1798, he was there bank president, assemblyman, postmaster, 
judge, sheriff and presidential elector — a man of substance, 



ADOPTION OF THE NAME 23 1 

sagacity and sterling integrity. In 18 10, chiefly inspired 
by his aversion to human bondage and his desire to place his 
family in a healthier moral environment, he located in 
Dansville, where he erected a paper mill and engaged in 
various business activities. He had, however, previously 
visited the Genesee country several times as a prospector, 
with the view of transferring his energies thither and aid- 
ing in its splendid evolution, which he clearly foresaw; and 
in 1802, in conjunction with William Fitzhugh and Charles 
Carroll, he bought from Williamson the land known as the 
lOO-acre tract on the west side of the Genesee, on which 
clustered the village, under the successive names of Falls 
Town, Rochesterville and Rochester, and the principal in- 
stitutions of the city now stand. 

The site of the city beautiful was happily chosen, seven 
miles from the mouth of the river, which, rising in north- 
western Pennsylvania, flows for 200 miles through Allegany, 
Livingston and Monroe counties — a region especially pic- 
turesque in gorge and cliff and far-reaching plateau — de- 
scending at Portageville nearly 500 feet, navigable before 
the denudation of the forest for thirty miles above the great 
falls — and at Mount Morris emerging into the broad and 
fecund valley which, for many years, produced the purest 
wheat, with the most opulent yield on the continent, that 
ground into flour at Rochester, with its limitless water 
power above the cataract, second only to Niagara in volume 
and vying with it in majesty, soon informed the place with 
commercial significance. 

Rochester has had room in which to grow. Its area, with 
the accretions of territory, as its needs have demanded, is 
20.57 square miles, 5.7 miles in an east and west and 4.1 
miles in a north and south line. In expansion from hamlet 
to village and city, its chief distinction has been that it was 
throughout rus in urbe, retaining the tone, conditions and. 



232 ROCHESTER 

in large measure, the semblance of a village, with its center 
still called the "four corners," while compassing the refine- 
ments, the luxuries and the vim of a city. The trend thus 
indicated is originally due to the influence of the founder, 
and the few cultured Southerners who accompanied him 
hither, upon the New England mass — the composite of 
Cavalier grace and Puritan vigor — and later to the influx 
of Celt and Teuton and Jew, the latter of an exceptionally 
intelligent and industrious order. 

With their love for the comely both in nature and art, 
the Southern projectors strove to reproduce the features of 
the homes they had left, and the New England settlers 
caught their spirit and sympathized with their aims. So, 
when the forests were felled that the fields might be sowed 
and foundations laid, shade trees were set out and gardens 
cultivated and greenswards shaven, Harvey Ely and John 
G. Bond being credited with the planting of sugar maples 
on South Washington Street between the canal and Spring 
Street, in 1816. Houses with many windows and wide 
verandas and generous fireplaces were built, each occupant 
holding title in fee-simple — homesteads, indeed — blocks of 
houses flush with the sidewalk being conspicuous by their 
absence. It is estimated that half of the householders in 
Rochester to-day own their homes. Later, came the edu- 
cation of the greenhouse and the florist, the laying out of 
avenues and intersecting streets, the erection of stately man- 
sions and the graceful designs in frame dwellings; and when 
the scepter of wheat had passed to Minneapolis by virtue 
of its control of the harvests of the mighty west and favor- 
ing freight rates to the east, the first appropriate appella- 
tion of "Flour City" was resolved into that of "Flower 
City," as designating the supremacy of Rochester in queenly 
charm. 

In 1 8 16, Colonel Rochester and his associates began to 



CONDITIONS IN 1813 233 

sell lots. Prices were reasonable, long term payments were 
conceded freely and settlement began quickly. Francis 
Brown and others opened land to purchasers at the north 
of the loo-acre tract and called it Frankfort; and Enos 
Stone, who possessed 300 acres on the east side, offered them 
for sale in small parcels. The mingling of the three immi- 
grations thus induced was to form the strong current of the 
future city life, but the fuller flow, through the earlier dec- 
ades, was to be that which had its spring in the mind of 
Nathaniel Rochester. At the close of the year 18 12, the 
river had been spanned by a rude bridge, where now the 
substantial structure, lined by imposing business establish- 
ments, stands, and over which thousands daily pass through 
Main Street. Hamlet Scrantom's log house was on the site 
of the Powers Block. Abelard Reynolds, who survived 
until 1878, a nonogenarian, had built a saddler's shop upon 
a portion of the ground upon which he afterward erected 
the Arcade, and there were also adjoining blacksmith and 
tailor shops. Two years later there were five streets, several 
farm houses on land now within the city limits on East 
Avenue, two saw mills, two flour mills, three or four stores, 
as many shops, a lawyer's and a doctor's office, and the post- 
office in a desk in the shop of Abelard Reynolds, who was 
appointed postmaster in 18 13. 

In 1 813, there was a population of 1,500. There were 
two taverns, a fire company had been organized, two news- 
papers, the Gazette and the Telegraph, were published and 
there were four churches — the First Presbyterian, St. 
Luke's (Protestant Episcopal), the First Baptist and St. 
Patrick's (Roman Catholic). The music of the stage horn 
was heard in the streets as the coaches wheeled their way 
from Albany to Buffalo. The village had been incor- 
porated three years, Francis Brown having served continu- 
ously as president until succeeded by Matthew Brown, Jr., 



234 ROCHESTER 

this year, the latter remaining in office until 1823 and being 
again elected in 1825 and 1826. There were five flouring 
mills distinguished for the quality of the staple they manu- 
factured. In 1 8 19, contracts were let for digging the Erie 
Canal between Rochester and Palmyra. In 1823, 10,000 
barrels of flour were sent to Albany and New York, and, on 
October 27, 1825, the jubilant flotilla, bearing Governor 
DeWitt Clinton, the canal commissioners and prominent 
citizens of the State, received an ovation in the village, 
which the great inland waterway was to signally benefit, as 
it halted for a few hours in its progress to the Atlantic. 

With the busy mills of the Genesee and the transport to 
the ocean, urban entity for Rochester was assured. In 
1827, the first directory was issued. It contains many in- 
teresting items. The population is 8,000. Numerous 
streets have been opened, and the boundaries are Goodman 
Street at the east, York at the west, Glasgow at the south 
and Norton at the north. Monroe County having been 
erected in 1821, Rochester is its capital, the court house 
being built in 1822. Seven flouring mills are in operation 
and there are cotton and woolen industries, breweries, dis- 
tilleries, tanneries and over 100 stores. There are 25 phy- 
sicians, 28 lawyers, 1,000 mechanics and 500 laborers. 
There are ten churches and a number of charitable organiza- 
tions. The Bank of Rochester has a capital of $250,600 
and the press is represented by one monthly, one semi- 
weekly and one daily publication — the Advertiser, dating 
from 1826, since consolidated with the Union and now the 
oldest newspaper west of Albany in the United States. 
Among those who are giving tone and direction to social, 
business and public life are the Rev. Joseph Penney, pastor 
of the First Presbyterian Church and subsequently presi- 
dent of Hamilton College, and the Rev. Francis H. Cuming, 
rector of St. Luke's. Among practicing lawyers are Daniel 



CONDITIONS IN 1 826 235 

D. Barnard, who is to represent two districts in Congress 
and the nation as Minister to Prussia; William B. Roch- 
ester, who has been in Congress, is to be circuit judge and 
to come within a few votes of being elected Governor; Vin- 
cent Mathews, who had been a brilliant pleader at the bar 
and a senator and congressman in "the southern tier," is 
closing his professional career, while Frederick Whittlesey, 
Addison Gardiner and Samuel L. Selden are beginning 
theirs. Henry R. Selden is a law student. William 
Adams, Frederick F. Backus, John B. Elwood and Levi 
Ward are physicians. Thurlow Weed, Luther H. Tucker, 
Edwin Scrantom, Levi W. Sibley and Robert Martin are 
printers. William Atkinson, Matthew Brown, Jr., Harvey 
Ely, Charles J. Hill, E. P. Beach, Solomon Cleveland and 
Thomas H. Rochester are merchant millers. Thomas 
Kempshall, Erasmus D. Smith, Samuel G. Andrews, Na- 
thaniel T. Rochester, Levi A. Ward, Jacob Gould, William 
Pitkin, Everard Peck, Silas O. Smith, Elihu F. Marshall 
and Darius Perrin are merchants. Levi Ward, Jonathan 
Child, Josiah Bissell, Jr., Elisha Ely, Aristarchus Cham- 
pion, Harvey Montgomery, Abram M. Schermerhorn and 
Ira West are classed as capitalists, and Joseph Medberry, 
Warham Whitney, Ebenezer Watts, William Ailing, Abner 
Wakelee, Jacob Anderson, Benjamin M. Baker, Aaron 
Erickson and Nelson Sage are laying the foundations of 
their fortunes. In 1828, Abelard Reynolds builds the 
Arcade on Buffalo Street, an ambitious and even a venture- 
some undertaking for its day, improving and extending it 
to Exchange Place in 1842. In 1833, Colonel Rochester, 
the founder dies, amid the lamentations of the community, 
closing serenely a life which had been eminently useful and 
had had honorable recognition in the councils of three 
commonwealths. 

Rochester is incorporated as a city, April 28, 1834, being 



236 ROCHESTER 

the ninth city chartered in the State. Its area is 4,000 acres, 
reaching northward, at this time, to include the lower falls 
and the Ontario steamboat landing. Streets are pushing 
out in all directions. The population is nearly 13,000 and 
the assessed valuation of property, real and personal, is 
$2,533,211. There are 1,300 houses, 14 churches and two 
banks. There are five wards and the Mayor and other 
officials are elected by the Common Council, the chief ex- 
ecutive not being chosen by the popular suffrage until 1841. 
Jonathan Child, a citizen of substance, of commanding 
presence and dignified bearing, is the first mayor. The 
elegant mansion of the Corinthian order, which he built 
is still standing on South Washington Street and is the most 
notable specimen of the type which prevailed with men of 
means at the period of its construction. That of Chan- 
cellor Whittlesey on Troup Street is another; and it may 
be said, in passing, that the third ward, comprising a goodly 
portion of the lOO-acre tract and still retaining its olden 
boundaries, was, for many years, the abode of the more 
prominent, not to say aristocratic, citizens and was the vici- 
nage of gracious hospitalities, engaging courtesies and 
neighborly offices. Its social supremacy has departed, but 
its traditions remain. In 1834, there are ten hotels. There 
are three semi-monthly, four weekly and two daily news- 
papers, the Democrat being established this year. Com- 
munication with the outside world is through two lines of 
stages, along the Genesee turnpike, the packets on the Erie 
Canal, a steamer making daily trips from Charlotte to other 
lake ports and one plying between the Rapids and Geneseo 
— discontinued in 1836 — and the Tonawanda Railroad, with 
steam as the motive power, to South Byron, extended to 
Batavia in 1836 and to Attica in 1842. 

A few of the notable events in local history may be men- 
tioned in this connection, leaving to a succeeding part of 



2:!6 ROCHESTfiR 

;* red in the State. Its area is 4,000 acres, 
i, at this time, to include the lower falls 
\ J steambuat landing. Streets are pushing 
ctions. The population is nearly 1-3,000 and 
tic ii ^bc I valuation of property, real and personal, is 
$2,533,211. There are 1,300 houses, 14 churches and two 
banks. There are five wards and the Mayor and other 
officials are elected by the Common Council, the chief ex- 
ecutive nut being chosen by the popular suffrage until 1841. 
Jonathan Child, a citizen of substance, of commanding 
presence and digaUvji l^ariiy^. is the first mayor. The 
elegant niarisicn r.i t ( , V order, which he built 

i.^ StiM^Wl^^^r@tr^^''oad contractor; bc>rrHH^tMfosk,!q^^-,(. most 
ware County^ Xew .York, September 26, 1866; son of, f 

Horace TI. and Poily (Burr j Cr'ary; educated Hancock ,-, 
High School : rtiarried Binghamton', New York, Sept'emter . ' 
27, 1893, Louise Brintnall ; presideht Crary Gonstrucfe'n ' '^ may 
'G0m|)any : director First National Qaiik, Biiigha^irton ; Bifag- f'odly 
hamton Trust Company ;, president 1900. Washer Company; I den 
treasurer Alder-Batavia Natiural Gas,,Coppany; Akron Nat^ more 
ural Gas Conipany: trustee Syra<juse^.^j^ij^_^ ^^.^^ ^j^j. 
^2(1 degree ; address, fliiighamton, N. y . . . . 

N engaging courtesies and 
ruighbiKly othces. Its social supremacy has departed, but 
its traditions remain. In 1834, there are ten hotels. There 
are three semi-monthly, four weekly and two daily news- 
papers, the Democrat being established this year ('um- 
munication with the outside world is through two lines of 
stages, along the Genesee turnpike, the packets on the Erie 
riml a steamer making daily trips from Charlotte to other 
rts and one plying between the Rapids and Geneseo 
ntinued in 1836 — and theTonawanda Railroad, with 
steam as the motive power, to South Byron, extended to 
Batavia in 1836 and to Attica in 1842. 

A few of the notable events in local history may be men- 
tioned in this connection, leaving to a succeeding part of 




(y/^QLL^>.yi>y 



RAILWAYS AND CANALS 237 

this article a more detailed description of leading institu- 
tions and industries. Among these are the visit of LaFay- 
ette in 1825, the lasting notoriety achieved by Sam Patch 
in his fatal leap at the upper falls and the terrible cholera 
scourge of 1832. In 1836, the city acquired 54 acres in the 
southeastern section, planning a cemetery thereon and hap- 
pily naming it Mount Hope. With additional purchases, 
it now embraces about 200,000 acres, and with the charm 
of its pristine features of wooded knoll and intervale and 
dotted vista, enhanced by an exquisitely intelligent and re- 
fined service of the landscape gardener, it is one of the most 
inviting resting places of the dead in the land. Other 
cemeteries are the Holy Sepulchre, St. Boniface's, St. Pat- 
rick's, Brighton, Rapids and Riverside. 

In 1838 the Genesee Valley Canal, tributary to the Erie, 
was constructed and the first foundry was started. In 1840, 
the first carload of freight was sent over the Auburn and 
Rochester Railroad. In 1842, a new aqueduct over the 
Erie was completed at a cost of $600,000. In 1844, the 
first telegraph office was opened in Rochester by the New 
York, Albany and Buffalo Company, and the census showed 
a population of 23,533. I'^ ^^4-^j the Western House of 
Refuge was established and coal was first consumed by the 
manufactories. In 1849, Corinthian Hall, erected by Wil- 
liam A. Reynolds, in the rear of the Arcade, was dedicated. 
It was, for many years, the principal auditorium of the 
city, many notable gatherings and addresses by eminent men 
and concerts and dramatic representations taking place 
within its walls. Therein Jenny Lind sang in 1851. It 
voiced the "golden age of the lyceum," and therein, in 1858, 
William H. Seward delivered his "irrepressible conflict" 
speech, one of the most renowned, as well as one of the most 
persuasive, of American political utterances. In 1850, the 
city was divided into ten wards. In 1851, a new court 



238 ROCHESTER 

house was built at a cost of $70,000, and coal for domestic 
use was introduced. In i860, steam fire engines were sub- 
stituted for hand machines. In 1861, Abraham Lincoln 
spoke at the New York Central station on his way to his 
inauguration as President; and later, at the call of the nation 
to arms to quell the rebellion against it, the best and bravest 
of the sons of Rochester responded. 

In 1870, the Powers building, at the southwest corner of 
West Main and State streets, an immense structure for 
stores, offices, etc., of stone, glass and iron, seven stories high 
and surmounted by a tower, begun in 1868, was finished. 
In 1874, the city building on Front Street was built and 
the City Hall, a handsome edifice of blue limestone, was 
occupied. In 1876, the Hemlock Lake water system was 
installed. In 1879, the Elwood Memorial building, a 
commodious stone block, was erected, on the southeast cor- 
ner of Main and State streets, and the first "hello" of the 
telephone was heard. In 1881, "Maud S." trotted a mile 
in 2:io>^ at the Rochester Driving Park, the fastest time 
until that date recorded on a trotting course. In 1882, 
ground was broken for the elevated tracks of the New 
York Central Railroad. In 1883, the Germans of Roch- 
ester celebrated the bicentennial of German colonization in 
the United States. In the same year, the Warner Observa- 
tory and the Powers Hotel were built. In 1884, the Rey- 
nolds Library, subsequently housed in the superb Reynolds 
mansion on Spring Street and endowed by Mortimer F. 
Reynolds, was founded ; and the semi-centennial of the city 
was observed by commemorative addresses and much of 
"pomp and parade." In 1887, the Wilder block, the Ger- 
man-American insurance building and the Ellwanger and 
Barry block were begun, and the Lyceum Theatre, a rarely 
elegant edifice of its kind, was opened. In 1892, the Sol- 
diers' Monument in Washington Square was dedicated. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT 239 

President Harrison participating in the ceremonies. In 
1896, the present court house of New Hampshire granite, 
Romanesque in design, with a frontage on West Main Street 
of 140 feet, a depth of 160 feet, a height of four stories and 
admirably adapted for the service of the county, was com- 
pleted. In 1907, the State Arsenal on Washington Square 
was converted into Convention Hall, a vast auditorium 
capable of accommodating thousands. In this year also, 
the Rochester Trust and Safe Deposit Company completed 
and occupied its chaste, yet costly, marble structure, thus 
consummating the architectural distinction of the "four 
corners," as with the Powers, the Elwood and the Wilder 
buildings it at once sentinels and adorns the historic spot; 
and 1908 witnessed the construction of two new and im- 
mense hotels — the Seneca on the east and the Rochester on 
the west side — both demanded by the constantly increasing 
throng of guests within the city gates. 

To the public service Rochester has contributed its full 
share of able officials. It has had two lieutenant-governors, 
two secretaries of state, two state treasurers, an attorney- 
general, a superintendent of insurance, a superintendent of 
banks, a superintendent of public works, and four regents 
of the University of the State of New York. It has had 
14 state senators, two circuit judges and one vice-chancellor, 
under the constitution of 1821, and one chief judge and four 
associate judges of the Court of Appeals, and ten Supreme 
Court Judges under the constitutions of 1846 and 1895. 

The following have been the mayors of the city: 1834, 
Jonathan Child; 1835-36, Jacob Gould; 1837, Abram M. 
Schermerhorn and Thomas Kempshall; 1838, Elisha John- 
son; 1839, Thomas H. Rochester; 1840, Samuel G. An- 
drews; 1841, Elijah F. Smith; 1842, Charles J. Hill; 1843, 
Isaac Hills; 1844, John Allen; 1845-46, William Pitkin; 
1847, John B. Elwood; 1848, Joseph Field; 1849, Levi A. 



240 ROCHESTER 

Ward; 1850, Samuel Richardson; 1851, Nicholas E. Paine; 
1852, Hamlin Stilwell; 1853, John Williams; 1854, Maltby 
Strong; 1855, Charles A. Hayden; 1856, Samuel G. An- 
drews; 1857, Rufus Keeler; 1858, Charles H. Clark; 1859, 
Samuel W. D. Moore; i860, Hamlet D. Scrantom; 1861, 
John C. Nash; 1862, Michael Filon; 1863, Nehemiah C. 
Bradstreet; 1864, James Brackett; 1865, Daniel D. T. 
Moore; 1866, Samuel W. D. Moore; 1867-68, Henry L. 
Fish; 1869, Edward M. Smith; 1870, John Lutes; 1871, 
Charles W. Briggs; 1872-73, A. Carter Wilder; 1874-75, 
George G. Clarkson; 1876-89, Cornelius R. Parsons; 
1890-91, William Carroll; 1892-93, Richard Curran; 1894, 
George W. Aldridge; 1895, Merton E. Lewis (acting); 
1896-99, George E. Warner; 1900-01, George A. Carnahan; 
1902-03, Adolph J. Rodenbeck; 1904-07, James G. Cutler; 
1908-09, Hiram H. Edgerton. 

There are 130 churches in Rochester, the various denomi- 
nations being represented numerically as follows: Baptist, 
18; Christian, 2; Christian Science, 2; Congregational, i; 
Evangelical, 3 ; Evangelical Association, 2 ; Holland Chris- 
tian Reformed, i; Jewish, 11; Lutheran, 13; Methodist 
Episcopal, 10; Methodist Episcopal African, i; Methodist 
Free, i ; Methodist Puritan, i ; Presbyterian, 16; Protestant 
Episcopal, 12; Reformed Church in America, 3 ; Reformed 
Church in United States, i; Roman Catholic, 20; Second 
Adventist, i ; Unitarian, i ; Universalist, i ; other religious 
societies, 9. The oldest religious society is the First Pres- 
byterian, its organization being effected August 22, 1815; 
its earlier services were held in a wooden building on State 
(then Carroll) Street. A stone edifice was completed in 
1824, on the site of the City Hall, and retained for nearly 
fifty years, when the present house of worship on Plymouth 
Avenue was consecrated. St. Luke's (Protestant Episco- 
pal) is the next in foundation, July 14, 1817. It has kept 



CHURCHES AND EDUCATION 24I 

the same location, on South Fitzhugh Street, from the be- 
ginning, its sanctuary having been built in 1825; its in- 
terior, however, having been remodeled and refitted in 1867. 
The First Baptist is the third in sequence, having been 
started, in 1818, in a school room directly south of St. Luke's. 
Its present fine edifice is on North Fitzhugh Street. St. 
Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, now of cathedral emi- 
nence, dates from 181 8 and its first structure was on the 
present site at the corner of Piatt and Frank streets. The 
oldest Jewish society (Berith Kodesh) dates from 1848 and 
its synagogue, at the corner of Grove and Gibbs streets, 
from 1846. 

Other churches have been organized as the needs of the 
community and the zeal of their promoters have prompted, 
until the number stated has been attained. Among those 
of superior architectural significance are the Roman Cath- 
olic cathedral, the First, Second (Brick), Third and Cen- 
tral Presbyterian, St. Paul's, Protestant Episcopal, the First 
Methodist and Asbury and the synagogue, Berith Kodesh. 
Rochester is the see city of the Roman Catholic diocese of 
the same name, erected in 1868, with Bernard J. McQuaid 
as bishop, who is yet at its head, distinguished as one of 
the foremost scholars and administrators of his communion. 

Education in Rochester had its genesis in 18 13 in the 
dame school of Huldah M. Strong in a little room over 
Jehiel Barnard's tailor shop, at the corner of State and Main 
streets and, in the latter part of the same year, a school 
district was constituted and a building, one story in height, 
was put up on South Fitzhugh Street. Of this school 
Aaron Skinner was teacher. Its date was coincident with 
the creation of the public school system of the State, but it 
is difficult, at this distance, to determine whether or not the 
school was connected with the system, which, at that time, 
had meager funds for distribution. The land was donated 



242 ROCHESTER 

by Rochester, Fitzhugh and Carroll and the cost of the 
building, principally, if not wholly, borne by the citizens. 
Other schools, both public and private, followed from time 
to time, and Rochester bore its part in fostering popular 
instruction, with which the cities were identified more 
closely than the rural districts, they maintaining the free 
school in its full meaning previous to 1848, while the State 
did not ordain it until 1867. The public schools, incor- 
porate in the State system, upon the township plan and 
proceeding under the mayor and alderman as commis- 
sioners, grew with the growth of the municipality until, in 
1841, the first city board of education was organized, with 
Levi A. Ward as president and I. F. Mack as superin- 
tendent and, a year later, there were fifteen districts, with 
2,300 children in attendance, at an annual cost of main- 
tenance of $13,000. Leading citizens memorialized the 
Legislature, so early as 1830, to provide a central school of 
secondary education in each town of the State, but the free 
high school was not realized in Rochester until 1857, when 
the institution that subsequently became known as the Free 
Academy was established. The board of education was for 
a long period, composed of commissioners elected by wards, 
but such government proved cumbersome and lacking in 
wise and efficient supervision and the board was reconsti- 
tuted in 1900, to consist of five members elective by the 
people at large, with terms of four years each. A marked 
improvement has since taken place both in business admin- 
istration and methods of instruction and the public schools 
now rank deservedly among the first in the land. There 
are two high, one normal training and 34 graded schools, 
their buildings being commodious, convenient and attract- 
ive — ornaments to the localities in which they are placed. 
George M. Forbes is president of the board, and Clarence 
F. Carroll, superintendent. The cost of maintenance for 



THE GREAT UNIVERSITIES 243 

the school year, 1907-08, was $904,415.20, of which $78,- 
362.46 came from the State, and $816,052.74 from local 
taxation and other sources. The local tax levy for 1908-09 
is $797,848. The number of children registered in the 
public schools is 29,693, and in parochial schools 11,032. 

There are 26 parochial (three of academic grade) and 32 
select schools, the latter including Hebrew, commercial, 
correspondence and music schools, and that splendid 
eleemosynary institution, the Athenaeum and Mechanic In- 
stitute, in which free instruction in drawing, music, domestic 
science and housekeeping has been given to thousands of 
pupils, the site of which embraces that of the homestead of 
Col. Rochester and the usefulness of which is due, largely, 
to the benefactions of Rochester citizens, and especially to 
those of George Eastman and the late Henry Lomb. 

Rochester is the seat of one of the leading institutions of 
higher education in the State — the University of Rochester. 
It is a college under Baptist auspices, but undenominational 
in conduct. Its first class was graduated in 1851. It is 
situated on a campus of 24 acres, fronting University 
Avenue, in one of the most eligible sections of the city. Its 
buildings are Anderson Hall, completed in 1861, Sibley 
Hall, erected in 1874, by Hiram Sibley, the Reynolds 
Memorial Laboratory, built in 1866 by Mortimer F. Rey- 
nolds, the Eastman Laboratories, presented by George East- 
man in 1906, and the Alumni Gymnasium. There are no 
college dormitories, but the members of the Greek letter 
fraternities lodge in their respective chapter houses. The 
faculty throughout has been of excellent calibre, chairs 
being held by Dewey, Kendrick, Raymond, Robinson, 
Quinby, Ward, Morey and others of national reputation, 
while the presidents, of whom there have been three, have 
all been highly distinguished. They include Martin B. 
Anderson — 1853-88 — who, with his broad knowledge, his 



244 ROCHESTER 

analytical and illuminating quality as a teacher and the 
force of his character, ranks among the few great American 
educators of the 19th century; David Jayne Hill — 1889-96 — 
brilliant as an author, orator and diplomatist, ambassador 
of the United States to Germany, and Rush Rhees, incum- 
bent since 1900, scholarly and magnetic in speech, alert in 
administration and rapidly appreciating in the esteem of 
educational circles. Until 1900, the university curriculum 
was exclusively for males, but, in that year, in view of the 
public demand and of a contribution of $50,000, through a 
committee of Rochester women, with Susan B. Anthony at 
its head, females were admitted on "the same terms and 
conditions" as males. The degrees of bachelor of arts, of 
philosophy and of science are conferred in course. The 
number of students registered in 1907-08 was men 244, 
women 129 — total, 373. The graduating class numbered 32 
men and 21 women — total, 53. The whole property of the 
University is $1,533,154.48, of which $572,759.48 is invested 
in land, buildings, etc., and $770,486.84 in securities. The 
expenditures of the year were $81,497.51. In even an allu- 
sion to the work of the University, a sterling influence it has 
exerted cannot be ignored. A large proportion of its 
alumni has not only come from, but has returned to, the 
city, and, informing both its professional and business life, 
has exalted and purified its intellectual and moral tone, thus 
rendering its society exceptionally refined and cultivated. 

The Rochester Theological Seminary is among the promi- 
nent institutions of the Baptist denomination. It was 
founded in 1850, is located at the corner of East Avenue and 
Alexander Street, and is richly endowed, principally by 
John D. Rockefeller and John B. Trevor; after each a hall 
is named. It has invested in land, buildings and library, 
$402,048.40, and in permanent securities, $1,637,157.03. 
Augustus H. Strong, D. D., has been president since 1872, 



LIBRARIES AND THE PRESS 245 

and there is a faculty of 13 members. It graduates classes 
of about 25 annually. St. Bernard's, a leading seminary for 
the training of priests of the Roman Catholic Church, was 
established by Bishop McQuaid in 1893. J- J- Hartley, 
D. D., is prorector, and there are 12 members of the faculty 
and 163 seminarians. 

Rochester is well provided with libraries. The Reynolds 
contains about 70,000 volumes, being especially full and 
valuable in its reference department. The library of the 
Appellate Division of the Fourth Department has about 
31,000 volumes, and the law library in the Powers building, 
for the sole use of tenants, has a considerable collection. 
The library of the University has 48,000 volumes, that of 
Rochester Theological Seminary 35,000, and that of St. 
Bernard's 12,000. The Mechanics' Institute has a small, 
but well-selected, library, and in the public school libraries 
there are 82,617 books, to which 12,115 were added during 
the past year. 

The press of Rochester has, from the first, been a power 
in Western New York, and has enlisted in its service many 
able business men and accomplished writers. The pioneer 
printer was Augustine G. Dauby, who started the Gazette 
in 1816; and, in 1818, Everard Peck entered the field with 
the Telegraph. A number of local newspapers have been 
eminently successful financially. The list of those who 
have made enviable reputation in various editorial capaci- 
ties is a long one and includes, among others, Thurlow 
Weed, who, after a residence of six years in Rochester, went 
to Albany, in 1830, there to found the Journal and become 
the most skilful politician of his day; Henry O'Reilly, well 
known for his "Sketches of Rochester" — a storehouse of in- 
formation; Edwin Scrantom, hardly less known for his 
fertile reminiscences of local events; George Dawson, as- 
sociated for many years with the Albany Journal; Isaac 



246 ROCHESTER 

Butts, brave, terse and uncompromising with his pen; 
Luther Tucker and Daniel D. T. Moore, authoritative in 
agricultural journalism; Leonard W. Jerome, who, after a 
bright career as editor of the American, accumulated a 
princely fortune in the metropolis; Robert Carter and 
Joseph O'Connor, who divide the honors for scholarly 
culture and lucidity of style; Frederick Douglass, the 
Chrysostom of his race; Rossiter Johnson, poet and encyclo- 
poedist; Isaac H. Bromley, Isaac M. Gregory and George 
T. Lanigan, famous as wits; William Purcell, supreme as a 
controversialist; Samuel H. Lowe, graceful and politic in 
expression; William F. Peck, of wide knowledge, diligent 
in research, accurate in statement, and the author of the best 
local histories extant; George H. Ellwanger, with his crisp 
and sparkling monographs on flowers and fruits and the epi- 
curean table; Charles Mulford Robinson, who has written 
intelligently and attractively on civic art, and has been con- 
sulted in the beautifying of many American cities; Robert 
Bridges, of melodious measures, now associate editor of 
Scribner's Magazine; Edward S. Martin, editor of 
Harper's Weekly, a gentle and philosophic essayist; Samuel 
G. Blythe, a linguistic acrobat, in vogue as a magazine con- 
tributor; Louis M. Antisdale, the present editor of the 
Herald, and William H. Samson, managing editor of the 
Post-Express, both filling their places admirably and effec- 
tively, the latter a recognized authority on Indian annals 
and relics. There are now seven daily (one German), two 
semi-weekly, 13 monthly (one Spanish), and one quarterly, 
issues of the Rochester press. Authors of standard works 
are Lewis H. Morgan, whose "League of the Iroquois," 
"Ancient Society" and kindred studies rank him among the 
first of modern ethnologists, and James Breck Perkins,^for 
a time a member of Congress, whose "France Under Riche- 
lieu and Mazarin," "France Under the Regency," and 



SCIENCE AND CHARITIES 247 

"France Under Louis XIV" place him among leading 
American historians. 

The Rochester Academy of Science was organized in 
1 88 1, and the Rochester Historical Society in 1888. Their 
objects are revealed in their names. There are a number of 
literary and professional clubs, the most of which also par- 
take of a social character. Among them are the Club, 
usually styled the Pundit, the Fortnightly, the Humdrum, 
the Kent, the Library, the Ethical, the Wednesday Morning, 
the Browning, the Shakespeare, the Modern History, El 
Circulo Espagnol and the College Women's. The Roches- 
ter, Genesee Valley, Eureka, Whist, Friars and Monroe are 
the principal purely social clubs, and the various patriotic 
and race associations have here located chapters and lodges. 

The charity of Rochester is proverbial. Nowhere does 
wealth lay its offerings upon the altar of beneficence more 
freely, or the passion of giving permeate all classes more 
fully. All infirmities are ministered to and all misfortunes 
are alleviated. Eleemosynary institutions are numerous 
and all are amply equipped and well managed. The State 
has a hospital for the insane and the county its almshouse. 
The Western New York Institute for Deaf Mutes was in- 
corporated in 1876, and, while it is partially maintained by 
tuition fees, it is authorized to receive a number of pupils 
at State charge, by appointment of the State Commissioner 
of Education. It has a fine structure on North St. Paul 
Street, valued at $125,000. Z. F. Westervelt has been prin- 
cipal since its foundation. The Female Charitable Society 
is the oldest philanthropy, dating from 1822. It is without 
buildings and accomplishes its mission through district 
visitors. The Home of the Friendless and the Industrial 
School are both highly useful and have been the recipients 
of many donations. There are five orphan asylums — the 
Rochester, in support of which Protestant sects generally are 



248 ROCHESTER 

united; the Jewish, St. Joseph's, St. Mary's (for boys), and 
St. Patrick's (girls), — the latter three under Roman 
Catholic supervision. The local hospitals are among the 
best appointed and best equipped in the State, served 
gratuitously by the ablest physicians and surgeons, and de- 
riving large revenues from the bounty and devises of citizens 
and from annual fairs, which are liberally patronized, and 
are events in the city life. They are the City, the Homeo- 
pathic, the Hahnemann and St. Mary's, the last named 
under the direction of the Sisters of Charity. Among 
other charitable institutions are the Church Home (Protes- 
tant Episcopal), the Baptist Home, the German Home for 
the Aged and the Door of Hope; and, among societies, the 
American Ladies' Benevolent, a branch of the National 
Red Cross, Bavarian Benevolent, Humane Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Mecklenburger Benevo- 
lent, Baden Sick Benevolent, Prevention of Cruelty to Chil- 
dren, Swabian Benevolent, Woman's Educational and In- 
dustrial Union, and various others, under the control of the 
Roman Catholic and Jewish communions, respectively, both 
of which are zealous in good works. The Young Men's 
Christian Association was organized in 1875, and the Young 
Women's in 1883. Each has a large and active member- 
ship. 

The cleanliness, safety and health of Rochester are con- 
served by its splendid water system, which has no superior 
in the purity of its supply or in the fidelity and economy of 
its management. It is owned and operated entirely by the 
municipality. It has two divisions — public and domestic 
use and fire protection. The works, first utilized in 1876, 
w^ere completed under the supervision of an eminent engi- 
neer, J. Nelson Tubbs, but have since, from time to time, 
been enlarged and improved. The sources of supply, 
through gravity, are from Hemlock and Canadice, two beau- 



WATER SUPPLY AND PARKS 249 

tiful lakes of signal purity, in Livingston County, about 29 
miles south of Mt. Hope reservoir, the main distributing 
reservoir within the city limits. There is an intermediate 
reservoir at Rush, 10 miles beyond Mt. Hope. The first 
conduit laid consists of 9.627 miles of 36-inch and 2.92 miles 
of 24 wrought, inch riveted pipe and 15.70 miles of 24-inch 
cast-iron pipe. A newer conduit includes 2.252 miles of 
brick facing six feet in diameter and 25.94 utiles of 38-inch 
riveted steel with 1.47 miles of 3.6-inch cast-iron pipe. The 
capacity of the Mt. Hope reservoir is 24,278,101 gallons, 
with a water surface of 5^ acres; that of Rush, 74,525,902 
gallons, with an area of 14 acres. Still another, the Cobb's 
Hill (unfinished) will have a capacity of about 140,000,000. 
The elevation of Hemlock Lake above the heart of the city 
is nearly 400 feet. There are about 320 miles of distrib- 
uting pipe of this division in the city. The Holly, or fire 
protection, division, obtains its supply from Genesee River, 
and has about 326 miles of distributing pipes and 3,550 
hydrants. It is a great safeguard against conflagrations, of 
which Rochester has had very few in recent years. The 
daily average consumption of the whole system is 16,410,000 
gallons. The cost of the works up to January i, 1908, was 
$7,816,204.83; the revenues for 1907 were $588,303.98; the 
operating expenses, $198,343.93; the amount applied to the 
liquidation of funded indebtedness, $280,749.69, and to bet- 
terments, $85,476.68. 

In a city which is in itself a park from center to circum- 
ference, wherein the elms spread their branches and the 
fathers set breathing places in the thoroughfares, there 
would seem to be less necessity for public parks than in places 
less favored; and yet the one has but fed the desire for the 
other, which was attained, in 1888, in the projection of one 
of the most elaborate park systems in the country. Much 
credit is due to the late George W. Elliott who, in the press 



250 ROCHESTER 

and in the Common Council, urged the movement, but the 
late Dr. Edward M. Moore, who, from his varied knowl- 
edge and consistent public spirit was long held to be the 
"first citizen" of Rochester, and, from its inception until his 
death in 1902 was president of the park commission, is gen- 
erally regarded as the father of the system. It has, from 
the first, enlisted in its behalf as commissioners men of zeal 
and devotion to their work. Alexander B. Lamberton is 
now president of the board, and Calvin C. Laney is, and has 
been, for many years, superintendent and engineer. A few 
words must suffice for an altogether insufficient description 
of this magnificent undertaking. There are three principal 
parks — the Genesee Valley, the Highland, and the Seneca. 
The first, at the south end of the city, contains 53508 acres, 
through which the river flows, with gently sloping banks, 
and level lands beyond, on either side. Ancient trees are 
preserved, and lawns and winding paths and pleasure 
grounds have been skilfully fashioned. The second, in the 
near neighborhood of the first, includes 54.69 acres, and is 
exceptionally beautiful in flowers, both native and exotic. 
The third, below the lower falls, where the river sweeps 
through a deep chasm, is remarkable for the grandeur of its 
scenery and the extent of its outlook. Its domain is 211.06 
acres. The cost of these park lands was $318,368.48. 
There are numerous small parks and squares scat- 
tered throughout the city, their entire acreage being 
1,472.07. George Eastman has recently given to the city a 
lot of 1,500 feet frontage adjoining the Cobb's Hill reser- 
voir, which will add considerably to the park demesne. 

The Chamber of Commerce, organized in 1888, is of vital 
consequence, in its general supervision of local interests, in 
collecting statistics, supplying information, encouraging 
existing and stimulating new enterprises and in advancing 
the common weal. It is solicitous for the honor as well as 



RAILWAY TERMINALS 25 1 

the thrift of the city. It mingles in its associates the best 
business blood and promotes their harmonious and even fra- 
ternal relations. It has been loyally served by its officials, 
its successive secretaries having been peculiarly devoted to 
their trust. S. R. Clarke is now acting in that capacity. 
The Chamber is handsomely housed in its own building, at 
the corner of Main and South St. Paul streets. 

In all directions, railways stretch their iron fingers with 
friendly clasp to distant communities. There is a larger 
and richer territory within the State tributary to Rochester 
than to any other city therein not upon the seaboard. The 
New York Central and Hudson River Company links it 
with the west at Buffalo and Niagara Falls and at the east 
with Syracuse and the metropolis by two lines — those via 
Lyons and Auburn, respectively. The Rome and Water- 
town and the West Shore are both leased to the New York 
Central, with eastern and western connections. Branches of 
the Lehigh Valley, the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
and the Erie bring those great systems in touch with the city. 
The Pennsylvania, with its two divisions, runs, the one to 
Olean and the other — originally the Northern Central — to 
Philadelphia and Washington. The Buffalo, Rochester 
and Pittsburg, formerly the State Line, unites the three 
places, as its title indicates. With the development of the 
trolley system, Rochester is in close contact with scores of 
villages in Western New York, there being six or eight lines, 
and more a-building, while the Rochester Electric Railway, 
with a capital of $6,000,000, incorporated in 1890, is one of 
the best-equipped and best-managed street railway com- 
panies in the world, with 165.32 miles, including double 
tracks and sidings, radiating from the "four corners" as a 
common center, and employing 412 motor cars, according to 
the report of 1907. 

The capital of the banks of discount in Rochester is not 



252 



ROCHESTER 



apparently commensurate with its population and wealth, 
but this is accounted for by the existence of several large 
trust companies which make good what would otherwise be 
a pronounced deficiency. The capital of the Traders 
National is $500,000, with $600,000 surplus and profits; the 
Merchants, $100,000, surplus $150,000; the Central, $200,- 
000, surplus and undivided profits, $250,000; the Alliance, 
$275,000, surplus $275,000; the Lincoln National, $1,000,- 
000, surplus $1,000,000; and the National Bank of Com- 
merce, $500,000, surplus and undivided profits $225,000. 
The Trust and Safe Deposit Co. has a capital of $200,000, 
with over $1,000,000 surplus and $21,500,000 of resources; 
the Security, $500,000 of capital and surplus, with deposits 
of $10,600,000; the Union, $250,000, with $125,000 of sur- 
plus and undivided profits and $3,900,000 of deposits; the 
Fidelity, $200,000, with $200,000 of surplus and undivided 
profits and the Genesee Valley, $300,000, with surplus of 
$258,823.26. There are four savings banks — the Rochester, 
with $23,210,390.99 deposits and $11,641,661.71 loans; the 
Monroe County, $18,684,455.40 deposits and $11,454,045 
loans; the Mechanics, $3,671,445.89 deposits, and $2,427,250 
loans; and the East Side, $7,689,946.03 deposits, and $5,064,- 
522 loans. The Rochester German, a strong insurance com- 
pany, has a capital of $500,000, a reserve for reinsurance of 
$1,035,909.65, a reserve for unpaid losses and other liabili- 
ties of $107,929.49, and a net surplus of $574,823.76. 

Rochester claims the primacy in the production of photo- 
graphic supplies, thermometers, canned goods, optical in- 
struments, enameled tanks, office-filing devices, buttons, 
wood and paper-box machinery, and in the output of seeds 
and nursery stock. A few words are due to the inventors 
of Rochester, and especially to him, who, less than 30 years 
ago, was a bank clerk and an amateur photographer. His 
experiments have brought him fame and fortune and from 



IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES 253 

America to "far Cathay"; girdling the globe, the mystical 
message of the Eastman Kodak is the credential of civiliza- 
tion. Until 1880, the photographers used what was known 
as the wet plate, but this was then superseded by a process 
in which the sensitive silver salts were suspended in a gela- 
tine emulsion and spread upon glass; that is, the dry plate. 
Mr. Eastman was not only successful in his experiments, but 
made the plate commercially practical and enlisted, in his 
manufacture thereof, capitalists who had faith in the worth 
of his discoveries. Following this, have been the bromide 
papers, the Kodak camera, the transparent and daylight 
films, the developing machine doing away with the dark 
room, and constant improvements in cameras, lenses, shut- 
ters, papers and chemicals, all of which have contributed to 
the evolution of the marvelous photography of the day. 
The Kodak Park works comprise about 43 acres on the Lake 
Avenue Boulevard. There are 45 buildings, mostly fire- 
proof, with a floor space of 22 acres, a chimney 366 feet 
high — the tallest in the United States — a power house with 
300 horse-power boilers, five electric generators of 3,000 
horse-power and 7,000 incandescent lights. The employees 
number about 1,400 men and 600 women. The Kodak has 
also enormous manufacturing properties in St. Louis, 
Jamestown, N. Y., and Toronto, and in Harrow and Ash- 
stead, England. 

Another notable device is the United States mail chute, 
invented by James G. Cutler, an eminent architect, and first 
applied in the Elwood building, through which letters are 
dropped from the floors above of a building to the ground 
floor, where a Government mail box receives them for dis- 
tribution. It is found to be very convenient, and is utilized, 
largely, by the tenants of the "skyscrapers," now a striking 
feature of American cities. It is extensively and remuner- 
atively manufactured by the Cutler Brothers. The Sar- 



254 ROCHESTER 

gent and Greenleaf Co. is the manufacturer of various in- 
ventions of James Sargent — the burglar-proof lock of 1865, 
the Sargent time-lock of 1873, and many styles of lock since 
perfected. Their use is more than continental. Mr. Sar- 
gent is also the inventor of the glass-enameled steel tank and 
vacuum pump of the Pfaudler Company and of the auto- 
matic semaphor of the Gordon Railw^ay Signal Company. 
The Bausch and Lomb Optical Company is the leading 
world manufacturer of optical instruments, many of which 
are of their own origination. The "Rochester lamp," al- 
though not of Rochester manufacture, is of Rochester crea- 
tion, introduced by Rochester capital, and carries the name 
wherever kerosene casts its light. A longer catalogue of 
home inventions might be given, but the foregoing are in- 
stanced as illustrations rather than as a complete inventory 
of them. 

Because of space limitations, a full conspectus of 
Rochester manufacturers cannot be presented, but allusion 
must be made to a few of the more prominent ones. 
Rochester stands third in the United States as a manufac- 
turer of clothing. There were, at the last record, 39 whole- 
sale dealers therein, with an annual output of goods to the 
amount of $18,000,000. The Jews, to whose excellent 
quality as citizens reference has been made already, control, 
if they do not wholly monopolize, this branch of trade. 
Another industry is that of boots and shoes, of which there 
are 54 factories, with an annual production of $12,000,000. 
Although the scepter of wheat, like the course of empire, 
has passed westward, there are still 15 mills producing an- 
nually about 1,000,000 barrels of flour. There are 10 
breweries, in the popularity of whose product, Rochester 
rivals St. Louis and Milwaukee, with a yearly sale of 600,- 
000 barrels. Among eastern cities, Rochester, as befitting 
its floral title and the fertility of the Genesee Valley, bears 




cyf a.'M^,^^-^: 



• >CH ESTER 

). IS the manufacturer of various in- 

•-;ent — the burglar-proof lock of 1865, 

of 1873, and many styles of lock since 

c is more than continental. Mr. Sar- 

or of the glass-enameled steel tank and 

. I I, ,i Pfaudler Company and of the auto- 

. , semap. i-.i >i the Gordon Railway Signal Company. 

he Bausch and Lomb Optical Company is the leading 

ri/i n,H!. Mcturer of optical instruments, many of which 

vn origination. The "Rochester lamp," al- 

Rochester manufacture, is of Rochester crea- 

' by Rochester capital, and carries the name 

"' " '!l^ ^'^^SH-iNTZ ^ '"^"^^^ catalogue of 
■' ■ ,r ■. ■;■, \:'' is. M .-,- 'ue are in- 
Manufacturer, Rochester ; bofni-JBerlinj Pn$apjb;t^iig»4^ntorv' 
24, 1852 ; educated in the Berlin pubHc schools and Hamil- 
ton Business College; engaged for many years in the but- 
ton manufacture in Rochester, where he has been an in; 
fluential citizen, but has not sought pblititafoflife^' ^''■''- ^''^Si'^'l 
K- more prominent ones. 
1 n the limtcd States as a manufac- 
'icre were, at the last record, 39 whole- 
'. ith an annual output of goods to the 
'X). The Jews, to whose excellent 
' ~ been made already, control, 
lize, this branch of' trade. 
- and shoes, of which there 
production of $12,000,000. 
kc the course of empire, 
: 11 15 mills producing an- 
of flour. There are 10 
vhose product, Rochester 
with a yearly sale of 600,- 
rri tities, Rochester, as befitting 
tiy of the Genesee Valley, bears 




^ 



POPULATION AND WEALTH 255 

the palm for its commerce in trees and flowers, George EU- 
wanger being the pioneer in the cultivation of the one, and 
James Vick long having precedence in that of the other. 
There are now 39 nurserymen, 45 florists and 12 seedsmen. 
The Sibley, Lindsay and Curr Company, formed in 1868, 
conducts one of the biggest department stores in the country, 
with a colossal building and the frontage of a block on East 
Main Street; other stores of like character are those of the 
McCurdy and Norwell and the Duffy-Mclnnerney Com- 
pany. The entire capital invested in the manufactures and 
wholesale trade is over $71,000,000; there are 1,019 estab- 
lishments thereof; the factory and workshop employees 
number 33,000, and the annual value of manufactured 
goods is $83,000,000. 

Rochester ranks as the 24th city of the Union in popula- 
tion — 218,000 in 1910, — and became a first-class city, by 
statute, January i, 1908. Property, real and personal, is 
assessed at $149,764,385. The tax levy for 1908, less income 
estimates, is $2,826,000. The municipal debt is $9,982,- 
889.04. There are 22 wards and 1,116 streets, with a length 
of 384 miles, and 84 alleys, with a length of 16 miles. The 
city is well-paved, asphalt predominating, and its system of 
sewers, with the trunk lines debouching into the Genesee, is 
excellent. The fire department is efiicient, with 14 engine, 
three hose, six truck, and one Protective sack and bucket 
and two supply companies, one watch tower and 281 signal 
boxes of the fire alarm telegraph. The United States Gov- 
ernment building, on South Fitzhugh Street, contains the 
post-office, the internal revenue and the customs offices and 
the rooms of the Federal District Court. Post-office 
revenues for the year ending March 31, 1908, were $839,- 
572.32; of the custom house, $446,947.10; and of the internal 
revenue, $2,205,925.68 for the year ending July i, 1908. 

The story of Rochester has been told as fully as prescribed 



256 ROCHESTER 

limits would permit. It is not, as was premised, a story of 
mediaeval emprise, of siege and slaughter, of crumbling 
turrets or hoary traditions, although the place had its share 
in repelling the invasion of 1812 and of glory for its sons 
in the conflict of 1861. It is the story of the orderly com- 
position of an American city, of the highest type, along lines 
of honest endeavor and cleanly living, through the century 
succeeding the assertion of American freedom. It is a story 
in which every citizen may take just pride, as he emulates 
the work of the fathers and reflects upon the progress 
made, and the estate secured. In the making of the city, 
all professions and vocations have been represented with 
ability and even with renown. Whittlesey, Gardiner, 
Church, the Seldens, E. Darwin Smith, Danforth and Ma- 
comber have administered justice in the State tribunals, 
and Martindale, Pomeroy, Peshine Smith, Cogswell, 
Bacon, Van Voorhis, Bissell, Sutherland and Raines have 
made cogent and eloquent pleas at the bar. Whitbeck, 
Dean, Ely, Gilkeson, Hurd, Sumner, Biegler and Stoddard 
have practiced and expounded the healing art, and Moore 
has displayed consummate skill as a surgeon; and White- 
house, Lee, Penney, Shaw, Patton, Riggs, Foote, Doty, Rob- 
bins, Luckey, George and Cushing have broken the bread 
of life. Here Myron Holley was the champion of human 
rights. Here Susan B. Anthony led in the crusade for the 
emancipation of her sex, and Hiram Sibley became a master- 
ful organizer and a financial king. Here industry has 
accumulated wealth, and artisans and educators have joined 
in furthering the common credit and welfare. 
1909 Charles Elliott Fitch. 



UTICA 

ITS HISTORY AND PROGRESS 

UTICA, with 62,924 inhabitants in 1905 and 74,418 by 
the census of 1910, lies on a slope rising from the 
south bank of the Mohawk, very near the geo- 
graphic center of the State, and from 450 to 640 feet above 
the level of the sea; it was part of the vast manor taken up 
by Governor Cosby, but the tract was sold for non-payment 
of quit-rents to General Philip Schuyler, General John 
Bradstreet, John Morin Scott and Rutger Bleecker. Dis- 
sension between the heirs of Bradstreet led to a long conflict 
in the courts over the title. A ford in the river was a point 
from which the trails of the red Americans marked courses 
where highways, canals and railroads have been built. The 
low water, which gave a crossing, proved a barrier when 
navigation began, and here was a main landing, although 
some boats went up to the sources of the stream. Here, in 
1758, Fort Schuyler was placed — one of a chain of posts for 
defence in the French war. Near this fort as early as 1785 
there were three rude cabins which were homes of white 
men who had before been living lower down the valley. 
These founders of the town were John Cunningham, George 
Damuth and Jacob Chrisman. Two of these and most of 
the settlers who first followed them were descendants of 
immigrants from the Palatinate; the third of the founders 
was of Scotch origin. 

In 1788, by a line running north and south across the 
State, over the ford, a town was created and called Whites- 
town, after Hugh White, a settler from New England, who 
chose to locate near the mouth of the Sauquoit. His family 
is identified with the city to-day. Immigrants were at- 

257 



258 CITY OF UTICA 

tracted along that stream where, after a while, factories 
found water-power. Fort Schuyler only slowly drew the 
trade of the neighborhood, and the increase of population 
was gradual. But energetic men and women came to the 
ford; and to trade with the Indians and husbandry were 
added blacksmithing and other mechanical occupations. 
John Post set up a primitive store in 1790. The Legisla- 
ture, in 1792, granted 2,000 pounds sterling ($10,000) for 
a bridge over the Mohawk, where crossed the main route 
from Albany and the east to the "Genesee County." The 
central avenue of the city keeps the line and the name. 

The peltries gathered by the red men and the growing 
returns from the land led enterprising youths to gather and 
exchange them for the merchandise needed by the settlers. 
Under such an impulse in 1789, Peter Smith, born on the 
Hudson, passed up the valley to become a merchant here, 
enlisting John Jacob Astor as partner — to win fortune in 
business, to be honored by his neighbors, and to be remem- 
bered also as the father of Gerrit Smith. In 1797, another 
merchant, Bryan Johnson, a native of England, began here 
the varied traffic of a new country, earning success by thrift 
and energy. He impressed himself on the hamlet, gathered 
a fortune in lands, and left a worthy name to descendants 
who remain on the ancestral soil. 

Veterans of the war of the Revolution were among those 
who, in early days, chose homes here. A pioneer was Ben- 
jamin Walker, who had been aid to General Steuben, and 
his secretary; he came in 1797 as a land agent and was 
efficient in drawing immigrants. His broader work for the 
common welfare was recognized by his election in 1800 as 
representative in Congress. Natives of England and Scot- 
land added to the young hamlet included persons who in 
industry, trade and the professions gave to it tone and 
strength. Such was Dr. Alexander Coventry, who, edu- 



COLONIAL HISTORY 259 

cated in Edinburgh, in 1796, brought the art of healing, and 
on a high plane long practiced his profession, winning the 
esteem and afifection of his neighbors. The city counts 
members of his family among its present residents. 

The hamlet did not shut itself in, but welcomed strangers, 
and threw out lines to bring settlers and promote traffic. 
In 1794, Moses Bagg, who had served the local needs as 
blacksmith, opened his house as a tavern to entertain trav- 
ellers. His fame as host for years drew guests and has 
marked the original site, while the name is kept alive by 
those who worthily wear it. In 1794 also, Jason Parker 
traveled as postrider between Canajoharie and Whitestown. 
He soon secured a contract for carrying the mails and the 
next year stages for passengers as well were run twice a week 
orer the route. He had rare gifts for transportation and 
knew how to meet its problems as expanding business re- 
quired. He established new routes wherever passengers 
and freight could be reached and his lines were models for 
quick and prompt service. 

Surveyors, schools, preachers, lawyers, carpenters, other 
mechanics were here before April 3, 1798, when a 
village was legally created and by lot named Utica, in 
Oneida County, which was erected out of Herkimer on 
March 15, 1798. The scanty population wanted home rule. 
As early as July 10, 1793, a newspaper, the Gazette, was 
printed in New Hartford for Jedediah Sanger, Samuel 
Wells and Elijah Risley. In July, 1798, it was removed by 
William McLean to Fort Schuyler, and after many mergers 
and a history sometimes brilliant, its successor, under a new 
name, now ministers to the popular needs. On his tour in 
1798, President Dwight, of Yale College, found here "a 
pretty village containing fifty houses occupied by sanguine 
people, with non-resident owners asking high prices for the 
vacant lands." The Holland Land Company, which held 



26o CITY OF UTICA 

title to tracts north of the Mohawk and to a million acres 
in the Genesee County, in this year built a brick hotel, nota- 
ble for its size, for the convenience of immigrants, and the 
structure stands at Whitesboro and Hotel streets, a monu- 
ment of the liberal plans of its projectors. 

The secondary rank of Utica in 1794 is shown by the 
division of religious services between the village and 
Whitesboro, giving one-third to the former and twice as 
many to the latter hamlet, while Rev. Bethuel Dodd, the 
pastor, a Presbyterian, received his pay from the two places 
in this ratio. The Episcopalians, under a missionary from 
Trinity Church, New York, organized here in 1798 under 
the same style, but this initial zeal lasted only a little while, 
and a new start in 1803 began the life which still continues. 

The State gave aid in 1797 to improve a turnpike to the 
west, laid out by commissioners three years earlier, to the 
amount of $13,900; the money was drawn from a fund raised 
by lotteries. In 1800, the road was put in charge of the 
Seneca Turnpike Company with a capital of $110,000 and 
maintained by tolls. The Mohawk Turnpike and Bridge 
Company, in the same year, undertook to care for the main 
road eastward, north of the river. Men of Utica had a 
large share in the control of both of these enterprises. To 
get the benefit of these and other facilities for trade, Kane 
and Van Rensselaer, who had general stores in New York, 
Albany, Schenectady and Canajoharie, set up another here 
in 1800, claiming to have larger resources and to offer better 
terms than local competitors. The traffic of all of them 
was chiefly barter, for currency was scarce. Tanneries and 
breweries began work at an early day, and the forests fur- 
nished lumber which was used for building and wrought 
into simple furniture and wagons. 

Before the village was a decade old, several immigrants 
from Wales settled in Utica and many more on the hills to 



THE EARLY CHURCHES 26 1 

the northward. After 1800, doubtless on their report, a 
strong stream set in from the principality, and for quite a 
period composed the chief additions to the population, then 
in main part from New England. The First Baptist 
Church was organized in 1801 by the Welsh settlers, while 
the only provision for services in English was by the branch 
of the Whitesboro church. An offshoot from this Welsh 
church has grown into the large and prosperous Tabernacle, 
while the original stock kept up the use of the old tongue. 
The second religious organization for Utica itself was also 
formed by the Welsh settlers in 1802, as the Independent or 
Congregational Church, under Rev. Daniel Morris, the 
first pastor, located in the village; they erected the first 
church edifice in the place, finishing it in 1804. It stood 
on the corner of Whitesboro and Washington streets. An- 
other building put up by the society on the same site is now 
occupied as a Jewish synagogue, while the former owners 
worship in a new church elsewhere with greater numbers. 
These churches, with others, added as years ran on, are 
signs and also became causes of the concentration of Welsh 
immigration in Utica and its vicinity. The movement has 
been constant, though varying in volume. It has con- 
tributed in the first and more in succeeding generations suc- 
cessful workers to every occupation, a full share of leaders 
in the pulpit, at the bar and on the bench, in medicine, not 
a few of the most prominent merchants, managers of large 
enterprises, and citizens of high repute in politics and 
finance. Thus, the city has always been a favorite home 
for the issue of Welsh publications, while the Utica Eistedd- 
ford has for half a century been famous at home and abroad. 
Rev. John Taylor of Massachusetts visited our village in 
1802. He found above ninety houses, and in them "a mass 
of discordant materials; people of ten or twelve dififerent 
and of almost all religions and sects, but the greater part of 



262 CITY OF UTICA 

no religion." Yet three hundred persons gathered to hear 
him preach on Sunday, doubtless to their edification. Prob- 
ably the village was of the average frontier character; it is 
evident the charity of the missionary did not overflow. 

Post- routes, sixty miles to the northward, were established 
under the authority of the Postoffice Department by 
Thomas Walker in the first decade of the new century. He 
was publisher of the Columbian Gazette and sought in this 
way to promote its circulation. Mr. Walker, in a long life, 
showed like foresight and energy in other directions and 
earned esteem as a citizen and financier. 

A striking feature in the local industry and energy, when 
the population of the village ranged from 1,000 to 5,000, 
was the number of books published from the presses of the 
pattern of the day. These works, by their variety and char- 
acter, testify to the intelligence and taste of the community 
as well as to the enterprise which ventured so much. They 
include a Hymn Book and Catechism in Welsh, and Web- 
ster's Lessons in Reading and Spelling, brought out in 1808. 
These were followed by the Armenian Anatomized, in 18 16; 
Essay on Musical Harmony, in 1817; Morse's Geography, 
in 1 8 19. In course came out Sermons; a Church History; 
Voyage in the Pacific and the South Seas; a Hawaiian 
Grammar; Watts' Divine Songs; Doddridge in Verse; 
Bible Questions; Musica Sacra; Spiritual Songs; Livy; 
Webster's Spelling Book, printed by thousands; Murray's 
Grammar and English Reader; Young Ladies' Astronomy; 
History of the Solar System; Escala, an American Tale; 
Patriot's Manual ; Daboll's Arithmetic ; several volumes of 
history and biography; illustrated toy books and primers; 
the New Testament in the Douay version. A new edition 
of the Edinburg Encyclopaedia was begun in this period. 
Besides these books and the newspapers, several magazines 
were started, all before 1825. The marvel is to be meas- 



TYPES OF POPULATION 263 

ured not only by the scant population at hand, but even by 
that accessible by the meagre means of transport at the end 
of these years and just striving into being at their beginning. 
The leaders in this business were William Williams and 
his partner, Asahel Seward. Both, and especially the for- 
mer, in other ways also rendered the town valuable service. 

In the first court held in the new county, Nathan Wil- 
liams was admitted to practice in it. Of Welsh descent, he 
was a native of Massachusetts. As District Attorney from 
1801 to 1813, as Member of Assembly for three terms, as 
Representative in Congress from 1805 to 1807, and as Judge 
of the Circuit Court for ten years after 1823, his record is 
honorable. The bar of the city has in him as man and citi- 
zen an inspiring example. 

Ireland had little representation among the first settlers, 
but in 1802 came John C. Devereux and later three brothers, 
to take an active part in traffic, in banking, in public afifairs, 
in charities, and to leave an ever-widening array of descend- 
ants. In the era of the construction of the Erie canals, 
immigrants flocked in large numbers from that island not 
only for the rough work of digging the channel, but for 
every form of activity in the life of a busy people. As late 
as 1819, when Catholic services were first celebrated, not 
more than thirty residents attended, while Protestant Irish 
were much fewer; yet a Catholic Church was consecrated 
in 1821, and in 1822 a Hibernian association was formed. 
Later, immigrants from the Green Isle were more numer- 
ous, and they added to the production, the intelligence and 
the wealth of the place. In due time, they formed religious 
and benevolent societies, and in their own way kept fresh 
the memories of their old home. Every position in busi- 
ness and the State became subject to their competition, and 
nowhere are the higher qualities of their race more worthily 
illustrated. 



264 CITY OF UTICA 

Boats on the Mohawk, with stages and freight wagons, 
had supplied the means of transportation for the growing 
trade and travel. A vast impulse was given when boats 
ran on the new canal as far as Rome, in 18 19, and still 
greater when, in 1825, the waters of Lake Erie were joined 
with those of the Hudson. Utica gained in large measure 
by the canal, and its citizens built boats and managed them, 
and their lines of packets and for through freight prospered. 
The village soon took its place as the leading center, dis- 
tancing the neighbors to which it had held second rank so 
that local orators began to style it the metropolis of the 
Mohawk valley. 

With no lack of zeal and energy for manufactures, Utica 
felt then as always its poverty in water-power. Its capi- 
talists reached out to the streams nearby, where nature gave 
the needed force, and promoted factories for cotton and 
woolen, and at points where fitting silica was found, 
as in Marcy and Vernon, set up glass works. In 18 10, Wal- 
cott & Co., on their own resources, began to spin cotton yarn 
near the site later made famous as New York Mills. The 
Sauquoit and the Oriskany became musical with new in- 
dustries. Among them was the Capron Manufacturing 
Company, for cotton, still existent in a hamlet of that name. 
One-third of the capital was furnished from Utica, and the 
management has most of the time been in the hands of its 
citizens. 

Corporate banking in Utica began in 1809, when the 
Manhattan Company, of New York, set up a branch here 
under the management of Montgomery Hunt, which con- 
tinued in operation until 1818. In the meantime, local 
capitalists, some of whom had been interested in that com- 
pany, organized in 1812 the Bank of Utica, with James S. 
Kip as president, with the same Montgomery Hunt as 
cashier, and with $600,000 capital. The institution has 



BEGINNINGS OF BANKING 265 

lived and expanded and as the First National Bank of Utica 
continues a controlling factor in the monetary affairs of 
Central New York. 

Alexander B. Johnson, who had served as a State Direc- 
tor of this bank, knowing it was difficult to secure a like 
charter and learning from the device of Aaron Burr in the 
case of the Manhattan Company, planned to embody bank- 
ing privileges in the act of incorporation of the Utica In- 
surance Company. The capital was placed at $500,000; 
Mr. Johnson was made manager. In 18 16, deposits were 
received and notes, including some for fractions of a dollar, 
were issued. The company also put out policies of insur- 
ance. The Legislature, in 18 18, passed a general law which 
compelled the promoters to abandon their banking project. 
Mr. Johnson, in 18 19, transferred his services to the Ontario 
Branch Bank, then four years old, and was chosen its presi- 
dent; he controlled its affairs until its charter expired in 
1855. Its successor went into the hands of a receiver within 
two years, but no blame fell on him for the mismanagement. 
John C. and Nicholas Devereux began at an early day to 
help their neighbors care for their savings, and kept up the 
practice for many years until, in 1839, they turned that task 
over to the Utica Savings Bank, which they aided to or- 
ganize. Two generations have added to its strength and 
usefulness. Probably owing to the scarcity of currency ag- 
gravated by the war, the village trustees, in 18 15, issued 
"corporation bills" to the amount of $5,000, in six denomi- 
nations from three to seventy-five cents, and they passed 
readily into circulation. 

A second charter for the village dates from April 9, 1805, 
which conferred broader powers on the trustees — to assize 
bread, for example — and authorized them to raise $1,000 
a year for buildings, fire departments and streets. Of the 
last there were five — Main and Broad, leading to the east; 



266 CITY OF UTICA 

Whitesboro to the west; with Genesee, then extending to the 
present line of Bleecker Street. 

The Female Charitable Society of Whitesboro in 1806 
was the pioneer of the benevolent institutions in which the 
people have always delighted. Private schools were 
opened in the first decade of the century and in 18 14 a char- 
ter was obtained for the Utica Academy, which the next 
year began to take pupils. The first Sunday school was 
started in 1815 for colored children; then in 18 16, five 
young ladies gathered in white pupils from the poorer 
families. Their school was apart from any church and had 
its own work and mission. It soon enlisted the support of 
leading citizens and was for ten years a strong force, until 
the various denominations claimed the field and divided the 
labor. 

The town bore its full share in the war of 1812. Its 
location gave special interest to the attacks on the northern 
frontier, while its people were included in the levy en masse 
for the defence of the towns on Lake Ontario and the St. 
Lawrence. They responded promptly and loyally to the 
extent of their capacity. Forces recruited elsewhere passed 
on and not a few had winter quarters here. As soon as the 
season of 18 13 opened, the movements were more frequent 
while British prisoners were brought from the north. 
Prominent men of Utica saw active service in the militia, 
and among the young men who entered the navy, two won 
distinction later as Admiral Breese and Commodore Inman. 
As elsewhere, the war called out here an enlargement of 
production and an expansion of traffic. 

When, on April 7, 1817, Utica was separated from 
Whitestown and made a town by itself under its third char- 
ter, the Directory claimed a population of 2,861, with 420 
dwellings. There were several stores, three church edifices, 
three banks, tanneries and breweries, with shops of me- 



GROWTH OF INDUSTRIES 267 

chanics. The town had also a lodge and chapter of Free 
Masons, four watchmen and a free school. The industry 
was diversified and the mercantile interests were on a liberal 
scale, while the bar, remarkable for learning and eloquence, 
found here its home. Some of the streets had cobble pave- 
ments, and new roads were opened as need required. 

The earliest records preserved do not contain the names 
of the first officers of the village, but Francis A. Bloodgood 
was its Treasurer in 1800 and until Talcott Camp succeeded 
him in 1802. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer was President in 
1805, and Ezra S. Cozier served in that position for ten 
years from 1821, a longer period than any other incumbent. 
The village doffed its rural garb and put on urban raiment 
when, on February 13, 1832, it received its charter as a city. 
With Buffalo, whose charter is dated the same year, it stands 
among the five earliest cities of the State. A population of 
8,323 by the census of 1830, extended south from the Mo- 
hawk and two or three blocks beyond the canal and reached 
over four or five blocks on either side of Genesee Street, with 
rural residences more remote from the center. 

The industries were many rather than large. The in- 
dustrial and mechanical concerns were 550 in number and 
they looked to the surrounding country for much of their 
support. The stores dealing in dry goods were 44; in gro- 
ceries and general merchandise, 63; in hardware, 10; in 
millinery and dressmaking, 19; in watches and jewelry, 6; 
in books, 5. Breweries, tanneries and one distillery turned 
out their products. There were 9 cabinet shops and 4 chair 
factories, 20 blacksmith and 16 carpenter shops, 3 furnaces, 
9 bakeries. Among the articles made were steam engines 
(of which ten were used in the city), coaches, wagons, 
plows, lasts, musical instruments, ropes, pottery, bricks. 
Nine printeries kept 19 presses busy. Boats were built, of 
which some were to run between Ogdensburg and New 



268 CITY OF UTICA 

York. Thirty- two physicians, 21 clergymen and 43 attor- 
neys looked after the people. The denominations had 15 
churches, of which the Presbyterians, Methodists and Bap- 
tists owned each 2; the Welsh 3; the Episcopalians, Re- 
formed, Catholics, Congregationalists, Universalists and 
Friends, each i. Eight weekly newspapers, two monthlies, 
and one bi-monthly were printed. The weeklies claimed a 
circulation of 17,852 copies; the monthlies, of 1,700; and 
the bi-monthly, of 3,000. 

The schools included the academy, a gymnasium, a 
lyceum, 3 ladies' seminaries, a public school and 23 select 
institutions. Literary societies were maintained; a public 
library boasted a thousand volumes. The Mechanics' As- 
sociation and the Young Men's Association kept open read- 
ing rooms. English names were most numerous in the 
Directory, but those from other parts of the United King- 
dom are there too. German patronymics increase with the 
volumes. One can recognize French and Italian types, 
with individuals from other European lands and also the 
cosmopolite Jew. The permanent provision for amusement 
was limited to a museum, the city garden, with fireworks 
now and then, and the sulphur springs, now remaining only 
in the chronicles or in lively memories. Travelling com- 
panies on their route presented the drama and occasionally, 
noted actors graced the local stage, but only later were man- 
agers inclined to abide long. 

The banks, with an aggregate capital of $1,300,000, 
found, from 1830 to the expiration of the charter in 1836, 
a competitor in a local branch of the United States Bank. 
Although the County Court met in Rome and Whitesboro 
only, the United States Court for this northern district held 
terms alternately in Albany and Utica, the Supreme Court 
in New York and Utica, and a Court of Chancery sat here, 
but the two county jails were elsewhere. For the new city. 



ORIGINS OF WATER SUPPLY 269 

every week 92 mails arrived and 41 packets. Four stages 
started daily westvi^ard, some for Buffalo, and three east- 
ward, while there were departures also for the north, the 
south, and the southwest. Eleven packets plied in three 
daily lines to Schenectady, and one each to Buffalo, Oswego 
and Syracuse. 

The first Mayor of Utica was Joseph Kirkland, nephew 
of the Apostle to the Oneidas. He had won distinction at 
the bar, had served in the State Legislature and in the Na- 
tional Congress, was a general in the militia, zealous in en- 
terprise, education and charity, and prominent and success- 
ful in business. Four wards, two north and two south of 
the canal, were represented by three aldermen each. A vol- 
unteer fire department consisted of seven companies under 
a chief and wardens. One supervisor, four justices and 
three constables were elected for the city. Other officers 
were appointed by the Common Council. The city tax was 
limited to $8,000 a year, while the assessors placed the valu- 
ation of real estate at $2,672,595. 

The lack of water for domestic use was felt at an early 
day. Only two small streams entered the city, Ballou's 
Creek on the east, and Nail Creek on the west. The bed 
of the Mohawk is here so level that when in 1828, a dam 
was built just below the ford, to provide power for a flour 
mill, land owners up stream brought suit for damages for 
the setting back of the river, so that the promoters aban- 
doned the project. The water supply, apart from what 
wells and later three public pumps provided, was gathered 
by the Utica Aqueduct Company, organized in 1802, from 
springs which gave the name to a street now near the heart 
of the city. This company, with a capital of $5,000, served 
the people from its pipes until 1824, when it left them to 
their own resources. The Utica Water Works took up the 
task in 1834, to give way to a new corporation of the same 



270 CITY OF UTICA 

name, with a capital of $75,000, which let waters from the 
southern hills into its mains, November 8, 1849, and has 
grown with the population. By the addition in 1906 of a 
supply from the Adirondacks, and with a capital of 
$2,000,000, it has resources to meet for a long period all the 
needs of manufactures as well as of domestic and municipal 
uses. Richard U. Sherman is the president. 

The first summer of the infant city was marked by a 
severe epidemic of the cholera. Business was interrupted 
from July 12th to August 7th, and many persons fled into 
the country. The cases of the disease numbered 201, and 
seventy persons died, including several leading citizens. 
The efforts to care for the sick and especially the poor, were 
creditable and generous, and crowned the scourge with a 
halo of charity. 

In September and October, 1834, three daily newspapers 
were started in the young city, the Whig, the Post and the 
Observer, but their lives were short. 

The era of railroad building began early in central New 
York. Following naturally the running of cars between 
Albany and Schenectady, a line from the latter city to 
Utica was constructed and opened for travel August 2, 1836. 
Another step was taken for the local benefit by a railroad 
to Syracuse, on which cars for the public were run July 10, 
1839. Passengers and freight were transferred from one 
line to the other at a common station in Utica. 

Among the societies formed to promote the common wel- 
fare many were short lived or took on successive forms. 
The Utica Mechanics' Association, organized in 1831 and 
incorporated in 1833, has ceased to have even a nominal 
existence. For more than half a century it enlisted citi- 
zens of all vocations and did a great deal of good. It 
erected a commodious hall for public gatherings and when 
that proved inadequate for the growing town, the Associa- 



POLITICAL CONFLICTS 27 1 

tion responded with an opera house of modern style and 
dimensions. The fairs held year after year led to display 
and competition in the products of mechanics and artistic 
industry. While the lecture system was in vogue, the most 
famous writers and speakers of this country, with now and 
then a foreigner of distinction, appeared in the local course. 
State conventions of both political parties were attracted to 
the city by the spacious auditorium. 

Considerable notoriety attached to Utica in 1835, by the 
treatment of the first anti-slavery convention ever held in 
the State. A public meeting protested against the assem- 
bling of that body; another denounced the Common Council 
for granting a license to the convention to meet in the court 
house; a third divided over resolutions, declaring in favor 
of free speech and the right of the people to assemble, and 
its adjournment was disorderly. The convention was held 
on October 21st as announced, but its opponents took con- 
trol of the court house, so that the delegates were forced to 
organize in the Second Presbyterian Church on Bleecker 
Street. The Democratic county convention six days before, 
formally resolved "that the citizens of Utica owe it to them- 
selves, to the State and to the Union, that the contemplated 
convention of incendiary individuals be not permitted to 
assemble within its corporate borders." The gathering at 
the court house appointed a committee to "warn the dele- 
gates to abandon their pernicious movements." This com- 
mittee of twenty-five prominent persons was followed to the 
church by a large crowd. The chronicle of the times re- 
cords: "After considerable violence and force, an entrance 
was effected amid the greatest noise and confusion. The 
resolutions of the court house meeting were read to the con- 
vention, and the latter was broken up amid a scene of up- 
roar, threats of violence and imprecations upon the dele- 
gates, who were all driven from the house and subsequently 



272 CITY OF UTICA 

from the city. Hundreds became abolitionists merely from 
sympathy." Some of the members of that committee and 
their followers became, before a generation ended, active 
in hostility to the aggressions of the slave power. 

The State, in 1837, bought for a Lunatic Asylum the 
present site then in Whitestown, and citizens of Utica sub- 
scribed $6,300 to make up the sum of $16,000 paid for the 
land. For the main building, the Legislature appropriated 
$275,000. For improving the grounds, for furniture and 
other necessaries, $42,000 was added. The institution was 
opened January 16, 1843. Patients in the first year were 
276, and the managers called on the State to provide for 
enlargement. Legislative action for this purpose was taken 
with successive appropriations, amounting to $104,000 
within a few years. The institution, with further expan- 
sion under eminent superintendents and wise managers, has 
been accepted abroad as well as throughout this country as 
a model in its noble field. 

Under the laws then in force, special charters were re- 
quired for the establishment of new banks. Such privilege 
was granted May 13, 1836, for the Oneida Bank, with a 
capital of $400,000. Commissioners to distribute the shares 
were perplexed by applications for seven times that amount 
from over 2,000 subscribers. Shares were assigned to 673 
applicants, of whom no one received more than 25. The 
division, it was charged, was made to Democrats only, and 
to favorites among them. At a public meeting the commis- 
sioners were denounced, and indictments were found in the 
courts against some of them. The affair was drawn into 
local politics and caused no little social bitterness. A 
severe blow befell the bank in November of its first year 
by the robbery from its vaults of $108,000 in currency, be- 
sides $8,£;oo in checks and drafts. One of the robbers was 
caught and confessed, but only about a third of the spoils 



MODERN DEVELOPMENT 273 

was ever recovered. The bank survived its loss, and has 
proved strong and profitable under the control of some of 
the most eminent citizens. 

Perhaps this local strife helped to change the policy of 
the State, and to bring in the general banking law which 
dispensed with special charters. Under the new statute the 
Bank of Central New York was organized September 17, 
1838, for savings as well as for commercial business. The 
capital was $110,200; it passed into the hands of a receiver 
in 1859. Another addition to financial institutions was 
made in 1848 in the Utica City Bank with $125,000 capital, 
which developed into a vigorous and popular aid to deposi- 
tors and dealers. 

Not every project for the benefit of the city has fulfilled 
its promises. Much was hoped from the Chenango Canal 
in lowering the price of coal and in other ways. But its 
traffic proved to be much less than was expected, and with 
other lateral canals, it was after some years abandoned by 
the State as unprofitable. 

The Odd Fellows organized Oneida Lodge in 1842 and 
as the years ran on have expanded. Other benevolent and 
social associations have come in under their various names, 
and citizens of Utica have often been chosen executive offi- 
cers in the several general bodies. 

Associated with Jason Parker in the running of stages 
were Theodore S. Faxton, John Butterfield, Silas D. Childs 
and others. They had learned the secret of transportation; 
they foresaw the expansion of activity; they were full of 
energy and enterprise. On the success of the experimental 
line of telegraph between Baltimore and Washington, they 
formed the New York, Albany and Buffalo Telegraph 
Company, and put up the first wires for commercial pur- 
poses. The line was opened for messages between Albany 
and Utica, January 31, 1846, and between New York and 
Buffalo, September 9th, succeeding. 



274 CITY OF UTICA 

In Utica the first Associated Press in this country had its 
origin, to get the full benefit of the new wires. Arrange- 
ment was made to telegraph the news at the start from Al- 
bany, then from New York. Before the line was extended 
to Syracuse, the messages were here set in type and slips 
distributed by mail. Afterwards, for three months, that 
city rendered the service until the wires took it up for points 
further west. 

The disturbances of 1848 in Europe, both in the shadows 
which they cast before, as well as in their direct efifects, 
turned a strong tide of migration, especially from Germany, 
to America, and not a little of the advantage was reaped by 
Utica. Natives of several of the German States had chosen 
homes here in previous years; they had formed in 1840 a 
Catholic Church, and a Lutheran congregation also con- 
ducted services in their own tongue. A Hebrew synagogue, 
in 1848, testified to the presence of settlers using the Ger- 
man language from eastern Europe. At this period, the 
accessions from the German States were many and included 
industrious, thrifty, scholarly people who have engrafted 
on the community the solid Teutonic virtues. 

Capital was increasing in the quiet city faster than the 
chances for its use. The panic of 1837 struck not a few 
investments made by Uticans in western lands after a prac- 
tice then quite common. The returns from the factories 
on the adjacent streams were steady and encouraging. 
Steam elsewhere was competing not unfavorably with 
water-power for manufacturing purposes. Why could not 
Utica make steam its servant since nature had not provided 
water-power here? That question was forcibly urged at a 
public meeting in 1846, and after investigation by trusted 
committees who made elaborate reports dealing with the 
manufactures of both cottons and woolens, the decision was 
reached that both these branches of industry might be con- 






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In Utica the ■ tted Press in this country had its 

origin, to get the ai i eiicfit of the new wires. Arrange- 
ment was made to tticgraph the news at the start from Al- 
bany, then from New York. Before the line was extended 
to Syracuse, the messages were here set in type and slips 
distributed by mail. Afterwards, for three months, that 
city rendered the service until the wires took it up for points 
further west. 

The disturbances of 1848 in Europe, both in the shadows 
which they cast before, as well as in their direct effects, 
turned a strong tideg^g^giia^(|)|ijjj5y^^iy from Germany, 
to Ameav , < ' it ■■ I'tUc of t!- . "> ; - " ^:: ' /. reaped by 

Utica.. y'^'f' "--'^-f.^^T, ,n1. ^^^if fi'^v, ^'T' ^ -^^ff^e^fosen 

bcotland, May 25, 1825; ectucate.l 111 Alierdeen. Came ^o 
"^"l^^Aimerica and eilgag-ed in the woolen manufacture. Agen^'^ ^ 
Catlunifi Globe Woolen Conipari)', Utica, New York, 1857-102*^°"" 
ducteii>Kesjdeqt .of sartie company 1882^1902.; director. Secbnd'iN'affue, 
in i8iR'"#^P^#;o^' Utica. .Savuigs ^ankftt-Uticar Mohawk : 
man iV^l^^y. ^?'"^'..W^'^'' Alecbatucs' dissociation, and Utica. &^,e 
Wiilowvale Bleachei y ; member Fort Schuyler Club and | j 
**^' ' "Rome Market Club, .VationaJ Association of Woolen Manu- j 
^ndy 'facttirers, Attlmcan Prd^ive'tiiniif Leaguy/Yft^f "^,^^^° 
on th(Sfa.teiAgBtofli|ii«iieS&ete<^ ;Tliy4tm¥iik*f tMgSigo2. 

Capital was increasing in the quiet city faster than the 
chances for its use. The panic of 1837 struck not a few 
investments made by Uticans in western lands after a prac- 
tice then quite common. The returns from the factories 
on the adjacent streams were steady and encouraging. 
Steam elsewhere was competing not unfavorably with 
water-power for manufacturing purposes. Why could not 
Utica make steam its servant since nature had not provided 
water-power here? That question was forcibly urged at a 
public meeting in 1846, and after investigation by trusted 
committees who made elaborate reports dealing with the 
manufactures of both cottoo.s and woolens, the decision was 
reached that both these branrhe? of industry might be con- 





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TEXTILES AND GAS-LIGHTING 275 

ducted within the corporate borders with good prospect of 
fair profits. The interest of citizens was aroused, and 
prompt action taken on a scale large for the time and the 
place. 

The Steam Woolen Mills Company was organized with 
a capital of $100,000, and the next year, the Globe Mills 
followed with like capital. Two brothers, with experience 
in New England mills, were invited to help in the practical 
work. Samuel Churchill was designated as agent for the 
former, and William C. Churchill for the latter. The pres- 
ent large and profitable Globe Mills Company is the de- 
velopment of both. 

Oneida County had earned a wide reputation for its 
cotton fabrics, and the Utica Steam Cotton Mills enjoyed 
that advantage, when the company formed in 1847 started 
its machinery in 1850. It has furnished labor to thousands 
in the course of its life, trade to merchants, markets to the 
neighboring farmers and impetus to all branches of industry 
and production. Five furnaces, several large machine 
shops and other works for iron, were carried on at the 
middle of the century as private enterprises. 

Gas was supplied in 1850 by the Gas Light Company, 
organized two years before with $80,000 capital. It has 
spread out as need demanded, and by various mergers now 
furnishes, with a capital of $2,000,000, illumination and 
.power by both gas and electricity, using force from the 
stream above Trenton Falls. It has alliances covering 
$7,000,000 capital. The vice-president and active manager 
is William E. Lewis, while A. N. Brady is president and 
M. J. Brayton secretary. 

The citizens of Utica have always been noted for both 
their public and private charities. The Utica Orphan 
Asylum, which had long struggled with scanty facilities, 
was able, in 1848, to provide a commodious home for its 



276 CITY OF UTICA 

wards, and two generations have shown the excellence and 
efficiency of its labors there. The years have added noble 
institutions in the same and kindred fields which adorn and 
bless the community, so that now the asylums for orphans 
are five in number, while ten homes and hospitals minister 
to the sick and aged. Of these, newly built on the most 
liberal scale and equipped with all the devices of modern 
science, are the House of the Good Shepherd and St. Luke's 
Hospital. 

While active life was reaching out in so many ways, the 
thoughts of citizens turned also to care for the dead. Rail- 
roads were crowding unpleasantly near to the grounds gen- 
erally used for burials. The city was nominally in charge, 
and the sexton was named by the council. Taste and senti- 
ment called for a change and met with fitting response in 
the formation of the Utica Cemetery Association, in 1849. 
On heights overlooking the town, grounds were formally 
dedicated June 14, 1850, and near the entrance, the Oneida 
stone, belonging to the tribe of that name, was placed by 
a delegation of Oneida and Onondaga Indians. Catholics 
have recently purchased broad grounds adjoining, besides 
an older cemetery, for they and the Jews prefer graves in 
earth consecrated for themselves, but the dead of other de- 
nominations rest in the Forest Hill Cemetery and adjacent 
heights of a similar title under private control. 

Transient advantage was gained by a rage which pre- 
vailed before and after 1850 for the construction of plank 
roads. As the country about was new and the inhabitants 
scattered, the highways were left without much care, 
although there were commissioners and a road tax which 
might be paid in labor. In spring and autumn travel was 
difficult and in some cases almost impossible. To remedy 
the evil, the Legislature passed a general law authorizing 
companies to lay planks in the country roads and to collect 



CONDITIONS IN 1850 277 

tolls for returns for construction and repairs. Little im- 
provement was made in the roadbeds and the planks were 
laid on the surface. For a brief while, wheels rolled 
smoothly and the tolls were paid without clamor. The 
eight or ten companies with termini in Utica and their other 
ends at the north, south, east and west, learned too soon that 
their projects served for a summer day, but the foundation 
was neglected, the planks were too thin to last, and the tolls 
not enough to cover expenses. The roads fell back to the 
old conditions, as the floods came and gullied them. The 
plank policy was a poor makeshift for the methods inaugu- 
rated under the $50,000,000 appropriation in 1906, but fore- 
shadowed a broad system for highways for use and comfort. 

A new charter in 1849, gave to the 17,556 inhabitants 
shown by the census of 1850, six wards with a supervisor 
and two aldermen for each, and added to the elective offi- 
cers. By a special act the same year, the common schools 
were placed under the control of a non-partisan board of 
six commissioners, one-third retiring each twelve months, 
and chosen at the charter election. Modern methods have 
been brought in step by step ; school buildings have been 
multiplied to keep pace with the pupils; the old academy 
has been merged into the free school system in a new and 
elegant edifice, while the public library, in part the gift of 
private munificence, is an ornament to the chief avenue, and 
with its 50,000 volumes, is a worthy proof and instrument 
of local culture. 

The military spirit expressed itself by the Utica Citizens 
Corps, which, from 1837, enlisted some of the best men of 
the city. Other companies came rapidly into the field after 
1850, so that within five years there were no less than five 
rivals for recruits and popular favor. In the meantime the 
militia regiment took on better form, and the brigade head- 
quarters were in Utica. When, therefore, President Lin- 



278 CITY OF UTICA 

coin called for volunteers for the war for the Union, men 
who had learned the manual and the use of arms were ready 
for the emergency. The response was prompt and gen- 
erous. Enlistments began at once in April, 1861, and from 
the uniformed companies went out many who earned dis- 
tinction as officers, as well as the full quota of privates. 
The local patriotism did not weary during the war, but was 
lavish during all the conflict, in gifts for hospitals as well 
as for the comfort of troops in camp, while the home-coming 
of the veterans was joyfully celebrated. The final roster 
included Daniel Butterfield, as major-general; James Mc- 
Quade, Rufus Daggett and William R. Pease and James G. 
Grindlay, as brigadier-generals for honorable service; 
Francis X. Myers, William H. Christian, William H. Rey- 
nolds, George T. Hollingworth and Charles H. Ballou, as 
colonels, with a noble array of others of less rank, but with 
unblemished record and solid merit. 

The high wave of prosperity which followed over the 
republic when peace was declared did not refuse its bless- 
ings to Utica. New enterprises were many and on various 
lines. Manufactures offered novel articles; merchants 
branched out; buildings were erected fitting the larger town, 
and the advance was marked in all directions. The 
diversity of origin of the citizens became more apparent as 
the century drew to its close. A Swiss Benevolent Associa- 
tion was formed in 1867 by settlers from the region of the 
Alps. French names multiplied in the Directory and in 
active pursuits, and people from other European nations 
came in increasing force. 

A new charter was granted in 1870 and another in 1880. 
Under the latter, with a population of 33,918, the wards 
became twelve, with a supervisor and alderman for each, 
the aldermen serving two years, one-half of the board retir- 
ing each year. A commission was set over the police and 



CLUBS AND ORGANIZATIONS 279 

fire departments in 1874, and other matters were entrusted 
to like boards. The industries under individual control 
were extended and many were incorporated under the gen- 
eral statute. Clubs were formed on a broader scale than 
had prevailed. The Fort Schuyler Club, with Horatio 
Seymour as its first president, the Masonic Club, the Odd 
Fellows' Union, the Maennerchor, the Turn Verein and the 
New Century, own their own spacious and well-furnished 
buildings. 

Organizations, with the county, central New York, or 
the entire State as their field, have their chief quarters 
here. Of such is the County Medical Society, started in 
July, 1806, which has celebrated its hundredth anniversary, 
and also the Oneida Historical Society, incorporated in 
1876, which for more than a generation has gathered the 
chronicles worth preserving of men and events, has marked 
historic sites, has helped to erect monuments to Generals 
Steuben and Herkimer, joined in celebrations of centennials 
of several towns, made memorable that of the battle of Oris- 
kany, and adorned the bloody field with a towering obelisk. 
The Munson Williams Memorial Building, valued at over 
$100,000, provided by the wise generosity of the family 
whose name it bears, safeguards the treasures of the society 
and insures its permanence. Different in type is the Com- 
mercial Travelers' Association, which, in its own solid 
building, transacts an extensive accident insurance business. 
The Masonic Home was opened in October, 1892. It has 
225 acres on the eastern border of the town and has a group 
of commodious edifices with a broad landscape ; the property 
cost $1,000,000. The inmates number 425, of whom 196 
are men, 114 women, 50 boys and 65 girls. 

The business men of the town several times formed 
boards or chambers to promote the common interests, but 
these passed away as the transient zeal flickered out. Since 



28o CITY OF UTICA 

1896, the Chamber of Commerce has been practical, vigor- 
ous and efficient, studying plans for local improvements, for 
the introduction of new industries, and for the correction of 
abuses. Its annual banquets have introduced guests of State 
and national distinction. 

The rich dairy districts, finding their center here, called 
into being the Dairy Board of Trade, which has for many 
seasons held its weekly markets. The yearly sales run over 
a million dollars, latterly about two-thirds in cheese of 
small size sought for the domestic trade. The value of 
butter sold annually in this market, experts reckon at 
$250,000. 

The local Young Men's Christian Association, organized 
February 10, 1858, was able, by its energy and persistence, 
to lay, in 1888, the corner-stone of an edifice fitted for its 
work, with rooms for classes, a gymnasium, an ample audi- 
torium, and to add dormitories. When that building was 
destroyed by fire the Association bought other property well 
fitted for its uses. With real estate worth over $150,000, it 
is an instrument of usefulness, of safety and of elevation. 
Its members are about nine hundred. The Women's 
Christian Association works in like fields and owns a com- 
modious home prominently located. 

When the twentieth century began, there was an inflow of 
settlers from sources not prolific before. The construction 
of the West Shore Railroad called for hosts of laborers as 
well as mechanics. Immigrants from Italy had before 
come only as individuals, or single families. Now they 
flocked by hundreds to seek homes here, and in half a dec- 
ade they exceed 12,000, or a sixth of the population. 
While unskilled laborers compose the majority of them, 
many are mechanics and artisans, some are builders and 
contractors, some work in the factories; they have their own 
grocers, merchants, bankers and brokers, and sustain two 



GROWTH IN AREA 28 1 

weekly newspapers. Three societies minister to their social, 
literary and benevolent objects; they have several clubs, 
while services in their own tongue are conducted in a 
Catholic church, and a Protestant meeting house. 

The persecution in Russia drove hither hundreds of Jews, 
and many Hungarians also came. A systematic immigra- 
tion of Polish people took place about the same time. 
Many of them went to work in the factories and found favor 
with the managers. Some engaged in rough labor and 
other occupations. They soon learn the English language 
and American habits. The Poles, in 1906, laid the corner- 
stone of a Catholic church, of large dimensions, built of 
stone, which cost $125,000. 

By repeated annexations on the south and west, the area 
of the city became, in 1905, 9.06 square miles, or 5,802 acres. 
The eastern boundary has always been the line of Herkimer 
County. Bends in the river have been straightened, to 
avoid recurring floods, redeem the flats and afford more 
space for station, freight houses and shops for the railroads. 
Thus, the boundary is carried to the new channel, 2,800 feet 
to the north at Genesee Street, and the barge canal is to run 
in the Mohawk there. The plot of the city is not regular 
in form. If a circle is placed over it, flattened at the north 
and south diameter, that line will be three miles, while the 
east and west diameter will be four and a half miles, and at 
the south and west angles will project still farther. The 
wards are now fifteen, with a supervisor and an alderman 
for each. 

Of public buildings, that for the Federal courts and post- 
office, built by the United States, is appraised by the as- 
sessors at $450,000. The armory, valued at $83,000, and 
the lunatic asylum and grounds at $1,075,100, belong to the 
State. Oneida County owns the jail, $55,000, and the site 
of the new court house, $75,000, on which a noble edifice 



282 CITY OF UTICA 

completed in 1907, cost $1,000,000. The real property of 
the municipality is estimated by the assessors at $5,419,141, 
and includes the city hall and the police station, assessed at 
$158,000; the public library, $200,000; the academy, $177,- 
000; 24 school houses, ranging from $5,000 to $35,000 each, 
with $62,000 for the advanced school ; ten fire-engine houses 
at from $3,000 to $15,200 each. The value of five rather 
small municipal parks is placed at $102,000; that of Chan- 
cellor Square, the first laid out, is $70,000. Five parks on 
the outskirts are extensive and three of them during the 
season offer popular amusements. The city hospital is as- 
sessed at $70,000, the dispensary at $4,200, and the public 
bath at $3,000. 

Private school buildings exempt from taxation, include 
St. Vincent Industrial School, $20,000; Assumption Acad- 
emy, $10,000; St. Joseph, $15,000; St. Mary, $3,000; two 
German Lutheran, $6,000, and a Hebrew free school, 
$1,600. 

The Episcopalians possess seven church edifices with an 
aggregate valuation of $348,500; the Presbyterians, six, 
$180,800; the Baptists five, $193,500; the Methodists six, 
$114,700; the Catholics eight (of which one is German, one 
Italian, one Polish), $589,800; the Welsh four, $59,500; the 
Lutherans eight (of which four use the German tongue), 
$120,000; the Moravians two, $13,500; the Jews three, $12,- 
000; the Reformed Dutch one, $40,000; Universalists one, 
$35,000; Congregationals one, $50,000; the colored people 
one, $1,200. The Christian Scientists have a society which 
meets in a hired hall. 

Three daily newspapers, the Herald-Dispatch, the 
Observer and the Press serve the community with due dili- 
gence. In addition there is one semi-weekly, and a Ger- 
man paper appears tri-weekly. The weeklies are eight, of 
which one is Italian, one Welsh, and one Polish. A Welsh 



THE PRESS AND THE BANKS 283 

monthly and another in English, for Welsh people, called 
the Cambrian, are printed. The journals of Utica have 
always stood in the foremost rank, and the city owes them 
much for their advocacy of every worthy cause. 

January i, 1908, Utica passed under the provisions of the 
White Act of 1906 under the uniform charter for second- 
class cities. The wards and their offices were not changed. 
The powers of the mayor were much enlarged, and single 
heads were designated for the police and fire departments, 
and for public works, and a comptroller supervises the 
finances, while there are some new boards and bureaus. 
The public schools, 24 in number, include a training school 
and evening schools. They are under the care of a bi- 
partisan commission and a superintendent. The enrollment 
of the pupils in 1910 was 11,341, and the average daily 
attendance 8,614. The average attendance in the academy 
was 781. The expenditures in 1810 amounted to $312,644. 

The area of the city now covers 5,955 acres, and the streets 
are 124 miles in length. Of these 61.75 miles have sheet 
asphalt pavement, 5.10 have medina block, 2.14 wooden, 
while fractions of a mile have cobble, granite or brick pave- 
ment. The streets unpaved extend 53.24 miles, while the 
miles of pavement in use are 70.75. There are sewers in use 
for 90.75 miles. The street railways extend 25.7 miles. 
For public lighting, 930 electric avenues are used, and there 
are 51,082 feet of subways. 

The local financial institutions have developed in a re- 
markable degree in recent years, and their resources are not- 
ably large in their ratio to the population. The First Na- 
tional, under Charles B. Rogers president, and Henry R. 
Williams vice-president and cashier, has $1,000,000 capital, 
$1,406,084 surplus, and $7,086,661 resources; the Oneida 
National, with George L. Bradford president, and G. A. 
Niles cashier, reports $600,000 capital, $761,764 surplus, 



284 CITY OF UTICA 

and $3,461,734 resources. The Utica City National, under 
Charles S. Symonds president, and M. C. Brown cashier^ 
counts $1,000,000 capital, $234,977 surplus, and $3,636,267 
resources. T. R. Proctor president, and Frank R. Winant 
cashier, state for the Second National $300,000 capital, 
$342,838 surplus, and $2,092,348 resources. The Utica 
Trust and Deposit Co. has James S. Sherman as president, 
and J. Francis Day vice-president and secretary, with 
$400,000 capital, $515,734 surplus and $7,180,929 resources. 
Of the Citizens Trust Company, William I. Faber is presi- 
dent, and F. H. Doolittle secretary; the capital is $300,000, 
surplus $263,556, and resources $4,108,375. 

The Savings Bank of Utica reports assets of $16,382,620, 
of which the surplus is $1,187,269. The open accounts 
number 34,425, and average $440. Charles A. Miller is 
president, and Rufus P. Birdseye secretary and treasurer. 

The Homestead Aid Association of Utica has been in 
business for 27 years, has now 5,290 members, and assets of 
$2,598,318. Its president is Watson T. Dunmore, and sec- 
retary, Sherwood S. Curran. While the business of the 
Commercial Travelers' Association extends into many states, 
the head office is in Utica. The membership is 66,288. 
Henry D. Pixley has been president since the organization 
in 1883, and George S. Dana its secretary. The Associa- 
tion has a surplus of $618,456. 

Of the Cornhill Building and Loan Association, J. Lewis 
Jones is president, Owen T. Luker secretary, and Charles 
W. Bushinger treasurer. The members are 680, and the 
assets $300,340. 

The assessment of Utica for 1910-1911 amounts to $43,- 
024,010, and the ratio of taxation is 2.24. The city tax pro- 
duced $958,450. The aggregate municipal receipts for 
1 9 10 were $2,695,415, while the disbursements were $2,- 
709,625. The bonded debt is stated at $1,945,618. The 



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CITY OF UTICA 

::rces. The Utica City National, under 
s president, and M. C. Brown cashier, 

^ capital, $234,977 surplus, and $3,636,267 

T. R. Proctor president, and Frank R. Winant 
state for the Second National $300,000 capital, 
$342,838 surplus, and $2,092,348 resources. The Utica 
Trust and Deposit Co. has James S. Sherman as president, 
and J. francis Day vice-president and secretary, with 
$400,000 capital, $515,734 surplus and $7,180,929 resources. 
< )t the Citizens Trust Company, William I. Faber is presi- 
■nr "r^d F H. Doolittle secretary; the capital is $300,000, 

THOMAS' 'K.^^'fti )eTuR. ■ 
o , , , ■ w ' s of $i6,-?82,620, 

Bank president; born Proctorville, \ermont, May 25, 
1844; educated in English High School, Boston; 'seryefl''""!^ 
during the Civil War in United States Navy, and rece^vetf ^'' ^^ 
thanks of the Secretary of the Navy; president of' the Seedier, 
ond National Bank of Utica; trustee or director Utica Sav^ 11 in 
ings Bank; Utica Trust Company ; and vice-president of the ■; of 
Utica Daily Press Company. Is a member of the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion ; G. A. R. ; Sons of the Revolu- . ^ , 
tion; New England Society; Mayflower Society ; Society ' 
Colonial Wars; Society Fdunders and Patriots; Naval '■'^^^^' 
Order of the United States? JsIaml.Leaguei^ett!.-;..H ^s 06,288. 
>. Pi.vley has been president since the organization 
i .i (.t- rtje S. Dana its secretary. The Associa- 
' $618,4^6. 

^uildin^ .M(i I'.^jn \s^ ^ ^ 

1 Charles 

~M}, and the 

.(mounts to $43,- 
,24,01. i IS ..: 24. The city tax pro- 

(iuccd ^ .,.ite municipal receipts for 

19T0 were i. rit the disbursements were $2,- 

709,625. Til. -I>t is stated at $1,945,618. The 




/\^. /W-c/zry— 



WOOLENS AND COTTONS 285 

bureau of buildings reports plans approved last year for 392 
new structures and for alterations in 255 buildings, involv- 
ing an outlay of $2,632,108. 

During recent years, Thomas R. Proctor has lifted the 
park system to a notable height, by giving to the city open 
spaces in various woods. One hears his own name, another 
is called after Roscoe Conkling. The latter looks down 
from Steel's Hill on the valley northward as the acropolis 
crowns classic Athens. Now Utica has 13 parks contain- 
ing 546.2 acres, of which 15 acres are constructed in park- 
way. In the largest two parks are 10.14 miles of well-made 
drives. 

The largest manufacturing corporation is that consoli- 
dated under the title of the Utica Steam & Mohawk Valley 
Cotton Mills. Its capital is $2,000,000, and it has, includ- 
ing large additions in 1906 of buildings and machinery, 
about 6,000 horse-power driving 2,500 wide looms with 
160,000 spindles. The full working force includes about 
2,000 persons. The management is under George De 
Forest president, John A. McGregor secretary, and Henry 
T. Mansfield superintendent. The record of the company 
is that of continued success. 

The Skenandoa Cotton Company makes fine hosiery 
yarns. Its capital is $1,000,000; it uses about 2,400 horse- 
power and employs 500 persons. A new mill increases the 
horse-power to 2,800, and the employees to 600. The total 
product of cotton goods in the city in 1905 was $5,001,177. 
The officers are N. E. Deverant president, W. S. Doolittle 
secretary. 

The woolen manufacture is concentrated in the Globe 
Woolen Company with a capital of $300,000 and a large sur- 
plus. It operates 161 broad and 1 1 narrow looms with 1,000 
horse-power, and employs about 800 persons. Its fabrics 
rank high in the market for style and quality. The present 



286 CITY OF UTICA 

officers are: J. F. Maynard president, F. T. Proctor vice- 
president, A. B. Maynard secretary. 

Knitting mills number 22, turning out underwear, hos- 
iery and caps. Their capital ranges from $500,000 down- 
ward. Their production and sales show continual growth, 
and amounted last year to $20,000,000 while the operatives 
numbered 5,000. Including the near-by towns this is by 
far the leading center of the knitting industry. This emi- 
nence has been won by the ability and diligence of the heads 
of the mills. They include John B. Wild, N. E. Devereux, 
Quentin McAdam, George A. Frisbie, William T. Baker, 
W. H. Stanchfield, W. J. Frisbie, John E. McLoughlin, 
Aras J. Williams, George H. Spitzh, C. A. Byington, Wil- 
liam E. Lewis, A. V. Lynch, George W. Oakley, and others. 

An addition made in 1910 was the Fine Yarn Company, 
with $225,000 capital and 210 employees working night and 
day, producing high-grade yarns. W. B. Foster is presi- 
dent, F. L. Wood secretary, and W. L Taber treasurer. 
Among the corporations a few typical may be cited. The 
Savage Arms Company produces fire arms of wide repute. 
It has a capital of $1,000,000, its officers are B. Adriance 
president, W. J. Green vice-president, F. C. Chadwick 
superintendent, and T. D. Moore manager. The furnaces 
and heaters designed and made here are sold from ocean to 
ocean to the annual value of nearly $2,000,000. The Hart 
and Crouse Company, with $110,000 capital, under H. G. 
Hart president, with whom Merwin K. Hart is associated, 
and the International Heater Company, of which Frank E. 
Wheeler is president, are in the forefront as producers in 
this line. Iron pipe made by the Utica Pipe Company is 
used in large works in many parts of the country. The cor- 
poration has $400,000 capital, and is managed by Charles 
G. Wagner president, and J. K. Gunn superintendent. 
Beds and bedding employ much capital and many operatives, 



GENERAL MANUFACTURES 287 

and from the factories of Foster Brothers and the Foster- 
Allison Company, by the impetus of W. S. Foster presi- 
dent, and O. S. Foster treasurer, reach markets over the 
continent. The Munson Brothers Company is the successor 
of an establishment founded in the early days, and has made 
famous its devices for the transformation of power. The 
Drop Forge Company, with a large force of skilled workers, 
has won favor and success with its pliers, nippers and other 
tools by the management of W. Pierrepont White and H. 
F. Kellerman superintendent. Carriages and automobile 
bodies are manufactured by the Willoughby Company, 
which has a capital of $100,000, with E. A. Willoughby 
president, and Charles B. Mason secretary. The special- 
ties of the Divine Brothers — capital, $100,000, president, 
Bradford H. Divine, secretary, O. J. McKeown, are devices 
for polishing metals; water motors and tires made of 
pressed cloth and leather. An infant, but successful, in- 
dustry, is the Cutlery Company, of which Jacob Agne is 
president and Alphonse Heinrich secretary. It employs 
125 men, soon to be increased to 200. 

For more than two generations, the town has been noted 
for men's clothing manufactured here. Prominent houses 
are H. H. Cooper & Company, and H. D. Pixley, Son & 
Company, of which the senior members are active and 
potent, and Brandegee, Kincard & Company, under the 
skillful direction of Frederick W. Kincard; also the 
Roberts-Wicks Company, of which A. J. Williams is presi- 
dent. In the production of shoes, the Hurd & Fitz- 
gerald Company, of which D. C. Hurd is president, and the 
Bowne-Gans Company, at the head of which is F. J. Bowne, 
are leaders in wide markets. Sash, blinds and doors, and 
fine wood work for interiors are turned out by Charles C. 
Kellogg's Sons Company, under the supervision of Spencer 
Kellogg and Frederick S. Kellogg; also by Philip Thomas' 
Sons, of which Herbert N. Thomas is the director, and by 



288 CITY OF UTICA 

Nellis, Amos and Swift, by Charles Downer & Company, 
and by G. P. Gibson & Company. Benjamin T. Gilbert, 
president and manager, has brought into prominence the 
Xargil Manufacturing Company, producing mufflers, tanks 
and sheet work generally for automobiles. Bonbons and 
chocolates, within the past few years, have engaged con- 
siderable capital and numerous workers. A button factory 
has just been brought hither from another city. Shirts and 
shirt waists are made on extensive scales. Agricultural im- 
plements, especially the products of the Standard Harrow 
Company, of which Edward L. Wells is president; boilers, 
machinery, harness, trunks, fishing tackle, paper boxes, with 
the local stamp, hold a high rank among dealers and con- 
sumers. 

The business in tobacco and cigars is large, and furnishes 
occupation for many. Musical instruments and electrical 
apparatus are made, work is considerable in natural and ar- 
tificial stone, while bricks are produced by the myriads. 
Local florists maintain an enviable fame. Breweries, one 
of the earliest industries, have continued and expanded to 
large proportions. The National Census Bureau, by its 
bulletin of November, 1906, classes Utica fifth among the 
cities of the State in the number of its financial manufactur- 
ing establishments, which are 333, and seventh in rank in 
their annual product, valued at $22,830,317. The wage 
earners are 27,469, with earnings of $10,678,632 for the year. 
Of the wage earners, 13,131 are males and 14,338 females. 

Utica does not hide itself as a hermit. The villages ad- 
jacent partake of its activities, and are almost like its wards. 
Their manufactories are strengthened by the alliance, while 
the traffic of the region hardly knows municipal lines. 
Residents of the villages ply their vocations in the city and 
seek their amusements here. When all were smaller, local 
jealousy was possible; as population and business chose a 
center, the fact was recognized, and the suburbs made more 



CONDITIONS IN 191 289 

and more of the town whose multiplying advantages are so 
near their own doors while they enjoy rural privileges and 
bear only rural burdens. 

As all quarters of the globe have sent rich increments into 
the population, so Utica has been a generous giver as well 
as a grateful receiver. Its children have gone forth into the 
world's fields as missionaries and teachers. The rolls of the 
army and navy bear the names of its sons, some in high 
grades. As preachers and theologians, as professors and 
scientists, at the bar and on the bench, as journalists and 
authors, as financiers and promoters of great enterprises, in 
the metropolis and in other States, Uticans have given proof 
that their home training and discipline are not provincial, 
and that they hold rank at the forefront wherever the tasks 
of civilization are carried on. 

The increase of 32 per cent, in population between 1900 
and 1910, while the country, as a whole, grew only 21 per 
cent., prompts sanguine citizens to predict that Utica 
will soon take rank as the fourth, or even the third city in 
the State. In the new century, zealous efforts are making 
for material and civic development. Plans for spacious 
harbors on the barge canal have been devised. The New 
York Central and other railroads are improving their facili- 
ties for freight and passengers. Congress has made the 
initial appropriation for an enlarged post-office. A 
modern hotel of eight stories, with all conveniences and 
luxuries, will be open to guests within the year, with 
T. W. Johnson as host. 

The town is already large enough to command the neces- 
sities and elegancies of life, of education and culture that de- 
velop the worthiest humanity for those who choose to abide 
here. Its citizens strive to make it a beautiful and attract- 
ive home for residents of good will. Seated at the center 
of the commonwealth, in its amphitheatre of hills, its 
scenery is pastoral and varied, not grotesque nor grand. All 



290 CITY OF UTICA 

the great railroads proffer their facilities for transportation, 
while the Erie Canal helps to cheapen freight, and the 
benefits of the barge canal are to come. An admirable 
trolley system makes transit easy to all parts of the city and 
to the suburbs. A few millionaires reside here without 
arrogance or display; fair competence is the rule and 
extreme poverty the rare exception. With many modern 
and handsome homes, there are no palaces and no hovels. 
Its bench and bar have always eminent members, often those 
of high distinction. Labor is in constant demand at rates 
equal to those prevailing anywhere else. The standard of 
taste and style is not inferior to that of other cultivated com- 
munities. Literature, music, art, and the drama, have their 
supporters. Athletic amusements are pursued with vigor. 
The denominations maintain a goodly number of churches 
with unflagging zeal, sustained by pulpits honorably filled. 
The schools, public and private, enlist the attention of the 
parents and have the best methods and practice. The streets 
are well paved, lighted liberally and kept clean beyond the 
common habit. Towering elms frame noble arches over the 
highways for long distances, while goodly maples are not 
lacking. Always the local charities have been notable, and 
in recent years, the munificence of citizens has added to 
their number, to their facilities and to their usefulness. 

Residential attractions and industrial opportunities are 
here not rivals, but are boon companions. The natural con- 
ditions favor health, while civic forethought assures quiet 
and thrift. Diversity of industry is notable in a high 
degree, and conduces to profit and rapid progress. The 
chronicles of Utica are testimonies to the worth and 
efficiency of the generations which have gone before, are 
guarantees of further development, and pledges that the 
Central City will always be a source of pride to the Empire 
State. 

By the courtesy of E. Dana Durand, Director of the 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES 



291 



Census, the following summary of preliminary totals of the 
census of manufactures in Utica in 1909 compared with 
totals for 1904, are furnished in advance of official publi- 
cation : 





C E N 


s u s 


Per cent, of 




1909 


1904 


1904 to 1909 


Number of establishments. 


317 


333 


*5 




$27,796,000 
16,646,000 


$21,184,000 
12,774,000 


31 
30 


Cost of materials used 


Salaries and wages 


7,513,000 


5,561,000 


35 


Miscellaneous expenses... 


3.173.000 


2,519,000 


26 


Value of products 


31,199,000 


22,880,000 


36 


Value added by manufac- 








ture (products, less cost 








of materials) 


14,553,000 


10,107,000 


44 


Employees : 


Number of salaried of- 








ficials and clerks 


1,205 


937 


29 


Average number of 








wage earners employ- 








ed during the year. .. 


13,153 


10,882 


21 



'Decrease. 
I9II. 



Ellis H. Roberts. 



INDEX 

Roman numerals (I. and II.) preceding the Arabic numbering of pages, 
indicate the Volume referred to. 

(Buffalo, Rochester, and Utica are indexed separately.) 



BUFFALO 

Aaron, Rev. Dr. Israel, II., 58. 
Abbott, Dr. F. W., 11., 185. 
Abbott, Dr. Samuel M., 11., 183. 
Acacia Club, II., 225. 
Acids Manufacture, Mineral, II., 28-30. 
Adam, Carl, II., 166, 217, 220. 
Adam, James N., I., 175, 198, 220. 
Adam, Robert B., I., 132, 133; II., 91, 

92, 94. 
Adam, Meldrum & Anderson Co., I., 

220. 
Adam Mickiewicz Library, II., 175. 
Adams, Rev. Henry A., II., 190. 
Albertson, Rev. C. C, II., 190. 
Albright Art Gallery, I., 182, 183. 
Albright, John J., I., 154, 238, 277, 278, 

279, 280; II., 8, 103, 210-212. 
Albro, Stephen, II., 194. 
Aldermen, Board of, I., 187-197. 
Alexander, D. S., II., 189. 
AUgemeine Zeitung, II., 202. 
Allen, C. H., I., 250. 
Allen, George W., II., 157. 
Allen, John, Jr., I., 119, 211; II., 207, 

212. 
Allen, Joseph Dana, II., 156. 
Allen, Lewis F., I., 44, 168; IL, 169, 190. 
Allen, Dr. Lucius H., II., 182. 
Allen, Orlando, I., 169; II., 170. 
Allen, William K., IL, 170. 
Almy, Frederick, I., 89; IL, 87. 189. 
Althaus, Rev. J., IL, 40. 
Altman, Abraham, I., 254. 
American Radiator Co., IL, 10, 11. 
American Ship-building Co., I., 120. 
Andrews, Dr. Judson B., IL, 121, 185. 
Andrews, W. H., IL, 30. 
Angel Guardian Mission, IL, 107, 128. 
Angell, Miss L. Gertrude, IL, 148. 
Annan, Annie R., IL, 189. 
Annan, J. V. W., L, 211. 
Annin, Joseph I., 19, 20. 
Anthracite Association, I., 234, 235. 
Apprentices Society, IL, 165. 
Arcade, Brisbane's, IL, 89. 



Arey, Mrs. H. E. G., IL, 189, 190. 

Arion Singing Society, IL, 220. 

Arnold, Major B. A., and Mrs., IL, 128. 

Aronson, M., II. , 156. 

Art in BufCalo, IL, 204-222. 

Art Students' League, IL, 210. 

-Vsphalt Pavement, I., 143, 144. 

Atlas Oil Works, IL, 26. 

Attica, I., 57. 

Atwater, H. C, IL, 7. 

Aurora. See East Aurora. 

Austin, Charles E., IL, 197. 

Austin, Stephen G., II., 147. 

Austin, Mrs. Stephen G., II. , 108. 

Authors' Carnival, IL, 90, 91. 

Automobile Club, IL, 225. 

Automobile Manufacture, IL, 12, 14, 

15, 300, 30L 
Avery, Truman G., IL, 221. 
Ayer, Captain James, I., 79. 
Babcock, George R., I., 202, 262; IL, 

143, 174. 
Baden, Father, IL, 69. 
Baethig, Dr. Henry, IL, 166, 187. 
Baird, Frank B., L, 87, 275, 276. 
Baker, Ellen K., IL, 208. 
Baker Rev. Nelson H., IL, 112. 
Ball, Rev. George H., IL, 42, 190. 
Ball, S.— his pamphlet, I., 36. 
Bank of America, I., 250. 
Bank of Attica, I., 251. 
Bank of Buffalo, (1st and 2d), I., 250; 

(3d), 254, 255. 
Bank of Commerce (the 1st), I., 250. 
Banks, I., 64-65, 248-260. 
Banner Mill and Milling Co., I., 269. 
Bar, The, L, 199-208. 
Barge Canal enlargement, L, 123. 
Barge System on the Lakes, The, I., 

118, 222. 
Barker, George P., I., 202. 
Barker, P. A., I., 250. 
Barnard, A. J., IL. 153. 

i. Dr. Josiah, IL, 183. 
Bancroft, I., 220. 



293 



294 



Barnes, Hengerer & Co., I., 220. 
Barrett, Dr. William C, II., 145, 181, 

185. 
Bartlett, Dr. F. W., II., 185. 
Barton, Benjamin, I., 19. 
Barton, James L., I., 41, 50, 99, 119. 
Bartow, Dr. Bernard, II., 185. 
Bass, Lyman K., I., 207; II., 222. 
Batavia, I., 13, 14, 30, 55. 
Batavia Street, I., 140, 170. 
Beals, E. P., II., 151. 
Beals, Georg-e, I., 274. 
Beals, Mayhew & Co., I., 272. 
Beals, Mrs. Pascal P., 11., 118. 
Beard, Captain James, I., 115. 
Beard, William H., I., 115; II., 306. 
Beautifying Buffalo, Society for, II., 

212, 213. 
"Beaver," The, I., 112, 113. 
Becker, Charlotte, II., 189. 
Becker, Edward G., I., 259. 
Becker, Rev. P. W. H., II., 126. 
Becker, Philip, I., 220; II., 167. 
Becker, Rev. T. H., II., 56, 126. 
Beckwith, Charles, I., 200. 
Bedford, Dr. Lyman, II., 187. 
Bedini, Archbishop, II., 72. 
Beers, Dr. A. H., IL, 187. 
Beers, Mis.s Jessie E., II., 148, 154. 
Beethoven JIusieal Society, II., 219, 

220. 
Bell, David, I., 120, 289, 290. See also 

David Bell. 
Bell, George C, II., 8. 
Bell, Lewis & Yat^s, I., 239, 240. 
Bell Telephone Co., L, 149, 150. 
Bellondi, Rev. Ariel, n., 61. 
Belt Line Railway, I., 149. 
Bench and Bar, I., 199-208. 
Bender, Philip, II., 202. 
Benedict, Dr. A. L., I., 88; II., 186, 190. 
Bennett, Edward, I., 258. 
Bennett, Lewis J., IL, 24. 
Bennett, Philander, I., 199. 
Bentley, J. R., I., 211. 
Bennett, David S., I., 211, 217; IL, 207. 
Bennett Place, I., 181. 
Berens, Colonel William F., I., 81. 
Berner, George, H., 190. 
Bemer, Gottfried, H., 190. 
Berrick, Charles, 11., 161. 
Betts, C. Walter, I., 227. 
Beyer Family, The, I., 43. 
Beyer, George, IL, 166. 
Beyer, Jacob, IL, 166. 
Bidwell, General Daniel D., L, 69, 70. 
Bidwell Parkway, I., 183. 
Bidwell & Banta, I., 120. 
Bigelow, Allen G., H., 190. 



Bird, Colonel William A., I., 35, 259; 

IL, 143. 
Bird Island Pier, L, 110. 
Birge, George K., L, 87, 88. 
Bishop, General A. W., IL, 189. 
Bishop, Charles F., L, 172, 220. 
Bissell, Arthur D., I., 160, 255. 
Bissell, Dr. Elias W., IL, 185. 
Bissell, Herbert P., I., 87. 
Bissell, Mrs. Herbert P., IL, 107. 
Bissell, John, L, 211. 
Bissell, Wilson S., L, 193, 207; IL, 143. 
Bitter, Karl, I., 88. 
Black Rock, I., 20, 21, 23-25, 27-29, 32, 

33, 35-37, 50, 56, 97-106, 114, 115, 119, 

145, 156, 190, 266, 267, 269, 272. 
Blackmar, Abel T., I., 254. 
Blaekwell (City) Canal, I., 107. 
Blair, W. E., IL, 15. 
Blanchard, Dr. G. H., IL, 187. 
Blatchford, Capt. Daniel, I., 81. 
Bleistein, George, I., 87; n., 200. 
Bliss, Dr. Judah, U., 183. 
Block, Joseph, I., 256. 
Bloeher, Mrs. John, IL, 117. 
Blodgett, J. R., IL, 216. 
Bloomer's Hotel, IL, 223. 
Blossom, Ira A., IL, 143. 
Board, F. A., IL, 92. 
Board, Robert C, L, 154. 
Board of Health, I., 43, 44, 60. 
Board of Trade, L, 59, 72, 212, 213. 
Boardman, Dr. John, IL, 184. 
Bogardus, John D., H., 164. 
Bond, Joseph, IL, 10. 
Bork, Joseph, L, 92. 
Boruskv, Lieut. Charles, I., 79. 
Botanic Garden, I., 181. 
Bouquet, Colonel Henry, I., 112. 
Bowen, Dennis, I., 177, 204; IL, 135. 
Boyee, C. W., IL, 189. 
Bradnack, Mrs., IL, 96. 
Braun, C. W., IL, 217. 
Braunlein, Louis, I., 200. 
Brayley, James, IL, 2, 207. 
Brayton, Dr. S. N., IL, 187. 
Brayman, James O., IL, 194, 198. 
Breakwater, The Great, I., 108-111. 
Breweries, II., 18-20. 
"Bridget," I., 44. 
Briggs, Dr. A. H., IL, 172. 185. 
Briggs, Dr. Horace, IL, 152, 189. 
Brinker, Captain John M., I., 86, 241. 
Brisbane, Albert and George, 11., 160, 

190. 
Bristol, Cyrenius C, IL, 199. 
Bristol, Rev. Edward, IL, 118. 
Bristol, Dr. Moses, IL, 182. 
Broadway, I., 140. 



295 



Broadway Brewing and Malting Co., 
II., 19. 

Brothers, John L., I., 182. 

Brown, Lieut. Cyrus, I., 74. 

Brown, George, II., 157. 

Brown, General Jacob, I., 30. 

Brown, Colonel James M., I., 72. 

Brown, Rev. John W., II., 118. 

Brown, Walter L., II., 165. 

Browne, Irving, II., 189, 190. 

Browning, John, II., 210. 

Brunck, Dr. F. C, I., 67; II., 202. 

Brush, Dr. Edward N., II., 185. 

Brj'ant, Captain George H., I., 119. 

Bryant, J. C, II., 149. 

Bryant, Warren, I., 258. 

Bryant, William C, I., 193; II., 170. 
222. 

Bryant & Stratton's Business College, 
II., 148. 

Buchanan, William I., I., 88. 

Buck-ham, H. B., II., 141. 

Budd, Captain Thomas A., I., 82. 

Buell, Jonathan S., I, 211. 

Buffalo; The Site, I., 3, 4; Indian prede- 
cessors of the white man, 4-9; first 
white settler, 7; early land titles, 9, 
10; the Holland Purchase, 10; first 
white family, 10; first mention in 
literature, 11, 12; origin of the name 
Buffalo, 13; Joseph Ellicott's city 
plan, 14, 15; the village as seen by 
Timothy Dwight in 1804, 15, 16; pio- 
neer settlers, 16-19; the first post- 
master and customs collector, 17; 
the first sitting of court, 19; rivalry 
of Black Rock, 21, 22, 32, 33, 97-106; 
the village in 1871, 22; the first 
newspaper, 22; during the War of 
1812-14, 23-31; burning of the village. 
27-30; the first lake steamer, 32, 33; 
the village in 1818, 33, 34; the first 
church, 34; slaves in Buffalo, 35; first 
daily mail, 35; second church build- 
ing. 35; opening of the Erie Canal, 
— the village in 1825, 36-38; early 
German citizens, 43; chartered as a 
cit}% 43; first visitation of cholera, 
43, 44; the first water works, 45; 
the speculative craze of 1837, 47-51; 
Buffalo in 1835, 47, 48; the first rail- 
way, 51; Buffalo in 1840, 52; during 
the" Patriot War, 52-54; social gayety 
in the '30's and '40's, 55; railway 
connection with Albany, 57, 58; 
Board of Trade organized, 59; rail- 
way connections with New York and 
Chicago, 62; President Lincoln in 
Buffalo, 66, 67; Buffalo during the 



Civil War, 67-84; Fenian affair, 84; 
Buffalo in 1880, 85; the Pan-Ameri- 
can Exposition, 86-90; Buffalo in 
1900 and 1910, 91; the Polish colony, 
91-94; the making of the harbor, 
97-111; annals of the lake shipping, 
112-121; enlargements of the Erie 
Canal, 121-123; Buffalo as a railway 
center, 124-136; streets of the village 
time, 137-144; electric power from 
Niagara Falls, 152-155; development 
of water supply, 156-159; fire-fight- 
ing organization, 160-165; gas and 
electric lighting, 165-167; develop- 
ment of sewerage and sanitation, 
168-175; the park system, 176-184; 
the village government, 185-187; the 
first city charter, 187-189; later 
charter-tinkering, 189-197; courts, 
bench and bar, 199-208; the grain 
trade, 209-220; the lumber trade, 
221-232; the coal trade, 233-244; the 
cattle trade, 245-247; banks and 
banking, 248-260; tanning and 
leather trade, 261-265; manufacture 
of flour, 266-271; production of iron 
and steel, 272-286; metal-working 
and machinery, II., 1-17; brewing, 
18-20; soap manufacture, 20-23; oil 
refining, 25-28; coal-tar dyes and 
mineral acids manufacture, 28-30; 
Protestant churches, 31-67; Roman 
Catholic churches, 68-81; benevolent 
institutions, 82-129; educational in- 
stitutions, 130-156; libraries and 
other literary institutions, 157-175; 
scientific institutions, 176-187; local 
literature, and the newspaper press, 
188-203; art in Buffalo, 205-222; 
music, 213-222; clubs, and other 
social organizations, 222-227. 
Buffalo Academy of Fine Arts, II., 207- 

212. 
Buffalo Academy of Medicine, II., 186, 
Buffalo and Attica Railroad, I., 57, 58, 

62, 124, 125. 

Buffalo and Brantford Railroad, I., 63 
Buffalo and Jamestown Railroad, I., 

127, 240. 
Buffalo and Lake Erie (electric) Trac 

tion Co., I., 136. 
Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway, I., 

63, 124, 126. 

Buffalo and Lockport (electric) Rail- 
way, I., 135. 

Buffalo and New York City Railroad 
I., 58, 62, 125. 

Buffalo and Niagara Falls Electric 
Railway, I., 135. 



296 



Buffalo and Niag-ara Falls Railroad, I., 

125. 
Buffalo and Eochester Eailroad, I., 124, 

125. 
Buffalo and Southwestern Railroad, I., 

127, 240. 
Buffalo and State Line Eailroad, I., 62, 

124, 125. 
Buffalo and Susquehanna Iron Co., I., 

242, 278, 279-286. 
Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad, I., 

12,9-131, 242, 277, 286. 
Buffalo and Washington Railway, I., 

124, 126, 239. 
Buffalo and Williamsville (electric) 

Railway, I., 136. 
Buffalo Apprentices' Society, II., 165. 
Buffalo, Bellevue and Lancaster (elec- 
tric) Railway, I., 135. 
Buffalo Bolt Co., II., 8. 
Buffalo Brake Beam Co., I., 284. 
Buffalo, Brantford and Goderich Eail- 
road, I., 124, 126. 
Buffalo Brewers' Association, II., 18. 
Buffalo Catholic Institiite, II., 172, 173. 
Buffalo Cement Co., II., 24. 
Buffalo Cereal Co., I., 271. 
Buffalo Chemical Works, II., 26. 
Buffalo City Dispensary, II., 109. 
Buffalo Classical School, II., 151, 152. 
Buffalo Club, IL, 223. 
Buffalo Commercial Bank, I., 252. 
Buffalo Co-operative Brewery, II., 20. 
Buffalo Creek (River), I., 7, 9, 10, 13, 

21, 22, 33, 57, 96, 100-106, 236. 
Buffalo Creek Eailroad, I., 126, 236. 
Buffalo Creek Reservation, I., 8, 12, 34, 

42, 56, 57. 
Buffalo Dock Co., I., 285. 
Buffalo Dry Dock Co., L, 120. 
Buffalo East Side Street Railroad Co., 

I., 146-148. 
Buffalo Eye and Ear Infirmary, II., 

122. 
Buffalo Female Academy, II., 147-148. 
Buffalo Forge Co., IL, 9. 
Buffalo Foundry and Machine Co., XL, 

4, 15. 
Buffalo g-as companies, I., 165-167. 
Buffalo Gasolene Motor Co., IL, 15. 
Buffalo Gazette, The, I., 22, 24, 30, 32, 

35; IL, 191, 192. 
Buffalo General Electric Co., I., 166, 

167. 
Buffalo General Hospital, n., 112-114. 
Buffalo Hardwood Lumber Co., I., 227. 
Buffalo Harmonic Society, 11., 215. 
Buffalo Historical Society, I., 5, 15, 20, 

31, 33-35, 43, 44, 47, 55, 97, 107, 112, 



114, 132, 137, 169, 182, 202, 262, 272; 
IL, 131, 159, 161, 169-72, 213, 214. 

Buffalo Hydraulic Association, I., 262. 

Buffalo Iron and Nail Works, I., 273. 

Buffalo Journal, IL, 192. 

Buffalo Law School, IL, 144. 

Buffalo Library, IL, 157, 162, 163. 

Buffalo Public Library, IL, 163-165. 

Buffalo Light Artillery, I., 80. 

Buffalo Loan, Trust and Safe Deposit 
Co., I., 257. 

Buffalo, Lockport and Rochester (elec- 
tric) Railway, I., 136. 

Buffalo Lubricating Oil Co., IL, 26. 

Buffalo Lyceum, IL, 157. 

Buffalo Medical College, IL, 142-144. 

Buffalo Medical Journal, IL, 183. 

Buffalo Medical Library, II. , 175. 

Buffalo, New York and Philadelphia 
Railroad, I., 125, 127, 239. 

Buffalo Orphan Asylum, IL, 108, 109. 

Uuffalo Patriot, IL, 192, 193. 

Buffalo Pitts Co., IL, 2, 3. 

Buffalo, Pittsburg and Western Eail- 
road, L, 127. 

Buffalo Pottery, IL, 23. 

BufTaloKailway Co., I., 148, 149. 

Buffalo Eecord, IL, 200. 

Buffalo Refining Co., IL, 27. 

Buffalo Republican, IL, 193. 

Buiitalo, Eochester and Pittsburg Rail- 
way, L, 127, 240, 244. 

Buffalo Savings Bank, I., 258. 

Buffalo Seminary, IL, 148, 155. 

Buffalo Society of Artists, IL, 210. 

Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 
IL, 138, 159, 161, 176-182. 

Buffalo Southern (electric) Eailwav, 
L, 136. 

Buffalo Star, IL, 193. 

Buffalo State Hospital for the Insane, 
IL, 120. 

Buffalo Steam Engine Works, II., 3. 

Buffalo Steam Pump Co., IL, 9. 

Buffalo Street Eailroad Co., I., 145-148. 

Buffalo Structural Steel Co., IL, 15. 

Buffalo, Tonawanda and Niagara Falls 
(electric) Eailway, I., 135. 

Buffalo Traction Co., I., 148. 

Buffalo Union Furnace Co., L, 275. 

Buffalo West Side Street Eailroad Co., 
I., 148. 

Buffalo Whig, IL, 192. 

Bugbee, Oliver, L, 267. 

Bull, Dr. Alexander T., IL, 187. 

Bull, Jabez B., I., 263, 264. 

Bull, Mrs. Louis A., IL, 154. 

Bull, Captain (War of 1812), L, 24. 

Bullymore, Lieut. William, I., 71. 



BUFFALO 



297 



Burdict, Orrin C, II., 8. 

Burrows, George E., II., 198. 

Burrows, Eoswell L., I., 199; II., 112. 

Burwell, Dr. Bryant, II., 182. 

Burwell, Dr. George N., II., 184. 

Burwell, Henry, II., 194. 

Burwell, Theodotus, II., 143. 

Bush, John, I., 263, 264; II., 44. 

Bush, Myron P., I., 264. 

Bush & Chamberlain, I., 261, 263. 

Bush& Howard, I., 264. 

Busti Avenue, I., 15, 140. 

Butler, Edward H., I., 133, 134; II., 175, 

200. 
Butler, J. A., II., 201. 
Callanan, Dr. William C, II., 186. 
Caldwell, S., II., 135. 
Oallender, Amos, I., 18; U., 131. 
Callender, Samuel N., II., 134, 157. 
Camp, John G., I., 186; II., 132. 
Camp, Wyatt, II., 132. 
Campbell, P. E., II., 190. 
Campbell, Mrs. Helen Thornton, II., 

116, 123. 
Canada, I., 4, 9, 11, 13, 14, 24-31, 34, 37, 

52-54, 63, 84. 
Canada Southern Railway, I., 124, 126. 
Canadian Club, II., 225. 
Canadian Niagara Power Co., I., 153. 
Canal. See Erie Canal. 
Canal Street, I., 140. 
Candee, Joseph, II., 194. 
Canisius College, II., 75, 146. 
Canoe Club, II., 223. 
Carleton, Newcomb, I., 88. 
Carolina Street, I., 170. 
"Caroline," Burning of the, I., 53, 54. 
Carpenter, Carnot, II., 205. 
Carpenter, William A., II., 192. 
Carrere, John M., I., 88. 
Carson, H. D., I., 279. 
Gary, Dr. Charles, II., 185. 
Gary, George, I., 88; II., 172. 
Gary, Dr. Walter, II., 184. 
Caryl, Dr. Lucien W., 176, 182. 
Case, Nehemiah, I., 264. 
easier. Major George F., II., 99. 
Cassity, Dr. James M., II., 141. 
Cataract City Milling Co., I., 269. 
Cataract Power Co., I., 153. 
Catholic Church. See Churches. 
Catholic Institute, II., 172. 
Catholic Protectory, II., 111. 
Catholic Union and Times, II., 203. 
Cattaraugus Reservation, I., 42. 
Cattle Trade, I., 245-247. 
Cayuga Street, I., 140. 
Gazenove Avenue, I., 15, 140. 
Cazenovia Park, I., 181, 183. 



Central Bridge Works, II.. 11. 
Central Fair (of 1864), I., 83. 
Central Milling Co., I., 268. 
Central National Bank, I., 257. 
Central Park, II., 24. 
Central Wharf, I., 209, 210. 
Cement Works, II., 24. 
Chamber of Commerce, I., 213-215. 
Chamberlain, Horace P., II., 28. 
Chamberlain, Hunting S., II., 157. 
Chamberlain, Ivory, II., 195. 
Chandler, Bessie, II., 189, 190. 
Chandler, Henry & Co., II., 197. 
Chapin, Dr. Cyrenius, I., 13, 14, 25, 26, 

29; II., 182. 
Chapin, Colonel Edward P., I., 76, 77, 

79. 
Chapin, Willis O., II., 172, 191, 209, 210, 

212. 
Chapin Parkway, I., 182, 183. 
Charity Foundation of the P. E. 

Church, II., 115, 116. 
Charity Organization Society, I., 92; II., 

82-87, 124. 
Charlevoix, Father, I., 5. 
Charters, City, I., 187-97. 
Chester, Albert H., II., 190. 
Chester, Rev. Dr. Albert T., II., 148, 

177. 
Chester, Rev. Anson G., II., 189, 195, 

196, 207. 
Chester, Dr. C. O., II., 185. 
Chester, Thomas, I., 267; II., 52. 
C'hestnutwood, Susan, II., 191. 
Chicago, I., 39, 40, 45, 62, 116. 
Children's Aid Society, II., 122, 123. 
Children's Hospital, II., 125. 
Chimney-sweeps, I., 162. 
Chippewa, I., 53, 54. 
Chippewa Street, I., 140, 141. 
Cholera, I., 43, 44, 60. 
Choral Union, II., 220. 
Christian Endeavor Society, II., 124. 
Christian Home for Women, II., 128. 
Christian Homestead Association, II., 

101. 
Church Home, II., 115, 116. 
Church Home, German Evangelical, 

II., 122. 
Church Street, I., 14, 137, 140. 
"Churches," The, I., 48; II., 23. 
Churches, Protestant: 

Baftist— 

Baptist Association, Buffalo, II., 

33. 
Baptist Union, II., 42. 
Baptist Young People's Associa- 
tion, II., 61. 
Bethel German, II., 63. 



298 



INDEX 



Cazenovia, II., 64. 

Cedar Street, II., 44. 

Colored, II., 37. 

Dearborn Street, II., 53. 

Dearborn Avenue, II., 48, 54. 

Ebenezer German, II., 62. 

Emmanuel, II., 48. 

Fillmore Avenue, II., 51, 52, 53. 

First Baptist (Washington Street), 
II., 33-36, 38, 44, 46, 53, 62. 

First Free, II., 42, 45, 53. 

First German, II., 40, 43, 50, 63. 

First Italian, II., 61. 

First Polish (Reid Memorial 
Chapel), II., 54, 60. 

Glenwood Avenue, II., 60. 

Hunt Avenue, II., 65. 

Kensing-ton, II., 63. 

Lafayette Avenue, II., 54. 

Maple St., II., 54, 66. 

Niagara Square, II., 38, 44, 45, 52. 

Olivet Mission, II., 48. 

Parkside, II., 56, 62, 63. 

Prospect Avenue, II., 46, 48, 53. 

Second German, II., 43, 55, 62. 

South Side, II., 56, 57, 64. 

Third German, II., 50, 55. 

Trenton Avenue Chapel, II., 56. 

Walden Avenue (Hedstrom Me- 
morial), II., 60. 

Washington Street. See First 
Baptist. 
Congregational — 

First, II., 42, 55, 58, 60. 

Fitch Memorial, II., 62. 

Pilgrim, II., 55, 67. 

Plymouth, II., 58, 67. 
Disciples of Christ — 

Dearborn St., II., 60. 

Forest Avenue, II., 60. 

Jefferson St., II., 60. 

Richmond Avenue, II., 46, 48, 56, 
60. 
German Evangelical — 

Bethany II., 56, 59, 64. 

Friedens, II., 52, 64. 

Holy Trinity, II., 37, 38, 42, 51, 52, 
64. 

Old Lutheran, II., 37, 38, 42, 51, 52. 
German Evangelical Association — 

Bethlehem, II., 57, 63. 

First, II., 36, 42, 49, 51. 

Krettner St., II., 44, 49. 

Memorial, II., 59, 67. 

Rhode Island St., II., 53. 

St. Andrew's, II., 66. 

St. Paul's, II., 49, 56, 63, 66. 
German Evangelical Reformed — 

Emanuel's, II., 53, 63, 67. 



Jerusalem, II., 58. 

St. Paul's, II., 63. 

Salem, II., 49, 67. 

Zion's, II., 39, 56. 

Zoar, II., 63. 
German Evangelical Lutheran — 

Calvary, II., 59, 65. 

Christ, II., 48, 49, 60. 

Concordia, II., 59. 

Emmaus, II., 57. 

Gethsemane, II., 59. 

Grace, II., 65. 

Immanuel, II., 62. 

Redeemer, of The, II., 63. 

St. Andreas, II., 42. 

St. John's, II., 34, 38, 42, 48, 50, 
54, 59, 62. 

Trinity, II., 37, 38, 47, 57. 

Zion (English), II., 62. 
German United Evangelical — 

Salem, II., 59. 

St. Jacobi (St. James), II., 54. 

St. Luke's, II., 47, 52. 

St. John's, II., 40, 50. 

St. Mark's, II., 49, 54. 

St. Matthew's, II., 47. 

St. Paul, II., 38, 42, 49, 52. 

St. Peter's, II., 35, 41, 51. 

St. Stephen's, IL, 42, 67, 122. 

St. Trinitatis, II., 53. 
English Evangelical Lutheran — 

Atonement, The, II., 63. 

Holy Trinity, II., 51, 55, 63, 66. 
Methodist Episcopal — 

African, (Vine St.), II., 36, 39, 53. 

Asburv, IL, 40, 48. 

Calvary, IL, 58. 

Delaware Avenue, IL, 47, 50, 55-56. 

East Street, or Zion, IL, 46, 58. 

Epworth, IL, 66. 

Fpworth League, IL, 58. 

First German, IL, 40, 48. 

Second, IL, 46. 

First Italian (St. Paul's), IL, 66. 

First Methodist (Niagara Street), 
IL, 32-35, 38, 40, 44. 

Glenwood, IL, 50. 

Grace, IL, 38, 42, 43, 48, 122. 

Jersey Street (later Plymouth), 
IL, 43, 46, 49. 

Kenmore, IL, 58. 

Linwood Avenue, IL, 63. 

Lovejov, IL, 55, 57, 64. 

Metealf St., IL, 57. 

Methodist Episcopal Union, IL, 
54, 57. 

Niagara St. (see First Methodist). 

Normal Park (Hampshire St.), 
IL, 57. 



BUFFALO 



299 



Northampton St. German, 11., 55. 

Pearl St., II., 40. 

Plymouth, II., 43, 46, 49, 57. 

Eichmond Avenue, II., 55, 59. 

Ripley Memorial, II., 56. 

Riverside, II., 50. 

St. Mark's, II., 43, 54. 

Seneca St., II., 57. 

Sentinel, II., 48, 60. 

South Park, II., 66. 

Sumner Place, 11., 57, 64. 

Woodside, II., 49, 56, 67. 

Zion, II., 46. 
Methodist, Free — 

First, II., 44, 47. 

Mission, 11., 49. 
Presbyterian — 

Bethany, II., 56. 

Calvary, II., 43, 44, 56. 

Central, II., 35, 49, 50, 67. 

Delaware (later Calvary), II., 43, 
44. 

East, II., 45, 50, 63. 

Faxon Avenue, II., 65. 

First, II., 31, 33-35, 43, 53, 58, 64. 

First United, II., 36, 41, 47. 
Lafayette Street, II., 38-41, 44, 51, 

52. 
North, II., 40, 61, 66. 
Ontario (United), II., 65. 
Park (the First), II., 35, 38. 
Park (the Second), II., 61, 66. 
Second United, II., 47, 57, 66. 
Sloan, II., 66. 
South, II., 63. 

South Park (United), II., 65. 
Walden Avenue, II., 61. 
West Avenue, II., 64. 
Westminster, II., 42, 48, 63, 65. 
Protestant Episcopal 
All Saints, II., 51. 
Ascension, The, II., 43, 49, 56. 
Christ, II., 47, 55. 
Good Shepherd, II., 57. 
Hutchinson Memorial, Chapel of 

the Holy Innocents, II., 63, 116. 
IngersoU Memorial Chapel, II., 57. 
Laymen's Missionary League, II., 

58. 
St. Andrew's, II., 49, 59, 61. 
St. Barnabas', II., 61. 
St. James', II., 43, 50, 51, 55. 
St. John's, II., 39, 46, 47, 61, 63. 
St. Luke's, II., 43, 44, 47, 48. 
St. Mark's, II., 48, 61. 
St. Mary's on the Hill, II., 48, 59. 
St. Paul's, II., 31, 33, 34, 36, 41, 

43, 49, 51, 58. 
St. Philip's, II., 44. 



St. Thomas, II., 50, 55. 
Trinity, II., 36, 38, 39, 55, 66. 
Unitarian — 

First, II., 34, 40, 44, 52, 66. 
Univcrsalist— 
First (of the Messiah), II., 34, 38, 
46, 124. 
Various Protestant — 
Bethel, II., 34. 
Church of the Divine Humanity 

(Swedenborgian), II., 53, 64, 65. 
Dutch Reform, II., 41, 47, 53. 
French Lutheran, II., 51. 
Friends, II., 46. 
Lafayette Reformed, II., 64. 
Norwegian Lutheran (Zion's), II., 

65. 
Swedish Evangelical Lutheran, 

II., 54. 
United Brethren in Christ, II., 58. 
Wells St., II., 46, 50. 
Churches, Roman Catholic — 
Annunciation, of the, II., 78. 
Assumption, of the, II., 77. 
Blessed Sacrament, Chapel of the, 

II., 78. 
Corpus Christi, IL, 78. 
Holy Angels, The, II., 76. 
Holy Family, of the, II., 79. 
Holy Name, of the, II., 77. 
Inamaculate Conception, The, II., 

74. 
Lamb of God, Church of the, II., 

Nativity, of the, II., 79. 

Our Lady of Perpetual Help, II., 

79. 
Sacred Heart, of the, II., 77. 
St. Adelbert, II., 78. 
St. Agnes, II., 77. 
St. Anne's, II., 75. 
St. Anthony of Padua, II., 78. 
St. Boniface's, IL, 74. 
St. Bridget's, IL, 76, 79. 
St. Columba, IL, 78. 
St. Gerard's, IL, 80. 
St. John the Baptist, II., 76, 77. 
St. John Kanty, IL, 80. 
St. Joseph's, IL, 74. 
St. Joseph's Cathedral, IL, 74, 75. 
St. Louis, IL, 69, 70-73, 74, 75. 
St. Mary's, IL, 71. 
St. Mary Magdalene, IL, 79. 
St. Mary's of the Lake, IL, 74. 
St. Mary of Sorrows, 11., 77. 
St. Michael's, IL, 75. 
St. Nicholas, IL, 77. 
St. Patrick's. IL, 70, 71, 76. 
St. Peter's (French), IL, 74, 75. 



300 



INDEX 



St. Stanislaus, I., 92; II., 77. 

St. Stephen's, II., 77-79. 

St. Theresa's, II., 79. 

St. Vincent de Paul, II., 76. 

St. Xavier's, II., 73, 74, 77. 

Transfiguration, of the, II., 78. 

Visitation Parish, II., 79. 
Churchyard, Joseph, I., 147. 
Circle, The, I., 179, 184. 
Citizens' Bank, I., 256. 
City Bank, I., 250. 
City Club, II., 223. 
City Government, I., 189-97. 
"City of Buffalo," the steamer, I., 115, 

119. 
CiTil Service Reform, I., 192-194. 
Clapp, Almon, M., I., 67; 11., 193, 194- 

196. 
Clapp, H. H., II., 196. 
Clarendon Square, I., 48. 
Clark, Charles E., II., 112. 
Clark, Elizabeth G., II., 119. 
Clark, Captain Orton S., I., 78; II., 189. 
Clark, Seth, H., 221. 
Clark, Dr. Sylvester, II., 182. 
Clark, Dr. Thomas B., II., 182. 
Clarke, Cyrus, I., 211. 
Clarke, E. A., I., 283. 
Clary, Joseph, I., 42, 141, 199. 
Clawson, Wilson & Co., I., 220. 
Clemens, Samuel L., II., 196. 
Clement, Jesse, n., 87, 189. 
Clement, Stephen M., Sr., I., 253. 
Clement, Stephen M., Jr., I., 154, 277, 

279; II., 92, 155, 212, 221. 
Cleveland, Grover, I., 198, 207; II., 190. 
Clinton, De Witt, n., 118. 
Clinton, Governor De Witt, I., 37. 
Clinton, Judge George W., I., 67, 186, 
197, 200, 205; II., 115, 143, 176, 177, 
180. 
Clinton, Spencer, I., 133, 134, 258. 
Clinton Street, I., 140. 
Clinton Star Brewery, II., 20. 
Clubs, n., 22-26. 
Coakley, Dr. J. B., H., 185. 
Coal-tar Dyes, II., 28, 29. 
Coal Trade, I., 233-241. 
Cobb, Carlos, I., 211. 
Cochrane, A. G. C, II., 157. 
Cochrane, John F., II., 173. 
Codd, Robert, I., 251. 
Coffin, William A., I., 88. 
Cohen, A. S., II., 156. 
Coit, Charles T., I., 145. 
Coit, George, I., 22. 
Coit, G. C. & Son, I., 211. 
Coit Docks, I., 285. 
Cold Spring, The, I., 24. 



Coleman, Charles C, II., 177, 206. 
Colonial Wars, Society of, II., 227. 
Collegiate Alumnae, II., 226. 
Collegiate Alumnae Creche, II., 127. 
Colpoys, George J., I., 269. 
Colton, Rt. Rev. Charles H., II., 80, 81, 

127, 128, 150. 
Columbia National Bank, I., 256. 
Commerce, Lake and Canal. See 

Lake Shipping, and Erie Canal. 
Commercial Bank, I., 250. 
Commercial Advertiser, The, I., 45, 60, 

64, 65; II., 38, 191, 193-196. 
Common Council, I., 187-197. 
Commonwealth Trust Co., I., 258. 
Congdon, Benjamin C, II., 182. 
Congdon, Dr. Charles E., U., 186. 
Conger, Dr. Horace M., II., 183. 
Conners, William J., II., 200, 201. 
Constructive Evolution, I., 97. 
Consumers' Brewery, II., 19. 
Consumers' League, II., 226. 
Contact Process Co., II., 29. 
Continental Singing Society, II., 216. 
Converse, Frank A., I., 88. 
Conway, Katherine E., II., 189. 
Conwell, Rt. Rev. Henry, II., 68. 
Cook, Eli, L, 67, 197, 203. 
Cook, Ephraim F., II., 136. 
Cook, ]Mrs. Jane G., H., 121, 190. 
Cook, Dr. Joseph T., H., 187. 
Cook, Rev. P. G., H., 45, 119. 
Cooke, Walter P., I., 88, 160. 
Corning, Rev. J. Leonard, II., 190. 
Cornplanter, I., 8. 
Corns & Co., I., 273. 
Cornwell, W. C, II., 190. 
Corriere Italiano, II., 203. 
Oosmovilla, II., 116. 
Coss, Daniel J., IL, 22. 
Coss, William H., H., 22. 
Cothran, George W., I., 199. 
Cottier, Lieut.-Col. Robert, I., 77, 79. 
Cottier & Denton, II., 214. 
Country Club, II., 224. 
County Court, I., 199. 
County Lodging House, 11., 123. 
Courier, The Buffalo, I., 68; II., 191, 

193, 194, 198-200. 
Court of Common Pleas, I., 199. 
Court Street. I., 15, 140, 141. 
Coventrv, Dr. Charles B., II., 143. 
Cowell.'john F., I., 181. 
Cowing, H. O., I., 211. 
Coxe, Rt. Rev. Arthur Cleveland, II., 

45, 63, 189, 190. 
Cradle Banks, II., 125. 
Crandall, F. A., I., 193. 
Crandall, William S., I.. 214 



BUFFALO 



301 



Crate, James, I., 226. 
Crego, Dr. Floyd S., II., 185. 
Crippled Children's Guild, II., 226. 
Critchlow, Dr. George P., II., 187. 
Crocker, Leonard, I., 245. 
Crockett, Dr. M. A., II., 155, 186. 
Cronyn, Dr. John, I., 177; II., 185. 
Cronyn, Eev. Patrick, II., 189, 203. 
Crosby Co., The, II., 12-14. 
Crow Street, I., 140, 141. 
Crowe, Dr. T. M., II., 139, 186. 
Cummings, Dr. Carlos E., II., 138, 181. 
Curtis, Mrs. Alexander M., II., 154. 
Curtis, Peter, II., 112. 
Curtis & Deming, I., 265. 
Curtiss, Dr. A. M., II., 187. 
Cutter, Joanna B., II., 101. 
Cutter, William B., I., 160. 
Cutter & Nims, I., 211. 
Czytelnia Polski, II., 175. 
Daggett, Dr. Byron H., II., 185. 
Dakin, Captain George, I., 234 
Dalton, Dr. John C, II., 184. 
Dandy, Colonel George B., I., 72, 73. 
Dandy, Major James H., I., 74. 
Daniels, Judge Charles, I., 67, 199, 206. 
Daniels, Dr. Clayton M., n., 185. 
Daniels, John, I., 91. 
Dann, Edward S., II., 153. 
Dannreuther, Gustav, II., 220. 
Dart, Joseph, I., 58, 216. 
Darius, Eev. J. M. G., II., 63. 
Daughters of the Amer. Revolution, 

II., 226, 227. 
Daughters of New England, II., 227. 
David Bell Engineering Works, II., 4, 

16. 
Davidson, Dr. A. E., II., 185. 
Daw, Henry & Son, I., 211. 
Dawes, Julius H., II., 170. 
Day, David F., II., 176, 177, 181. 
Day, David M., I., 32; II., 192. 
Day, David T., I., 88. 
Day, Eobert W., II., 172. 
Day Hydraulic Canal, I., 268, 269. 
Day Nursery of the Infant Jesus, II., 

127. 
Dayton, Lewis P., I., 177; U., 184. 
Deaconess' Home, M. E. Church, II., 

100, 101. 
Delaney, Charles, I., 273; II., 7. 
Delaney Forge, I., 273; II., 7. 
Delaware Avenue, I., 15, 45, 140, 142. 
Delaware and Hudson Co., 234-236. 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 

Railroad, I., 127, 234, 235, 237, 243, 

244, 286. 
Delaware Park, I., 87, 177, 180, 182, 



Dellenbaugh, Dr., II., 166. 

Dellenbaugh, F. S., II., 189. 

Dellenbaugh Family, The, I., 43. 

Demokrat und Weltbuerger, II., 202. 

Denton, Eobert, II., 216. 

Depew, I., 154. 

Depew and Lake Erie Water Co., I., 

159, 160. 
Deshler, John G., I., 211. 
Detmers, Arthur, II., 212. 
Detroit, I., 40. 

Deuther, Charles C, II., 189. 
Devereaux, Walter, II., 118. 
Devine Co., J. P., II., 16. 
Diamond, M., II., 156. 
Dibble, O. H., L, 250. 
Dickey, John, I., 245. 
Dickinson, James M., II., 206. 
Dickinson, Captain Raselas, I., 71. 
Diehl, Mayor Conrad, L, 87-89; II., 185. 
District Nursing Association, II., 123, 

226. 
Dock, The, L, 209-212. 
Dock Street, I., 140. 
Dobbins, Captain D. P., I., 211; II., 

226. 
Dold Packing Co., Jacob, I., 246, 247. 
Dohn, A. F., IL, 15. 
Dom Polski, The, I., 94. 
Donaldson, Robert S., I., 259. 
Donohue, Eev. Dr. Thomas, U., 80, 

189. 
Dorr, Oaptam E. P., I., 211; II., 170, 

212. 
Dorr, Dr. Samuel G., II., 185. 
Dorsheimer, William, I., 176, 177, 206; 

II., 170, 189. 
Drullard, F. O., II., 9. 
Dry Goods Trade, I., 220. 
Dubois, Rt. Rev. John, II., 69, 70. 
Dudley, J. G., II., 221. 
Dudley, Joseph D., II., 25. 
Dudley, Joseph P., II., 25, 164. 
Dunbar, Charles F., II., 15, 16. 
Dunbar, Robert, II., 7. 
Dunham, Dr. Sydney A., II., 186. 
Durfee, Amos, I., 53. 
Dwight, Timothy, I., 15. 
D'Youville College, IL, 151, 152. 
Eagle Iron Works, IL, 7. 
Eagle Street, I., 14, 140, 141. 
Fames, M. E., L, 211. 
Earl, James N., L, 251. 
Early, Father, IL, 112. 
East Aurora, I., 34, 42. 
East Buffalo Maennerchor, IL, 220. 
East Buffalo Iron Works, IL, 8. 
East Buffalo Brewing Co., IL, 20. 
Eastman, Dr. Sanford, IL, 184. 



302 



INDEX 



Eaton, Captain John B., I., 180. 

Eaton, L., I., 250. 

Ebenezer Society, The, I., 57. 

Educational Institutions, II., 130-156. 

Efner, Eli, I., 187. 

Egbert, Rev. John P., II., 190. 

Ehler, E. H., II., 13. 

Eidlitz, Cyrus L. W., II., 163. 

Einsfeld, John P., I., 193. 

Electric Power, I., 152-155. 

Electric Railways, I., 135, 136, 148, 149. 

Elevators, Grain, I., 58, 216-218. 

Eleventh Independent Battery, I., 75. 

Elias & Brother, G., I., 227. 

Eliot, President C. W., II., 212. 

Elks, The, II., 225. 

Ellicott, Joseph, I., 12-15, 34, 35, 137- 
139; II., 130. 

Ellicott Clubs, II., 224. 

Ellicott Street, I., 169. 

Elliott, Lieut. (War of 1812), I., 25. 

Ellis, Major William, I., 71. 

Ellison, Ismar S., I., 43. 

Elmendorf, Henry L., II., 164, 165. 

Elmendorf, Mrs. Henry L., II., 165. 

Elmwood Avenue Extension, I., 96. 

Elmwood School, II., 154, 155. 

Ely, W. Caryl, I., 87, 160. 

Emerson, Henry P., II., 140, 181, 189. 

Emery, Edward K., I., 199, 200. 

Empire Lumber Co., I., 227. 

Empire Oil Works, II., 25. 

Emslie, Peter, I., 132. 

Emslie Street Sewer, I., 171. 

Enos, Laurens, I., 211. 

Enquirer, The, II., 201. 

Ensign, Charles, I., 18, 211; II., 207. 

Equality Club, II., 91, 225. 

Ericsson (L. M.) Telephone Mfg. Co., 
II., 16. 

Erie, I., 39, 98, 99, 112. 

Erie Basin, I., 107, 109. 

Erie Canal, I., 33, 35, 30, 39-42, 57, 58, 
60, 100-106, 121-123, 318, 219, 333-235. 

Erie County, I., 16, 35, 42. 

Erie County Bank, L, 250. 

Erie County Homeopathic Medical So- 
ciety, II., 186, 187. 

Erie County Medical Society, II., 182- 
186. 

Erie Mill, I., 266. 

Erie Railway, I., 58, 62, 125, 234, 236- 
238, 243. 

Erie Railway Library Ass'n., II., 175. 

Erie Street, I., 14, 137, 140. 

Eries, The, L, 5, 7. 

Ernst, Mrs. J. F., II., 121. 

Esenwein, August C, I., 88; II., 162. 

Esser, John, I., 269. 



Evans, Edwin T., I., 177, 211, 372. 

Evans, Dr. Ellicott, I., 15. 

Evans, J. C, I., 211. 

Evans, Colonel and Mrs. William, II., 

98. 
Everett, H. L., II., 190. 
Exchange Bank, I., 251. 
Exchange Street, I., 140-142. 
Express, The Buffalo. See Morning 

Express. 
Extein, Hiram, I., 193. 
Faber, W. F., II., 190. 
Falconwood Club, II., 223. 
Fargo, Mrs. Jerome, II., 121. 
Fargo, William G., I., 198; II., 200. 
Farmer's Brother, I., 8, 25, 27. 
Farmers' and Drovers' Bank, I., 251. 
Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, I., 252. 
Farnham, Ammi M., II., 208. 
Farnham, Charles S., II., 177. 
Farnum, Lieut. Charles S., I., 74. 
Farrar, Chillon M., II., 8. 
Farrar & Trefts, II., 8. 
Fassett, Theodore S., I., 226. 
Faxon, Charles, II., 193. 
Faxon, Henry W., II., 199. 
Faxon, James, II., 193. 
Federal Telegraph and Telephone Co., 

L, 150, 151. 
Federlein, Frederick, II., 317, 318. 
Fegley, Major and Mrs. F. C, II., 102. 
Feldman Family, The, I., 43. 
Felician Sisters, II., 128. 
Fell, Dr. George E., II., 185. 
Fenian Invasion of Canada, I., 84. 
Ferguson, Charles, II., 190. 
Ferris, Mrs. Martha, II., 46. 
Ferris, Peter J., I., 132; II., 51, 87. 
Fidelity Trust Co., I., 357. 
Field, General George S., 11., 11. 
Fields, Samuel J., I., 88. 
Fiftieth Regt. Engineers, I., 75. 
Fifty-seven, Panic of, I., 63-66. 
Fillmore, Mrs. Caroline, II., 310. 
Fillmore, Rev. Glezen, I., 34; 11., 32. 
Fillmore, Millard, I., 33, 42, 43, 59, 66- 

68, 197, 203, 258; IL, 132, 143, 169, 170, 

223. 
Fillmore Avenue, I., 178, 183. 
Fillmore, Hall & Haven, I., 42. 
Financial Crisis. See Panics. 
Fine Arts Academy, II., 159, 161, 207- 

212. 
Fire Wardens, Village, I., 160-162. 
Fire Fighting, I., 160-165, 189, 195, 196. 
Fish, E. E., II., 190. 
Fish, S. H., L, 211; XL, 207. 
Fischer, Louis A., II., 15. 
Fisher, James H., II., 190. 



BUFFALO 



303 



Fiske, Mrs. Henry C, II., 98. 

Fitch, Benjamin, II., 85. 

Fitch, Kev. Frank S., II., 42, 63. 

Fitch Creche, II., 85, 122. 

Fitch Institute, II., 85. 

Fitch Provident Dispensary, II., 123. 

Fitch Tuberculosis Dispensarj', II., 86, 

12s. 
Flach, Richard, I, 176, 177. 
Fleming, Edwin, I., 87; II., 200, 201. 
Flint, Dr. Austin, II., 142. 143, 183-185, 

190. 
Flint & Kent, I., 220. 
Flour Manufacture, I., 266-271. 
Fobes, William D., II., 170. 
Follett, Oran, II., 192. 
Folwell, Dr. M. B., II., 185. 
Foote, Dr. George F., II., 187. 
Foote, Dr. Thomas M., II., 143, 193, 

195. 
Forbes, Mrs. E. A., II., 189. 
Ford, Dr. Corydon L., II.. 143. 
Forman, George V., I., 257. 
Fornes, Charles V., II., 173. 
Fort Erie, I., 9, 14, 20, 25, 30, 31. 
Fort Niagara, I., 8, 23, 27, 28. 
Fort Porter, I., 180. 
Fort Stanwix, Treaty of, I, 8, 9, 13. 
Forty-fourth Eegt. N. Y. Vols., I., 75, 

76. 
Forty-ninth Eegt. N. Y. Vols., The, I., 

69-71. 
Forward, Oliver, I., 18, 19, 38, 101, 106, 

185. 
Foster, Dr. Hubbard, II., 187. 
Foster, William E. II., 195. 
Fowler, Dr. Joseph, II., 185. 
Franklin School, II., 155, 156. 
Franklin Street, I., 140. 
Frederick, Dr. Carlton C, II., 185. 
Frederick, William H., I., 214. 
Free Soil Convention of, 1848, I., 59. 
Freie Presse, II., 202. 
French, Lieut. James H., I., 74. 
French, Thomas B., I., 164. 
French, Rev. Thomas L., II., 65. 
Fresh Air Mission, II., 124, 125. 
Friedman, Joseph, II., 18. 
Fronczak, Dr. Francis E., I., 93, 175; 

II., 190. 
Front, The, I., 177, 179, 180, 183. 
Front Avenue, I., 183. 
Frontier Mill, I., 367, 269. 
Frontier Police District, I., 191. 
Frontier Telephone Co.. I., 150. 
Frost, Dr. H. C, II., 187. 
Frothingham, Rev. Frederick, II., 210. 
Fryer, Robert T>., I., 254, 271; II., 155. 
Gaertner, Dr. William, II., 175. 



Galusha, Rev. Elon, II., 33. 

Ganson, Emily, II., 96. 

Gamson, James M., I., 253; II., 151. 

Ganson, John, I., 205, 206. 

Ganson, John S., II., 207. 

Gardner, Noah H., I., 261-263; II., 134. 

Gas Lighting, I., 59. 

Gaskill, Charles B., L, 369. 

Gaskin, Edward, I., 120. 

Gates, Elizabeth H., II., 212. 

Gates, Horatio, II., 194. 

Gates, Mrs. Sarah A., IL, 114, 212. 

Gates Circle, I., 183. 

Gay, Dr. Charles C. F., IL, 177, 184, 
190, 222. 

Gazetta BuflFaloska, II., 303. 

General Drop Forge Co., II., 17. 

Genesee, The, I., 4, 9. 

Genesee Street, I., 140, 141, 145. 

Geneseo, I., 10. 

Geib, Frederick, IL, 202. 

George N. Pierce Co., II., 12, 14. 

Georger, F. A., IL, 165, 168. 

Georgia Street, I., 170. 

German Deaconess' Home, II. , 126. 

German Hospital, IL, 126, 137. 

German Martin Luther Theological 
Seminary, IL, 146. 

German Roman Catholic Orphan Asy- 
lum, IL, 111. 

German Young Men's Association, IL, 
165-169. 

flerman-American Bank, I., 255. 

German-American Brewery, IL, 20. 

Germans in Buffalo, I., 43. 

Germania Brewing Co., IL, 20. 

Germania Maennerchor, IL, 220. 

Gerrans, H. M., L, 87, 134. 

Gibbons, Miss Emma, IL, 154. 

Gibson, Johnson & Ehle, I., 272. 

Oifford, Rev. O. P., IL, 118. 

Gilbert Family, The, I., 7, 13. 

Gilder, Richard Watson, IL, 212. 

Gildersleeve-Longstreet, Mrs., IL, 190, 
222. 

Gittere, Joseph A., IL, 173. 

Gleason, Very Rev. William, IL, 77. 

Glen Iris, IL, 5. 

Glenny, Charlotte S., IL, 155. 

Glenny, Mrs. Esther A., II., 98. 

Glenny, William H., IL, 182. 

Glennv, Mrs. William H., IL, 189. 

Globe'MiU, I., 266, 267. 

Gluck, James Frazer, IL, 164, 190. 

Goetz, Rev. A., IL, 51. 

Goetz, Philip Becker, IL, 189, 212. 

Goetz, Mrs. Regina, IL, 117. 

Goetz Family, I., 43. 

Gombel, Rev. Joseph, IL, 35. 



304 



INDEX 



Gomez, William G., II., 3. 

Good Shepherd, House of the, II., 114, 

115. 
Goodell, Jabez, II., 147, 148. 
Goodell Hall, II., 148. 
Goodell Street, I., 170. 
Goodrich, G. H., I., 250. 
Goodyear, Charles W., I., 87, 130, 160, 

230-232, 379; 11., 172. 
Goodyear, Frank H., I., 129-131, 229- 

232, 277, 278; II., 125. 
Gorham, Nathaniel, I., 9. 
Gowans & Beard, and Gowans & Son, 

II., 20. 
Grabau, Kev. J. A., II., 37, 51, 52, 146. 
Grade Crossings Commission, I., 132- 

134. 
Graduates' Association, II., 148. 
Graham, Fred. F., I., 283. 
Grain Trade — ^Grain Elevators. I.. ">S, 

209-220. 
Gram, Rev. Franklin C, II., 126. 
Grand Army of the Republic, II., 227. 
Grand Island, I., 26. 
Grand Trunk Railway, I., 126. 
Grang-er, Erastus, I., 17, 19, 22, 199. 
Granger, Lieut.-Col. Warren, I., 73. 
Granger & Co., I., 220. 
Gratwick, W. H., I., 154; II., 382. 
Gratwick, Mrs. W. H., II., 144. 
Gratwick Research Laboratory, II., 

144. 
Gratwick & Co., I., 228, 229. 
Graves, John C, I., 182. 
Graves, Quartus, II., 194. 
Graves, Manbert, George & Co., I., 226. 

Gray, David. I., 5-7, 181; II., 88, 159, 
189, 198-200, 222. 

Gray, David, Jr., II., 190. 

Gray, Dr. P. W., II., 187. 

Gray, William M., I., 211. 

"Great Western," The, I., 45, 115. 

Green, Anna Katherine, II., 191. 

Green, Benjamin F., I., 199. 

Green, Edward B., I., 88. 

Green, Harriet E., II., 155. 

Green, Manly C, I., 199. 

Green, R. S., II., 190. 

Green & Wicks, n., 210. 

Greene, General Francis V., I., 154. 

Greene, James W., II., 197, 198. 

Greene, Dr. .Joseph C, II., 170, 185. 

Greene, Dr. S. S., II., 185. 

Greene, Dr. Walter D., I., 175; II., 185. 

Gregg, Dr. Rollin R., II., 187. 

Gregory, Dr. Willis G., II., 185. 

Greiner, C. M., II., 3. 

Greiner, John, I., 177; II., 167. 

Greiner Family, I., 43. 



Grey Nuns, II., 150. 

Griffin, A. L., I., 211. 

Griffin, John B., I., 211. 

"Griffon," The, I., 112. 

Grosscurth, William, II., 220. 

Grosvenor, Abel M., I., 22. 

Grosvenor, Dr. J. W., II., 186. 

Grosvenor, Seth, II., 173. 

Grosvenor Library, I., 202; II., 159, 

160, 161, 163, 173, 174. 
Grote, Augustus R., 11., 178, 179, 181, 

190. 
Grove, Dr. Benjamin H., II., 185. 
Gruener, Carl, II., 167. 
Guard of Honor, II., 46, 94. 
Guggenberger, Rev. Professor, II., 189. 
Guido Chorus, IL, 211, 221. 
Guild, Joseph, II., 119, 120. 
Guild, Mrs. Susan, II., 119. 
Gurteen, Rev. S. Humphreys, II., 190. 
Gustafson, Rev. F. A., II., 65. 
Guthrie, Edward B., I., 134. 
Guthrie, S. S., I., 211. 
Haas, Lieut. Herman, I., 71. 
Haberstro, Joseph L., II., 20. 
Haberstro Family, The, I., 43. 
Haddock, Dr. Charles C, I., 60. 
Haddock, Lieut, and Adjt. Herbert H., 

I., 74. 
Haddock, John, I., 160. 
Haddock, L. K., I., 113. 
Hadley, Dr. George, II., 144. 
Hadley, Dr. James, II., 143. 
Hagg, Adjutant and Mrs., II., 100. 
Haight, Albert, I., 199 200. 
Haines, Mrs. Anne M., II., 119. 
Haines, Emmor, IL, 170. 
Haines Lumber Co., I., 226. 
ITalbert, Norton A., IL, 87. 
Hall, Asaph, IL, 131. 
Hall, Edward J., I., 149; IL, 28. 
Hall, Nathan K., I., 35, 42, 43, 199, 203; 

IL, 134. 
Hall, General (War of 1812), I., 28. 
Hall & Sons, IL, 28. 
Hamburg Canal, The, I., 60. 
Hamilton, Dr. Frank H., IL, 142, 143, 

184, 190. 
Hamlin, Frank. IL, 221. 
Hamlin, Harry, I., 87, 88. 
Hamlin & Mendsen, I., 320. 
Hammond, Clark H., I., 200. 
Hammond, Robert, II., 9. 
Hammond. William W., L, 199. 
Handel & Haydn Society, IL, 215. 
Hanna, W. W., IL, 30. 
Hanna & Co., M. A., I., 275. 
Harbor, Buffalo, I., 21. 32, 33, 95-111. 
Harbour Street, I., 140. 



BUFFALO 



305 



Harmonic Singing- Society, II., 320. 
Harrington Hospital for Children, II., 

114. 
Harris, Jabesh, II., 21. 
Harris Hill, I., 30. 
Harrison, J. C, I., 211, 259. 
Harrison, Jonas, I., 185, 186. 
Harrison Glee Club, II., 215. 
Harriton, H., II., 156. 
Hartt, Mrs. Charles F., II., 148. 
Harugari Library, II., 175. 
Harugari Maennerchor, II., 220. 
Harvey, Dr. Charles W., II., 184. 
Harvey, Dr. Leon F., II., 177, 181, 185. 
Haskins, George W., II., 196. 
Haskins, Roswell W., I., 44, 168; II., 

134, 176, 177, 190, 192, 194. 
Hatch, Edward W., I., 199, 200. 
Hatch, Israel T., I., 250; II., 194. 
Hauenstein, A. G., I., 226. 
Hauenstein, Dr. John, II., 165, 168, 184. 
Hauenstein Family, The, I., 43. 
Hauenstein & Co., II., 25. 
Haven, Simon Z., II., 187. 
Haven, Solomon G., I., 43, 197, 203. 
Hawkins, N. A., II., 14. 
Hawley, Elias S., II., 135, 170. 
Hawley, Dr. James E., II., 183. 
Hawley, Jesse, I., 37. 
Hawley, M. S., I., 311. 
Hawley, Seth C, II., 157, 194. 
Hayd, Dr. Herman E., II., 185. 
Hayes, Edmund, I., 154, 160, 371, 280, 

383; IL, 10, 212, 221. 
Hayes, George B., I., 276; II., 9, 161. 
HaVes, Dr. George E., II., 157, 176, 177, 

180. 
Hayward, Elisha, II., 1. 
Hayward, Capt. Elisha L., I., 69. 
Hazard, George S., I., 311; II., 113, 170, 

207, 212. 
Heacock, Reuben B., I., 22. 
Heacock, Capt. Reuben B., I., 71, 160. 
Heacock, Rev. Dr. Grosvenor W., II., 

38-41, 51, 207. 
Health, Board of, I., 43, 44, 60, 168, 173- 

175, 195. 
Heath, Dr. William H., II., 186. 
Hebrew School, II., 156. 
Hedstrom, Erie L., I., 233, 235-237, 241, 

II., 53, 60, 91. 
HefEord, R. R., n., 93, 173. 
Heiser, Godfrey, II., 19. 
Held, Frederick, II., 202. 
Hellriegel, Henry, I., 255. 
Helmer, C. M., IL, 28. 
Helvetia Singing Society, II., 220. 
Henderson, Rev. John ^f., II. , 56. 
Hengerer, William, I., 87. 



Hengerer, William & Co., I., 220. 

Hens-Kelly Co., I., 220. 

Heywood, Russell H., I., 211-213. 

Hibbard, George A., IL, 190. 

Hibbard, Dr. G. C, IL, 187. 

Hickmott, Capt. Charles H., I., 71. 

Higgins, Lieut.-Col. John, I., 78. 

Higginson, J. P., I., 283. 

Hill, Henry W., IL, 171, 172. 

Hill, Dr. John D., IL, 184. 

Hill, William H., IL, 13. 

Hinckley, Dr. A. S., IL, 187. 

Hines, Father, IL, 112. 

Hinkel, Dr. F. W., IL, 186. 

Hinman, Mr. and Mrs. Walter N., IL, 

101. 
Hinson, Charles W., I., 200. 
Hobart, Bishop, IL, 32. 
H. O. Company, L, 271. 
Hodge, Benjamin, IL, 131. 
Hodge, William, IL, 170. 
Hodson, Devoe P., I., 200. 
Holland, Nelson, IL, 10. 
Holland Company, The, I., 10, 13, 35. 
Hollister, Frank M., IL, 196. 
Hollister, J. & R., I., 211. 
Hollister & Laverack, I., 220. 
Hollister Bank, The, I., 64. 
Holmes, A. S., U., 51. 
Holmes, Britain, IL, 7. 
Holmes, Edward, IL, 7. 
Holmes, J. D., IL, 106. 
Holmes, Rev. Samuel Van Vranken, 

IL, 62, 103. 
Holmes & Adams, IL, 25. 
Holt, Lieut.-Col. Erastus D., I., 71. 
Holy Angels' Academy, IL, 150, 151. 
Holz, Colonel Richard E., IL, 99. 
Home for the Friendless, IL, 118, 119. 
Homeopathic Hospital, IL, 121. 
Homeopathic Medical Society, IL, 186, 

187. 
Hopkins, Dr. Henry R., IL, 153, 185. 
Hopkins, Nelson K., I., 164. 
Hopkins, General Timothy S., I., 33. 
Horan, William C, IL, 198. 
Ilorgan, George V., I., 214. 
Hornaday, W. T., IL, 190. 
Hornby, Alexander, I., 271. 
Horton, Mrs. John Miller, IL, 226. 
Hosmer, Rev. George W., I., 47, 48, 137- 

139, 169; IL, 34. 
Hospitals, IL, 109, 112-116, 120-122, 124, 

125. 
Hotchkiss, William H., I., 87. 
Hotchkiss, W. H., IL, 190. 
Houck, William G., IL, 15. 
Houghton, George W., I., 200; n., 215. 
Howard, Dr. C. F., IL, 186. 



3o6 



Howard, Ethan H., II., 200. 

Howard Georg-e, I., 264; II., 112, 161. 

Howard, James H. W., II., 190. 

Howard, J. G., I., 88. 

Howard, R. L., II., 7, 153. 

Howard Iron Works, II., 7. 

Howe, Mrs. Elizabeth M., II., 112, 113, 

139. 
Howe, Dr. Lucien, II., 181, 185, 190. 
Howell, Stephen W., I., 266; II., 7. 
Howell, Stephen Y., II., 185. 
Howland, Henry E., I., 113, 113; II., 

173, 176, 178-180, 189, 
Howland, Theodore, II., 177. 
Hoxsie, Dr. Augustus C, II., 187. 
Hoyt, Lieut. Azor H., I., 74. 
Hoyt, James G., I., 199. 
Hoyt, William B., II., 154. 
Iloyt & Spratt, I., 208. 
Hubbard, Elbert, II., 22, 190. 
Hubbard, Dr. Silas, II., 183. 
Hubbell, Dr. Alvin A., II., 185. 
Hubbell, Mark S., II., 203. 
Hughes, John, I., 87. 
Hughes, Rt. Rev. John, II., 71, 72. 
Humboldt Park and Parkway, I., 182, 

183. 
Humphrey, James M., I., 200. 
Hunt, Rev. Sanford, II., 32, 189. 
Hunt, Dr. Sanford B., II., 184, 195, 196. 
Hunter Lodges, I., 54. 
Huntley, Charles R., I., 87, 88, 166. 
Hurd, Dr. Arthur W., II., 121, 186. 
Hurd Brothers, I., 226, 227. 
Hurlburt, Dr. Jonathan, II., 183. 
"Huron," The, I, 112. 
Huron Street, I., 140. 
Hurst, Bishop, II., 55. 
Hussey, Dr. E. P., II., 187. 
Hutchinson, E. H., II., 63, 116, 136. 
Hutchinson, John M., I., 164, 264; n., 

63. 
Hutchinson Memorial Chapel, II., 116. 
Hyde, Miss Alice, II., 106. 
Hyde, Dr. Clarence L., II., 187. 
Hyde, Rev. M. C, II., 51. 
"Hydraulics," The, I., 60, 171. 
Idlewood Club, II., 223. 
Independent Club, II., 225. 
Indians of the Buffalo Region, I., 4- 

12, 25, 27, 34, 42, 55-57. 
Ingersoll, Rev. Dr. Edward, II., 38, 57. 
Ingleside Home, II., 120. 
Industrial Bureau, I., 214. 
Industrial Exposition, I., 214. 
Industrial Home, II., 99. 
International Brewery, II., 20. 
International Bridge, I., 126. 



International Railway Co., I., 135, 136, 

148, 149. 
Iron and Steel Production, I., 272-28& 
Iroquois, The, I., 4-7, 9. 
Iroquois Hotel, II., 162, 163. 
Irwin, Dudley M., II., 221. 
Italian Colony, I., 85, 94. 
Ives, William, II., 159. 
Jacobs, J. L., II., 173. 
James, Dr. Frederick H., II., 210, 218. 
Janes, Lillian E., II., 95. 
Jenks, B. W., II., 158. 
Jenkins, Lewis, II., 159. 
Jewett, Dr. Carlton R., II., 185. 
Jewett, Mrs. Carlton E., II., 154. 
Jewett, Dr. Chas. C, II., 184. 
Jewett, Elam R., II., 57, 193, 195, 197. 
Jewett, Josiah, II., 212. 
Jewett, Sherman S., I., 176, 177, 255, 

276; II., 7, 161, 207, 209, 212. 
Jewish Synagogues and Temples: 

Beth El, II., 40, 50. 

Beth Jacob, II., 53. 

Beth Zion, II., 42, 45. 

Berith Sholem, II., 45, 49. 

Temple Beth Zion, II., 45, 58, 107. 
Jobbing Trade, I., 220. 
John R. Keim Mills, II., 14. 
Johnson, Crisfield, I., 44; II., 130, 189. 
Johnson, Lieut.-Col. George W., I., 78. 
John.son, Dr. Ebenezer, I., 18, 43, 44, 

168, 187, 197; II., 148, 182. 
Johnson, James M., II., 199. 
Johnson Cottage, The, I., 19; II., 148. 
Johnson Park, I., 19, 170, 176, 184. 
Johnston, James N., II., 188, 189, 222. 
Johnston, Rev. Samuel, II., 32. 
Johnston, Wilbur H., I., 150. 
Johnston, Captain William, I., 12. 
Jones, Amanda T, II., 189, 222. 
Jones, Captain David, I., 79. 
Jones, J. T., I., 269, 87, 88. 
Jones, Dr. Joseph E., II., 183. 
Jones Iron Works, II., 6. 
Jopp, Rev. F. J., II., 65. 
Joslyn, D. M., I., 345. 
Joy & Webster, I., 48. 
Joyce, William A., II., 92. 
Jubilee Springs and Water Works, I., 

45, 156. 
Judd, Carrie F., 11., 191. 
Justin's Forge, I., 273. 
Juvenile Court, L, 197; II., 86. 
Kah-Kwahs, The, I., 5-7. 
Kahler, Rev. Dr. F. A., H., 55, 126. 
Kalbfleisch Sons, II., 26. 
Kalina Singing Society, II., 221. 
Karnes, Matilda, II., 118. 
Kavanagh, Lieut. James, I., 74. 



BUFFALO 



307 



Kean, Thomas, II., 199. 
Keating-, Robert, I., 277. 
Keely, Patrick C, II., 74. 
Keim (John R.) Mills, II., 14. 
Kellicott, D. S., II., 181, 190. 
Kelly, Daniel G., II., 189. 
Kellog-g, Lieut. Samuel S., I., 74. 
Kellogg-, Spencer, II., 25. 
Kellogg- Bridge Works, II., 11. 
Kendall, Rev. Clark, II., 41. 
Kendall, Frederick, I., 133. 
Kendrick, Dr. C. M., II., 187. 
Kenefick, Daniel J., I., 200. 
Kennedy, Mrs. Charles, II., 139. 
Kennedy, Hugh, I., 278, 284; II., 172, 
Kennett, Thomas A., II., 196. 
Kent, Edward A. and W. W., II., 66. 
Kenyon, Dr. L' M., II., 187. 
Ketchum, Jesse, II., 42, 141. 
Ketchum, William F., II., 7. 
Ketchum's History of Buffalo, I., 5, 

113, 201; II., 189. 
Kibbe, Gaius, I., 185. 
Kibbe, Isaac, I., 249. 
King Iron Works, II., 6. 
Kingsley, Silas, II., 135. 
Kingman & Dnrphy, I., 266. 
King's Daughters' Home, II., 127. 
Kinney, G. N., I., 250. 
Kip, William F., I., 193; II., 191. 
Kirkover, H. D., I., 134. 
Kittridge, C. V. N., II., 11. 
Klinek Packing Co., Christian, I., 246. 
Knight, Theodore C, II., 8. 
Koerner, H. T., II., 191. 
Kolo Spiewackie, II., 221. 
Kremlin Hall. II., 88. 
Krumholz, Joseph, II., 173. 
Kurver Buffaloska, II., 203. 
Labor Bureaus, C. 0. S., II., 86. 
Labor Disturbances. See Strikes. 
Lacy, William H., II., 157. 
Lackawanna Railroad. See Delaware. 
Lackawanna Steel Company, I., 154, 

279-283. 
Ladies' Christian Commission, I., 83. 
Ladies' General Aid Society, I., 82. 
Lafayette Street, I., 140. 
Laidlaw Lumber Co., R., I., 227. 
Lake Erie Boiler Works, II., 9. 
Lake Erie Engineering Works, II., 9. 
Lake Erie Village, I., 11, 13. 
Lake Shipping and Trade, I., 32, 33, 36, 

40, 45, 47, 48, 58, 97-100, 112-121, 218- 

220, 223, 224. 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 

Railroad, I., 125, 126. 
Lake View Brewery, II., 20. 
Lambert, Jr., Lieut. David, T., 71. 



Lancaster, I., 154. 

Land Speculation, I., 46-51, 85, 86. 

Landon's Tavern, I., 19. 

Lang, Gerhard, II., 19. 

Langdon, Andrew, I., 134; 166, 182, 

237; II., 16, 171, 172. 
Langdon & Co., J., I., 234-236. 
Langille, J. H., II., 191. 
Laning, A. T., I., 207. 
Lanning, Rev. Gideon, II., 32. 
Lapham, Marshall, I., 283. 
Larkin, John D., II., 21-23, 94. 
Larkin Company, II., 21-23. 
Larned, J. N., I., 193; II., 139, 160, 164, 

172, 189, 196. 
La Salle, Robert Cavelier de, I., 112. 
Lascelles, J. H., II., 175. 
Lathrop, S. H., II., 195. 
Laub & Zeller, I., 265. 
Laurie, Rev. A. G., II., 38. 
Lautz, F. C. M., L, 87; II., 21, 167, 221. 
Lautz Bros. & Co., II., 20-21. 
Law Library, II., 175. 
Lawyers' Club, II., 225. 
Lazelle, Colonel Henry M., I., 81. 
Leake, Isaac Q., I., 249. 
Le Clear, Thomas, II., 206, 207, 208. 
Le Couteulx de Caumont, Louis 

Stephen, L, 16. 17; II., 69, 71, 108. 
Le Couteulx St. Mary's Institution, II., 

149, 150. 
Lee, Dr. Charles A., II., 142. 
Lee, John R., II., 14, 157. 
Lee, Porter R., II., 87. 
Lee & Co.'s Bank, Oliver, I., 251. 
Lehigh Valley Railway, I., 128, 129, 

234, 236, 237, 243, 285. 
Letchworth, Josiah, II., 5, 6, 189. 
Letchworth, Ogden P., II., 6, 172. 
Letchworth, William Pryor, II., 4-6, 

122, 123, 170, 190, 212, 222. 
Letchworth Park, II., 5. 
Letson, Elizabeth J., II., 181. 
Lewis, Charlotte E., II., 119. 
Lewis, Dr. Dio, II., 187. 
Lewis, F. Park, II., 187, 190. 
Lewis, George A., I., 200; II., 150. 
Lewis, George H., I., 240; II., 125. 
Lewis, Mrs. George H., II., 105, 106, 

125. 
Lewis, Dr. George W., II., 187. 
Lewis, Loran L., Sr., I., 199, 202, 204, 

254. 
Lewis, Loran L., Jr., II., 172. 
Lewiston, I., 55, 100. 
Liberal Club, II., 225. 
Liederkraenzchen Singing Society, II., 

217. 
Liederkranz Singing Society, II., 211. 



3o8 



INDEX 



Liedertafel Singing Society, II., 817- 
220. 

Lincoln, President, in Buffalo, I., 66, 
67. 

Lincoln Parkway, I., 180, 183. 

Linden, Charles, II., 178, 189, 190. 

Linnahan, Lieut. Timothy J., I., 79. 

Lion Brewery, II., 19. 

Literature, local, 11., 188-191. 

Littell, Clarence H., II., 17. 

Locke, C. E., II., 190. 

Lock, Franklin D., I., 204. 

Lockwood, Stephen, I., 199. 

Lockwood, Dr. Timothy T., II., 183. 

Long, Dr. B. G., II., 185. 

Long, E. A., II., 191. 

Long, Dr. Eli H., IL, 185. 

Long, Dr. L. A., n., 185. 

Loomis, Dr. Horatio N., II., 183. 

Loomis, Thomas, IL, 153. 

Lord, Herbert G., II., 145, 155. 

Lord, Eev. Dr. John C, I., 202; IL, 36, 
49, 50, 172, 189, 190. 

Lord, Mrs. John C, IL, 117. 

Lord, Lucy S., IL, 117, 118. 

Lothrop, Dr. Thomas, IL, 185. 

Loton, Jabez, II., 87. 

Love, General George M., I., 77, 78. 

Love, Miss Maria M., IL, 85, 96, 139. 

Love, Thomas C, I., 199 201. 

Lovejoy, Mrs., I., 29. 

Lucas, Dr. William, II., 182. 

Luippold, John M., IL, 20. 

Lumber trade, I., 221-232. 

Lund, John, II., 220. 221. 

Lutheran Church Home, II. , 126. 

Lutheran Orphan Asylum, IL, 50. 

Lutheran Y. M. C. A., IL, 175. 

Lynda, Dr. U. C, IL, 185. 

McCullough, C. H., Jr., I., 283. 

McCune, Charles W., II., 200. 

McDougall, Elliott C, I.. 255. 

McDougall, Sidney, IL, 25. 

McGraw, Frank S., I., If.O. 

Mcintosh, William, II., 189, 201. 

Mclntyre, Colonel William, IL, 99. 

Mack, Norman E., IL, 201. 

McKay, James, IL, 194. 

Mackenzie, William Lyon, I., 52-54. 

McKinley, President, William, As- 
sassination of, I., 90. 

McLean & Co., Hugh, I., 226. 

McLeod, Alexander, I., 53, 54. 

McLowth, Dr. Charles, II., 182. 

McMahon, Colonel James P., I., 80. 

McMahon, Colonel John E., I., 79. 

McMillan, William, L, 178, 182. 

McMurry, Frank M., IL, 139, 145, 155. 

McNish, William, IL, 3. 



McPherson, Annie, IL, 119. 
McVean, Lieut. J. P., L, 71. 
McWilliams, John J., I., 134, 235; IL, 

92, 172. 
McWilliams, S. N., IL, 92. 
Magnus Beck Brewing Co., IL, 19. 
Manchester, Bradford A., IL, 193, 194, 

198. 
Main Street, I., 14, 15, 51, 137, 139, 141, 

142, 145. 

Mann, Elizabeth C, II., 155. 

Mann, Charles J., I., 211. 

Mann, George E., I., 133. 

Mann, Dr. Matthew D., IL, 144, 153, 

154, 185, 190, 212, 221. 
Manufacturers' Club I., 214, 215. 
Manufacturers' and Traders' Bank, I., 

253. 
Marcus, Louis W., I., 200. 
Marcy, Dr. W. H., IL, 187. 
Marine Hospital, IL, 129. 
Marine Mill, I., 266. 
Marine National Bank, I., 252, 253. 
Market Bank, I., 256. 
Marsh, P. S., I., 211. 
Marshall, Charles D., IL, 177, 222. 
Marshall, Miss Elizabeth C, IL, 123. 
Marshall, Dr. John E., I., 32, 44, 168; 

IL, 182. 
Marshall, Orsamus H., I., 5, 13, 202; 

IL, 143, 169, 174, 189, 207. 
Martin, Darwin D., II., 22. 
Martin, Henry, I., 254. 
Martin, Dr. H. N., II., 187. 
Jlartin, Dr. Truman J., IL, 187. 
Marvin, John G. H., IL, 2. 
Mason, E. C, IL, 190. 
Mason, Dr. William H., IL, 144, 185. 
Massachusetts Avenue, I., 183. 
Massachusetts Land Claims, I., 9, 10. 
Masten, Joseph G., I., 197, 200; IL, 

143, 174. 

Mathews, George B., I., 267. 
Matthews, C. B., 11., 26. 
Matthews, George E., IL, 197, 198. 
Matthews, James N., IL, 189, 194. 
Matthews-Northrup Works, IL, 197, 

198. 
Matzinger, Dr. H. G., IL, 186. 
Maycock, Dr. B. J., IL, 187. 
Mayflower Descendants, Society of, IL, 

227. 
Meadows, William, IL, 153. 
Atechanics Bank, I., 250. 
Meeker, Joseph, IL, 206. 
Meisberger, Dr. William, IL, 185. 
Men's Hotel, IL, 93, 94. 
Mercantile Courier, II. , 194-198. 
Merchants' Bank, I., 251. 



BUFFALO 



309 



Merchants' Exchange, I., 213. 
Merchants' Exchange Bank, I., 250. 
Mercy Hospital Aid Society, II., 128. 
Mertz, Rev. Nicholas, II., 69, 70. 
Metcalfe, James H., I., 245. 
Michael, Edward, II., 221. 
Michael, Isadora, II., 139. 
Michigan Central Railway, I., 126. 
Michigan Street, I., 142, 170. 
Mickle, Dr. Herbert, II., 185. 
Milbum, John G., I., 87, 193, 204, 279; 

II., 161. 
Mile Strip, The State, I., 9, 12, 20, 139. 
Miles H. D., II., 16. 
Military Post at Buffalo, The Early, 

I., 56. 
Miller, Kev. Augustine A., S. J., II., 

147. 
Miller, Edwin G. S., I., 87, 255. 
Miller, Major Frederick, I., 24. 
Miller, H. B., II., 202. 
Miller, Dr. John, II., 187. 
Miller. William F., I., 207. 
Miller & Greiner, I., 220. 
Millinowski, Mrs. Arthur, II., 139. 
Mills, John Harrison, I., 69; II., 189, 

208, 222. 
Mills, William I., II., 119. 
Milson, George, I., 217. 
Minnesota Docks, I., 285. 
Miner. Dr. Julius F., II., 144, 185. 
Mischka, Joseph, II., 219. 
Mississippi Street, I., 140. 
Mitchell, Kev. Dr. 3. S., II., 52, 190. 
Mixer, Frederick K., II., 181. 
Mixer, Mrs. Mary E., II., 189. 
Mixer, S. F., II., 207. 
Mixer, Dr. Sylvester F., II., 183. 

Mixer & Co., I., 225, 226. 
JfofEatt Brewery, II., 20. 

Mohawk Street, I., 140, 142. 

Montgomery, H. E., II., 190. 

Montgomery Brothers, I., 227. 

Moody, Dr. "Mary J., II., 185. 

Mooney, Dr. J. J., II., 221. 

Mooney, James, I., 177. 

Moore, Alice O., II., 124. 

Moore, Dr. Edward M., II., 144. 

Moore, Thomas M., I., 88. 

Moot, Adelbert, I., 204, II., 154. 

Moot, Mrs. Adelbert, II., 154. 

Morgan Street, I., 140. 

Morgan, William J., I., 133. 

Morning Express, The, I., 83, 217, 245; 
II., 194-197. 

Morris, Robert, I., 10. 

Morse, David R., I., 259. 

Moselev, Dr. George T., II.. 187. 

Moss, Capt. Charles H., I., 71. 



Mothers' Club, II., 226. 

Mulligan, Charlotte, II., 46, 94, 95. 

Municipal Bath House, The First, II., 

86. 
Municipal Court, I., 191, 192, 200. 
Municipal Hospital, II., 128. 
Municipal Playgrounds, II., 86. 
Munro, Josiah G., II., 87. 
Murphy, J. H., I., 88. 
Music Hall, II., 168, 169. 
Music in Buffalo, II., 213-222. 
Musica Sacra Society, II., 213, 214. 
Myer, Colonel Albert J., I., 18. 
Myers, Lieut.-Col. Daniel, I., 82. 
Mynter, Dr. Herman, II., 185, 190. 
Mynter, Mrs. Herman, II., 139. 
Nameless Club, II., 222. 
Nardin's (Miss) Academy, II., 149. 
National Mill, I., 267, 269. 
National Pilot, II., 194. 
Navy Island, I., 52-54, 112, 113. 
Neidhardt, Carl, II., 166. 
Neighborhood House, II., 104, 105. 
Neutral Nation, The, I., 4. 
New Amsterdam, I., 13, 14. 
New England Women, Society of, II., 

227. 
New York and Erie Railway, I., 58, 

62, 125, 234, 236-238. 
New York Central and Hudson River 
Railroad, I., 58, 63, 125, 126, 236, 237, 
245, 246, 285. 
New York, Chicago and St. Louis 

Railroad, I., 127. 
New York, Lackawanna and Western 

Railroad, I., 127. 
New York, Lake Erie and Western 

Railroad, I., 125, 285. 
New York State Steel Co., I., 284. 
Newman, Dr. James M., II., 184 
Newman, William H. H., II., 170. 
News, Evening, II., 200, 201. 
Newsboys and Boot-blacks' Home, II., 

123. 
Newspapers, I., 22, 32, 45, 60, 68, 83; 

II., 191-203. 
Niagara, Bank of, I., 249. 
Niagara Countj', I., 16, 19. 
Niagara Falls, I., 20, 28, 51, 55, 63. 

171. 
Niagara Falls Electric Power Plants. 

I., 152-155. 
Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power Co., 

L, 155, 268. 
Niagara Forge, I., 273. 
Niagara Frontier Landmarks Associa- 
tion, II., 227. 
Niagara Journal, I., 32; II., 192. 



3IO 



INDEX 



Niagara, Lockport & Ontario Power 

Co., I., 154, 281. 
Niagara Mill., I., 266. 
Niagara Falls Milling Co., I., 268. 
Niagara Eefinery, II., 27. 
Niagara River, I., 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, 20, 

33, 34, 100, 110-112, 171. 
Niagara Square, I., 15, 138, 184. 
Niagara Street, I., 14, 15, 27, 29, 137, 

140. 
Niagara Street Railroad Co., I., 145. 
Nichols, Brayton, n., 198. 
Nichols, William L., II., 155. 
Nichols School, II., 155, 156. 
Niles & Co., I., 211. 
Nimbs, A. B., II., 206. 
Noble, Horace A., I., 240. 
North, Mrs. C. J., II., 121. 
North, Rev. Dr. Walter, II., 47. 
North Buffalo Mill, I., 267. 
"Northland," The Steamer, I., 119. 
Northrup, William P., I., 134; II., 197, 

198. 
"Northwest," The Steamer, I., 119. 
Norton, Charles D., I., 20, 99, 205; II., 

158. 
Norton, Charles P., 11.. 142, 143, 145. 

190. 
Norton, Nathaniel W., II., 164. 
Noye, John T., I., 1. 
Noye, Richard K., I., 1; U., 177. 
Noye Manufacturing Co., I., 1. 
Noyes, Frederick, II., 208. 
Noyes, John S., I., 222, 225. 
Noyes, Mrs. John S., II., 139. 
Nunan James E., I., 133. 
Nuno, J., II., 220. 
Oak Street, I., 169. 
Oakfield Club, II., 223. 
O'Bail, John, I., 8. 

Oblate Missionaries of St. Mary Im- 
maculate, n., 75, 76. 
O'Connor, Joseph, II., 200, 201. 
O'Day, Daniel, I., 255. 
Odeon Hall, II., 88. 
Ogden, Frederick, I., 269. 
Ogden Company, The, I., 42, 56. 
O'Hara, General James, I., 97, 98. 
Ohio Society, II., 227. 
Ohio Street, I., 140, 143. 
Oil Refining, II., 24-28. 
Old German Society, II., 227. 
Old Settlers' Festival, I., 83. 
Old Home Week, I., ,91. 
Oliver Lee & Co.'s Bank, I., 64. 
Olmsted, Mrs. Elizabeth M., II., 189. 
Olmsted, Frederick Law, L, 176, 180. 
Olmsted, John B., II., 3, 155. 



One Hundredth Regt. N. Y. Vols., I., 

72-74; II., 227. 
One Hundred and Eighty-seventh 

Regt., N. Y. Vols., I., 81. 
One Hundred and Sixty-fourth Regt., 

N. Y. Vols., I., 79, 80. 
One Hundred and Sixteenth Regt., 

N. Y. Vols., I., 77, 78. 
One Hundred and Seventy-ninth Regt., 

N. Y. Vols., I., 81. 
Oneida Street, I., 139. 
Onondaga Street, I., 139. 
Ontario Power Company, I., 153, 154. 
Orphanages, II., 108, 110, 111, 117, 122. 
Orpheus Society, II., 212, 219, 220. 
Osgood, Rev. Thaddeus, II., 31. 
Otis, Mrs. Persis M., II., 119. 
Otis Elevator Co., II., 7. 
Otowega Club, II., 225. 
Packard, Mrs. Mark, II., 107. 
Packing, Meat, I., 245-247. 
Palmer, Alanson, X., 50. 
Palmer, George, I., 253, 262, 264; TI., 

43, 44, 159. 
Palmer & Wadsworth, I., 274. 
Pan-American Exposition, I., 86-90, 

182. 
Panics, Financial: of 1837, I., 46-51: of 

1857, 63-66; of 1873, 85. 
Parade, The, I., 177-179, 182. 
Pardee, Charles W., II., 114. 
Pardee, Mrs. Charles W., I., 183; II., 

125. 
Pardee, Ario, I., 274. 
Park, Dr. Roswell, n., 144, 182, 185, 

190, 221. 
Park Club, II., 224. 
Parker, Jason, I., 211. 
Parker, Leroy, II., 190. 
Parks, Public. L, 176-182. 
Parmalee, T. N., n., 194. 
Parmenter, Dr. John, II., 144, 186. 
Party Politics, I., 17, 66. 
Patch. Maurice B., I., 134. 
Patchin, A. D. (Bank), I., 251. 
Paterson, Alexander. I.. 284. 
Paterson, James S., I., 284. 
"Patriot War," The, I., 52-54. 
Paul, Peter. 11.. 173. 
Pavement. Beginnings of, I., 142. 
Pax. Rev. Alexander. II., 70. 
Peabody, R. S., I., 88. 
Peabody, Selim H., I., 88. 
Pearl Street, I., 140, 142. 
Pease, F. S., II., 25. 
Pease, John. I., 211. 
Penfold. Francis C, II.. 209. 
Pennell. Robert, H., 189. 



311 



Pennsylvania Railway, I., 125, 127, 239, 

243, "279, 286. 
Peoples' Bank, I., 255. 
Peoples' Ellsworth Regt., I., 76, 77. 
Perkins, Georg-e W., II., 87. 
Perry, M., I., 251. 

Peterson, Dr. Frederick, II., 185, 189. 
Pettit, Dr. John A., II., 185. 
PfeifEer, George F., II., 166. 
Phelps, Orson, II., 143. 
Phelps, Dr. William C, II., 185. 
Phelps and Gorham Land Purchase, 

I., 9. 
Phoenix Bank, I., 250. 
Phoenix Brewery, II., 1.9. 
Phoenix Refinery, II., 27. 
Philadelphia and Reading Railway, I., 

238, 243. 
Philharmonic Society, II., 215, 220. 
Pierce, George N., II., 12-14. 
Pierce, H. J., I., 87. 
Pierce, James A., II., 198. 
Pierce, John B., II., 10. 
Pierce, Loring I., 44. 
Pierce, Percy P., II., 12. 
Pierce, Dr. R. V., II., 190. 
Pierce Cycle Co., II., 12. 
Pitass, Father, I., 93. 
Pitts, John A., II., 2. 
Plimpton, Luman K., I., 169. 
Plimpton, Cowan & Co., I., 220. 
Plogsted, Capt. John F. E., I., 71. 
Plumb, Ralph H., II., 8, 212. 
Plumb, Burdict & Barnard, II., 8. 
"Plymouth Rock," The Steamer, I., 

116. 
Pohlman, Dr. Julius, II., 181, 186. 
Polak Amery Kanski, II., 203. 
Police, I., 189, 190-195. 
Polish Colony, I., 85, 91-94. 
Polish Secession from R. C. Church, 

II., 78, 80, 81. 
Political Equality Club, II.. 226. 
Politics. See Party Politics. 
Poole, Mrs. Martha Fitch, I., 55, 56. 
Poole, Rushmore, II., 157. 
Poorhouse, County, II., 82. 
Porter, Augustus^ I., 19-21, 113, 114, 

199. 
Porter, General Peter B., I., 19-21, 23, 

24, 26, 27, 31, 34. 
Porter Avenue, I., 183. 
Porter, Barton & Co., I., 20, 21, 41, 98- 

100, 114. 
Post Office, Buffalo, I., 17. 
Potter, Dr. E. B., 11., 185. 
Potter, Dr. Frank H., II., 185. 
Potter, George R., I., 164. 
Potter, George S., II., 189. 



Potter, Heman B., I., 22, 200. 
Potter, Dr. Milton G., II., 185. 
Potter, Dr. W. W., II., 185. 
Pratt, Dr. Gorham F., II., 182. 
Pratt, Hiram, I., 250; II., 157. 
Pratt, Pascal P., I., 176-178, 180, 254, 

276; XL, 4, 6, 86, 92, 151, 161, 207. 
Pratt, Samuel F., II., 4-6, 147. 
Pratt, Captain Samuel, I., 17. 
Pratt & Co., I., 65, 220, 273, 274. 
Pratt & Lambert, II., 30. 
Pratt & Letchworth, I., 220; II., 4-6. 
Pratt Bank, The, I., 65. 
Preston, Mrs. Austin R., II., 154. 
Preston, Lieut. Reuben M., I., 71. 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, II., 

117, 118. 
Prevention of Cruelty to Children, II., 

121, 122. 
Prime, Rev. Dr., II., 44. 
Prime Street, I., 210. 
Principal's Association, II., 140. 
Prison Gate Mission, II., 100, 127. 
Prospect Place, I., 184. 
Protestant Churches, II., 31-67. 
Providence Retreat, II., 116. 
Provident Loan Co., C. O. S., II., 86. 
Pryor, Dr. John H., II., 185. 
Public Grounds, L, 176-182. 
Public Works, Department of, I., 196. 
Publicity Bureau, I., 214. 
Putkammer, Capt. Albert Von, I., 75. 
Putnam, James O., I., 202, 205; II., 72, 

73, 120, 143, 190. 
Putnam, Dr. James W., II., 185. 
Quaker Oats Co., I., 271. 
Quigley, Rt. Rev. James E., II., 79, 

80, 127. 
Radford, George Kent, I., 178. 
Railway Stations Question, I., 135. 
Railways, I., 51, 57, 58, 62, 63, 124-131, 

218, 219, 223, 224, 233-244. 
Railways, Street and Suburban, I., 

144-149. 
Ramsdell, O. P., II., 161. 
Ramsdell, William M., IL, 198. 
Rand, George F., I., 256. 
Randall, E. C, IL, 190. 
Ransom, Asa, I., 10. 
Ran.som, E., I., 186. 
Ransom, Paul, IL, 124. 
Rathbun, Benjamin, I., 50. 
Raymond, Charles H., IL, 157, 158, 183. 
Reciprocity Bank, L, 64. 
Red Jacket, I., 7, 8, 42. 
"Red Jacket." The Ship, I., 115. 
Red Jacket Parkway, L, 183. 
Register, Rev. Dr. J. A., IL, 190. 
Reid, James, II., 60. 



312 



INDEX 



Keilly, Thomas C, II., 210. 

Eeinecke, Frederick and Ottomar, II., 
202. 

Remington, Cyrus K., II., 87. 

Remington, Miss Mary (''Gospel Set- 
tlement"), II., 103, 105-107. 

Renner, Dr. W. S., II., 186. 

Republic, The Evening, II., 199. 

Rescue Home, II., 100. 

Reservations, Indian. See Buffalo 
Creek, Cattaraugus, and Tonawanda. 

Riall, General (War of 1812), I., 29. 

Rice, Edward R., II., 154. 

Richardson, Captain William, I., 74. 

Rich, Andrew J., I., 145, 252; II., 112. 

Rich, G. Barrett, I., 252; II., 172. 

Rich, Gains B., I., 251, 259; II., 143. 

Richmond, Alonzo, II., 170. 

Richmond, Dean, I., 211, 259. 

Richmond, Henry A., I., 193; II., 139, 

160, 172. 

Richmond, Jewett M., I., 118, 211; 11., 

161, 162. 

Richmond Avenue, I., 183. 
Richmond House Fire, II., 162. 
Rieffenstahl, Julius, II., 167. 
Rieman, Ralph H., II., 173. 
Ripley, Rev. Allen P., II., 56. 
Ripley, Mary A., 11., 97, 189, 223. 
Riverside Park, I., 182, 183. 
Robinson, Coleman T., U., 177, 178. 
Robinson, John W., I., 229; II., 92. 
Robinson, William E., II., 194. 
Robson, Sarah A., II., 119. 
Rochefoucault-Liancourt, The Duke de 

la, I., 11. 
Rochester, I., 9, 41. 
Rochester, Dr. De Lancey, II., 186. 
Rochester, Elizabeth C, 11., 96. 
Rochester, Margaret F., II., 118. 
Rochester, Mary L., II., 155. 
Rochester, Dr. Thomas F., II., 144, 

184, 212. 
Rochester, William B., I., 250. 
Rochevot, George, II., 19. 
Rockwell, Augustus, II., 206. 
Roekwood, Colonel E. A., II., 118. 
Rodziewicz, Rev. Dr. Julius, 11., 80, 81. 
Rogers, Henry W., I., 204; II., 207, 212. 
Rogers, Robert Cameron, I., 89; II., 

189, 191. 
Rogers, Sherman S., I., 194, 204, 205; 

II., 161, 212. 
Rogers, General William F., I. 68, 177, 

178, 181. 
Rogers, William A., I., 276-279; II., 92- 

94, 125, 155. 
Rogers, Brown & Co., I., 276, 277. 
Mrs. Charle.s, II., 191. 



Rohr, Mathias, II., 164, 193, 203. 
Roman Catholic Church in Buffalo, I., 

17. 
Rood & Brown, II., 8. 
Roop, Henry, I., 250. 
Roos, Jacob, II., 18. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, I., 89, 90. 
Root, General Adrian R., I., 76. 
Root, Edward, I., 272. 
Root, Francis H., I., 276; II., 7, 43, 54, 

55, 118, 119, 161, 207, 220. 
Root, Robert K., II., 221. 
Root & Keating, I., 265. 
Rosenau, Nathaniel S., II., 87. 
Ross, Dr. Renwick R., II., 113. 
Rother, John C, II., 208. 
Rudolf, Wilhelm, II., 166. 
Rumrill, Levi H., I., 119. 
Rumsey, Aaron, I., 263, 264. 
Rumsey, Bronson C, II., 112, 151, 182, 

207. 
Rumsey, Dexter P., I., 177, 183; II., 

161, 182. 
Rumsey & Howard, I., 264. 
Rumsey & Sons, I., 263. 
Rumsey Wood, I., 183. 
Runkle, Lieut. Charles H., I., 74. 
Russell, Caleb, I., 160, 161. 
Rustin, Henry, I., 88. 
Ryan, Rt. Rev. Stephen Vincent, II., 

76-79, 125, 190, 203. 
Sacred Heart, Academy of the, II., 153. 
Saengerbund, II., 212, 217, 218, 220. 
Saengerfest of 1860, II., 218. 
Saengerfest of 1883, II., 167. 
St. Cecilia Society, II., 216, 219. 
St. Charles Home, II., 128. 
St. Felix Home for Working Girls, II., 

128. 
St. Francis' Asylum, II., 116, 117. 
St. Gaudens, Louis, II., 211. 
St. James' Hall, and Hotel, U., 160, 

162. 
St. James' Mission, II., 127. 
St. John, Gamaliel, IL, 131. 
St. John, Mrs. Gamaliel, I., 29. 
St. John, Dr. Orson S., II., 182. 
St. John's Orphan Home, Evangelical 

Lutheran, II., 117. 
St. John's Protectory, IL, 111, 112. 
St. Joseph's College, IL, 146. 
St. Joseph's Male Orphan Asylum, II. , 

IIL 
St. Louis' Church Controversy, IL, 

70-73. 
St. Margaret's School, IL, 153, 154. 
St. Mary's Infant Asylum, etc., IL, 

115. 



BUFFALO 



313 



St. Vincent de Paul Society, II., 76, 

153. 
St. Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum, 

II., 110. 
St. Vincent's Technical School, II., 

153. 
Salisbury, Guy H., I., 49, 53; II., 192, 

193, 198, 199, 223. 
Salisbury, Hezekiah A., I., 22, 30; II., 

191, 192. 
Salisbury, Smith H., I., 22, 30, 49; II., 

191-193. 
Salt-trade, Early, I., 97-99. 
Salvation Army, II., 98-100, 127. 
Samo, Dr. John B., II., 184. 
Samuels, Albert N., II., 208. 
Sandrock, George, I., 133, 211. 
Sanford, Warren & Harroun, II., 198. 
Sang-ster, Amos M., II., 209. 
Sanitary Measures, I., 168-175. 
Sargent, Phineas, II., 158. 
Saturn Club, II., 223. 
Sawyer, George P., I., 225. 
Sawyer, James D., I., 211. 
Sayres, Lieut. Charles A., I., 71. 
Scajaquada Creek, I., 27, 114. 
Scajaquada Parkway, I., 181, 183. 
Scatcherd, John N., I., 87, 88, 225, 255. 
Scatcherd & Son, I., 235. 
Schaefer, Henry, I., 134. 
Schanzlein & Hoffman, H., 18. 
Schelle, Rev. Dr. Frederick, II., 42, 122. 
Schelling, E. F., I., 87, 88. 
Scheu, Augustus F., I., 134. 
Scheu, Jacob, II., 20. 
Scheu, Solomon, I., 133. 
Schimmelpenniek Avenue, I., 14, 140. 
Schlagder, Adam, II., 166. 
Schlosser, I., 54, 99. 
Schoellkopf, Jacob F., I., 265, 267; II., 

167. 
Schoellkopf, Jacob F., Jr., II., 28, 29. 
Schoellkopf, C. P. Hugo, II., 29, 30. 
Schoellkopf & Mathews, I., 267,269. 
Schoellkopf's Sons, J. F., I., 265. 
Schoellkopf, Hartford & Hanna Co., 

II., 29, 30. 
School Examiners, Board of, II., 137. 
Schools, I., 189, 191, 196; II., 130-156. 
Schreiber, J., II., 20. 
Schuyler, Eev. Montgomery, II., 190. 
Schweekerath, Robert, II., 190. 
Scott, W., II., 191. 
Scott, Dr. W. K., II., 176, 183. 
Scoville, Jonathan, I., 193; II., 210. 
Scranton, Walter, I., 279. 
Screw Propellers on the Lakes, I., 116- 

118. 
Scribblers, The, II., 226. 



Scroggs, General Gustavus A., I., 71. 

Seaman, Dr. C. W., II., 187. 

Seaver, Joseph V., I., 199. 

Seaver, William A., II., 198. 

Sea-wall Strip, The, I., 95. 

Second Kegt., N. Y. Mounted Rifles, 

I., 81. 
Selkirk, Mrs. Charles E., II., 121. 
Selkirk, Colonel George H., I., 71, 181; 

II., 196, 222. 
Sellstedt, Lars G., II., 189, 191, 204-208, 

212. 
Seneca Iron and Steel Co., I., 284. 
Seneca Street, I., 34, 140, 142. 
Seneeas, The, I., 5-10, 42, 48. 
Sevasco, Marie X., II., 173. 
Sever, George F., I., 88. 
Severance, Frank H., II., 139, 169, 172, 

189. 
Sewerage, I., 168-175. 
Seymour, Horatio H., II., 96. 
Seymour, Mrs. Horatio, I., 82; II., 118. 
Seymour & Wells, L, 311. 
Sheldon, Alexander, II., 174. 
Sheldon, James, I., 199, 300; II., 170. 
Shelton, Eev. Dr. William, II., 34. 
Shelton Square, I., 137; II., 33. 
Shenandoah Steel Wire Co., I., 284. 
Shepard, Frederick J., II., 189. 
Shepard, Dr. Jessie, II., 187. 
Shepard, John D., II., 143. 
Shepard, Mrs. Sidney, II., 103. 
Shepard Iron Works, II., 6. 
Shepley, George F., I., 88. 
Sheppard, James D., II., 214, 215. 
Sherman, Dr. De AVitt H., II., 139. 
Sherman, Isaac, II., 143. 
Sherman, Barnes & Co., I., 230. 
Sherwood, Mary Martha, II., 190. 
Sherwood, Thomas T., I., 202. 
Sherwood & Co., A., I., 211. 
Ship-building, I., 112-121. 
Shumway, Horatio, II., 134, 147. 
Shuttleworth, H. F., I., 269. 
Sickels, Frank E., II., 89-92. 
Sidway, Jonathan, I., 115. 
Sill, Seth E., I., 199. 
Sill, Thompson & Co., I., 114. 
Silver Lake Snake Hoax, II., 199. 
Silverthorn & Co., I., 229. 
Simon Brewery, II., 20. 
Simons, Seward A., II., 155. 
Singer, Arthur J., I., 283. 
Sist«r Mary Anne, II., 149, 150. 
Sister M. Dositheus, II., 150. 
Sister M. Rosalind, II., 116. 
Sisters of Charity Hospital, II.. 109. 
Sisters of Charity Providence Retreat, 

IL, 116. 



314 



INDEX 



Sisters of Mercy, II., 128. 

Sisters of Our Lady of Kefuge, II., 

114. 
Sisters of St. Francis, II., Ill, 116, 

117, 152, 153. 
Six Nations, I., 9. 

Sixteenth Eegt., N. Y. Cavalry, I., 81. 
Sizer, Lieut.-Col. John M., I., 78. 
Sizer, Thomas J., I., 203. 
Skinner, Isaac, I., 273. 
Slaeer, Dr. W. H., II., 185. 
Slater, Mrs. Jonathan L., II., 127. 
Slaves in Buffalo, I., 35. 
Slee, F. C, II., 16. 
Slicer, Bev. Thomas R., II., 190. 
Smyth, Gen. Alexander, I., 25, 26. 
Smith, Carlton M., II., 221. 
Smith, Rev. Charles, II., 70. 
Smith, Rev. Charles H., II., 51. 
Smith, E. Peshine, II., 195. 
Smith, Edward B., II., 161, 162. 
Smith, Dr. Elisha, II., 182. 
Smith, Rev. Henry, II., 190. 
Smith, H. K., I., 197, 200, 203; II., 157, 

194. 
Smith, Rev. J. Hyatt, II., 190. 
Smith, James M., I., 200, 206; II., 115, 

161, 170, 207. 
Smith, James E., I., 225, 226; II., 153. 
Smith, Junius S., I., 211. 
Smith, Lee H., II., 172, 182. 
Smith, Lieut. Rodney B., I., 74. 
Smith, Rev. S. R., 11., 38, 190. 
Smith, T. Guilford, I., 238, 274; II., 87, 

182, 212. 
Smith, W. L. G., IL, 189, 191. 
Smith, William H., IL, 14. 
Smith, Fassett & Co., I., 226, 228. 
Snow, Dr. Irving M., IL, 185. 
Snyder, A., IL, 15. 
Soap Manufacture, IL, 20-23. 
Social Life, L, 55. 

Social Settlements, IL, 95, 96, 102-107. 
Social Survey, 1910, I., 91-94. 
Society of Natural Sciences, IL, 138, 

176-182. 
Solar Oil Works, IL, 26. 
Soldiers' Place, I., 179, 184. 
Sons of the American Revolution, IL, 

227. 
Sons of Veterans, IL, 227. 
Sonneck, Dr. Philip, IL, 185. 
South Division Street, I., 143. 
South Park, I., 180, 181, 183. 
Southside Parkway, I., 183. 
Spaulding, Elbridge G., I., 169, 197, 

253; IL, 143, 189. 
Speculative Craze of 1837, The, I., 46- 

51. 



Spencer, Ray T., IL, 52. 
Spencer Kellogg Co., IL, 25. 
Spendelow, Henry, I., 217. 
Sprague, Dr. Alden S., IL, 182. 
Sprague, Carleton, L, 87, 88; IL, 3, 189, 

212. 
Sprague, E. Carleton, I., 145-147, 203- 

205; IL, 143, 189. 
Sprague, Henry W., I., 193; IL, 154. 
Sprague, Noah P., IL, 215. 
Squaw Island, L, 25. 
Squier, George L. Mfg. Co., IL, 9. 
Squier, Rev. Miles P., IL, 31, 32. 
Stadnitzki Street, I., 14, 140. 
Stagg, Dr. Henry R., IL, 182, 192. 
Standard Milling Co., I., 269. 
Standard Oil Co., II. , 25-28. 
Standard Radiator Co., II. , 10. 
Standart, Lieut. Charles, L, 79. 
Starr, Dr. Elmer, IL, 186. 
Starr, Jesse W., IL, 30. 
State Hospital for Insane, IL, 120, 121. 
State Normal School, IL, 141. 
Steam Shovel, L, 217. 
Stearns, Dr. G. R., IL, 187. 
Stearns, Mary R., IL, 119. 
Steel Production, I., 272-286. 
Steele, Oliver G., I., 165, 169; IL, 131- 

135, 157, 169, 189. 
Sternberg, P. L., I., 119, 211. 
Stevens, Frederick P., I., 199; IL, 157. 
Stevens, Milo, IL, 198, 200. 
Stevens, Sherman, I., 350. 
Stock Yards, I., 245-247. 
Stockton, Dr. Charles G., IL, 144, 155, 

185. 
Stone, I. F., IL, 30. 
Stony Point, I., 109. 
Storck, Dr. Edward, IL, 184. 
Storrer, Rev. James, IL, 67. 
Storrs, Lucius, IL, 134. 
Stow, Horatio J., I., 200. 
Stowits, Major George H., I., 73; IL, 

189. 
Streeton, Brigadier Joseph, IL, 99. 
Street Railways, L, 144-148. 
Streets of Buffalo Village, I., 14, 15, 

139-144. 
Street Records, I., 169. 
Strikes, Labor, I., 85, 86. 
Stringer, George A., IL, 172, 191. 
Stringham, Joseph, IL, 194, 198. 
Strong, General James C, IL, 189. 
Strong, Dr. Phineas H., IL, 184. 
Stryker, James, L, 199. 
Stuart, Dr. Sylvanus S., IL, 182. 
Students' Art Club, IL, 210. 
Stumpf, Dr. D. B., IL, 187. 
Sturgeon, Schoolmaster, IL, 131. 



BUFFALO 



315 



Sullivan, M., II., 16. 

Sully, Colonel, II., 99. 

Sully, Thomas, II., 2. 

"Superior," The Steamboat, I., 105. 

Superior Court of Buffalo, I., 190. 200. 

Swan Street, I., 14, 60, 137, 140, 141. 

Sweeney, James, II., 172. 

Sweeney Co., The, I., 220. 

Sweet, Charles A., I., 133, 193, 254. 

Sweet, Mrs. Charles A., II., 154. 

Symons, Major Thomas W., I., 87, 88, 

106-111. 
Symphony Orchestra, II., 221. 
Tallmadg-e, Hiram E., II., 177, 207. 
Tanner, "Dorothy, II., 191. 
Tanner, Henry, II., 189. 
Tanning-, I., 261-265. 
Taylor, Frederick W., I., 88. 
Taylor, Halsey H., II., 61. 
Taylor, Moses, I., 283. 
Taylor & Crate, I., 326. 
Teiper, Casper, II., 15. 
Telegraph, The, II., 202. 
Telephone Service, I., 149-151. 
Terrace, The. I., 7, 184. 
Terry, Capt. Seward H., I., 71. 
Terry & Hutchinson, I., 264. 
Teut'onia Maennerchor Society, II. 

211, 220. 
Thieme, August, II., 166. 
Third National Bank, I., 254. 
Thirty-third Independent Batterv, I- 

81. ■ 
"Thirty-seven," The Collapse of, I., 4G 

51. 
Thomas, C. F. S., 11., 195, 212, 214-210 
Thomas, E. E., II., 14. 
Thomson, M. L. E. P., II., 147, 190. 
Thompson, Captain Sheldon, I., 100. 
Thornton, Thomas Memorial Build- 
ing, II., 116. 
Thornton, Dr. William H., II., 185. 
Thornton & Chester, I., 267. 
Threshing Machinery, 11., 2, 3. 
Tifft, Mrs. Lily Lord, II., 118, 139. 
Tifft, George W., II., 3, 120. 
Tifft Farm Basins, I., 108. 
Tillinghast, Dyre, L, 44, 168, 201. 
Tillinghast, Lieut. Henry W., I., 71. 
Tillinghast, James, II., 170. 
Times, Sunday and Daily, II., 201. 
Timon, Et. Rev. John, II., 68-76, 10.« 

109, 112, 114, 115, 128, 146, 147. 149. 

150, 189, 190. 
Titus, Robert C, I., 200. 
Tobsehall, Ida, II., 126. 
Tonawanda, I., 110, 118, 171, 191, 227- 



Tonawanda Iron and Steel Co., I., 276, 

277. 
Tonawanda Island, I., 238. 
Tonawanda Reservation, I., 42, 56. 
Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Rail- 
road, I., 129. 
Townsend, Judge Charles, I., 22, 101, 

185. 
Townsend, E. C, II., 190. 
Townsend, Mrs. George W., II., 97-98. 
Townsend & Colt, I., 114. 
Tracy, Albert H., I., 33, 201, 358; II., 

134. 
Tracy, Albert Haller, II., 312. 
Tracy, Francis W., II., 310. 
Traffic Bureau, I., 314. 
Transportation Club, II., 335. 
Trefts, John, II., 8. 
Treat, Dr. William, II., 184. 
Trinity Co-operative Belief Society, II., 

95. 
Trinity House Settlement, II., 96. 
Trout, H. G., II., 6. 
Truth, II., 303. 

Tuck, Miss E. Currie, II., 154. 
Tucker, Herman A., II., 143. 
Tupper, Judge Samuel, I., 18, 19, 199. 
Turner, C. Y., I., 88. 
Tusearora Street, I., 140. 
Tuthill, A. G. D., II., 205. 
Tuttle, Captain David W., I., 79. 
Twain, Mark, II., 196. 
Twelfth Regt., N. Y. Cavalry, I., 80. 
Twentieth Century Club, II., 224. 
Twenty-first Regt., N. Y. Vols., I., 68, 

69; n., 227. 
Twenty-fourth Regt., N. Y. Cavalry, 

L, 81. 
Twenty-seventh Independent Battery, 

I., SO. 
Tyler, Lieut. Mortimer L. V., I., 71. 
Ulrich, Rudulf, I.. 88. 
Underbill, C. M., I., 335. 
Union Bridge Co., II., 11. 
Union Continentals, The, I., 68. 
Union Dry Dock Co., I., 120. 
Union Iron Works, I., 374, 275. 
Union Park, I., 182. 
Union Rescue Mission, II., 128. 
Union Stockyard Bank, I., 256, 257. 
United Cereal Mills, I., 271. 
United States Bank, Buffalo Branch, 

L, 250. 
United States Cast Iron Pipe Co., II., 

8, 9. 
United States Flour Milling Co., I., 

369. 
United States Hame Co., II., 6. 
University Club, II., 234. 



3i6 



University of Buffalo, II., 141-146. 
University of Buffalo Dispensary, II., 

127. 
Upton, Daniel, II., 141. 
Urban, George, I., 257, 269. 
Urban, George, Jr., I., 87, 166, 369, 270. 
Urban, George P., I., 270. 
Urban Family, The, I., 43. 
Vacuum Oil Co., II., 27. 
Valentine, Lieut. Henry C, I., 71. 
Valentine, W. W., II., 174. 
"Vandalia," The Screw Propeller, I., 

116. 
Vanduzee, Kev. Benjamin, II., 206. 
Van Duzee, Edward P., II., 175. 
Van Duzee, William S., II., 177. 
Van Gayle, Lieut. Frederick, I., 71. 
Van Horn, H. M., I., 284. 
Van Peyma, Dr. P. W., II., 139, 185. 
Vanstophorst Avenue, I., 14. 
Van Syckel, Samuel, II., 26. 
Van Winkle, Mrs. Helen Holmes, II., 

154. 
Vermonters, Society of, II., 227. 
Verplanck, Isaac A., I., 200. 
Viele, Colonel H. K., I., 67, 76. 
Viele, Sheldon T., I., 193. 
Virginia Street, I., 170. 
Volger, Otto W., I., 200. 
Volksfreund, II., 202, 203. 
VoUenhoven Avenue, I., 14, 140. 
Volunteers of America, II., 101-102. 

Wabash Railway, I., 129. 

Wade, D. E., II., 191. 

Wadge, W. E., II., 106. 

Wadsworth, Charles F., II., 177. 
Wagner, Major Mary, II., 100. 

Wait, Benjamin, I., 54. 

Walbridge, Annie F., II., 119. 

Walbridge & Co., I., 220. 

Walden, Judge Ebenezer, I., 18, 185, 
186, 199, 201. 

Walk-in-the-Water, The, I., 33, 35, 104. 

Walker, Augustus, Captain, I., 45, 114. 

Walker, Jesse, I., 199. 

Walker, William H., II., 92. 

Walker, Et. Rev. William D., II., 63. 

Wallace, Roy Smith, II., 87. 

Wallace, Dr. J. W., II., 187. 

Wallace, William, I., 124, 125. 

Walsh, Rev. Daniel, II., 125. 

Waltz, Hiram, I., 257. 

Ward, Rev. Henry, II., 45, 63. 

Ward, James W., II., 174. 

Wardwell, George S., I., 200. 

Wardwell, William T., II., 112. 

Ware, Charles, II., 30. 

Warner, Dr. N. H., IL, 186. 

Warner, Mrs., II., 121. 



Warren, Edward S., I., 145. 

Warren, James D., IL, 194. 

Warren, Joseph, L, 68, 176, 177; II., 
198-200. 

Warren, Orsamus G., II. , 196. 

Warren, William C, IL, 196. 

Warren & Thompson, I., 274. 

Warta, IL, 203. 

Washburn, Capt. Jeremiah P., I., 69. 

Washburn-Crosby Co., I., 270, 271. 

Washington Street, I., 139, 142, 143. 

Water-front Questions, I., 95. 

Water Supply, I., 45, 156-159. 

Waters, Irving E., I., 257. 

Watson, Mrs. Charlotte A., IL, 96, 98, 
212. 

Watson, Henry M., I., 147. 

Watson, Stephen V. R., I., 145-147; IL, 
160, 207. 

Watson House Settlement, IL, 96. 

Wayland, John U., I., 258. 

Weber, Colonel John B., I., 77, 78, 88, 
133, 134. 

Webster, Andrew T., IL, 221. 

Webster, Dr. James, IL, 143. 

Webster, Maria, IL, 119. 

Weed, De Witt C, L, 145. 

Weed, Hobart, IL, 221. 

Wegner & Meyer, IL, 7. 

Wehrum, Mr., L, 279. 

Weiss, Dr. K., IL, 166. 

Welch, Benjamin C, IL, 199. 

Welch, Colonel Samuel M., I., 193. 

Welch, Samuel M., I., 51; IL, 189. 

Wells, Captain (War of 1812), I., 24. 

Wells, Chandler J., I., 18; IL, 207. 

Wells, William, I., 18. 

Welcome Hall, IL, 103, 104. 

Weltburger, Der, IL, 201, 202. 

Wende, Dr. Ernest, I., 172-175; IL, 186. 

Wendt, William F., IL, 9, 126. 

Wentworth, David, IL, 196. 

Wentworth, J. B., IL, 190. 

Wemecke, Dr. H. M., IL, 185. 

West, Rev. Dr. Charles E., IL, 148. 

West Seneca, I., 154. 

West Shore Railroad, I., 129. 

Western New York Water Co., I., 159, 
160. 

Western Savings Bank, I., 259. 

Western Transportation Co., I., 119. 

"Western World," The Steamer, I., 116. 
I Westminster House, II. , 102. 
I Wetmore, Dr. S. W., IL, 185. 
I Weyand, Christian, IL, 19. 

Whaleback Barge, The, I., 118. 
I Wheat, Trade in, I., 215-220. 
I Wheeler, Albert J., I., 259. 



BUFFALO— ROCHESTER 



317 



Wheeler, Alger M., I., 88. 

Wheeler, Charles B., I., 200. 

Wheeler, Ida Worden, II., 191. 

Wheeler, Joel, II., 112. 

WTieeler, Kufus, II., 194-196. 

Whipple, Dr. Electa B., II., 186. 

White, Miss Isabella, II., 154. 

White, Dr. James P., II., 142-144, 182, 
183, 190. 

White, Truman C, I., 200; II., 183, 189. 

White, L. & I. J. Co., II., 2. 

White's Bank, I., 251. 

White, Frost & White, I., 229. 

Whitford, A. H., II., 92, 93. 

Whiting-, Samuel, II., 131. 

Whitney, Lieut. William L., I., 69. 

Wick & Co., H. K., I., 241, 285. 

Wickwire Steel Co., I., 285. 

Wiedrich, Colonel xMichael, and "Wied- 
rich's Battery," I., 74, 75. 

Wiggins, Captain William T., I., 71. 

Wilcox, Ansley, I., 90, 194; II., 87. 

Wilcox, Dr. Charles H., I., 69; II., 183. 

Wilcox, Dr. D. G., II., 187. 

Wilcox, Horace, I., 245. 

"Wildcat Banking," I., 47. 

Wilder, Dr. Rose, II., 187. 

Wilgus, William John, II., 205. 

Wilkes, Mrs. Ellen, II., 119. 

Wilkeson, Frank, II., 189. 

Wilkeson, John, I., 272-274. 

Wilkeson, Lieut. John, Jr., I., 74. 

Wilkeson, Judge Samuel, I., 31, 33, 41, 
97-106, 185, 186, 197, 199; II., 189. 

Williams, Frank F., I., 155. 

Williams & Co., Frank, I., 239. 

Williams, George L., I., 87, 265; II., 
164. 

Williams, Gibson T., I., 359. 

Williams, Mrs. Gibson T., II., 135. 

Williams, Miss Martha T., II., 125. 

Williams, Henry E., II., 157. 

Williamsville, I., 30. 

Willink, I., 30. 

Willink Avenue, I., 14. 

Wilner, M. M., II., 198. 

Wilson, Charles E., II., 164, 173. 

Wilson, George V., I., 317. 

Wilson, Guilford E., I., 145, 333, 274. 

Wilson, Matthew, II., 206. 

Wing, Halsey E., II., 157. 

Winne, Dr. Charles, II., 157, 177, 183. 

Winne, Cornelius, I., 7, 10. 

Witherspoon, Orlando, II., 191. 

Witthaus, Dr. F. A., II., 185. 

Women Teachers' Association, II., 140. 

Women's Christian Association, 11., 95. 

Women's Clubs, Buffalo City Federa- 
tion, II., 226. 



Women's Educational and Industrial 

Union, II., 96-98. 
Wood, Charles, II., 189. 
Wood, Frederick A., II., 190. 
Wood, Dr. Harry A., II., 186. 
Wood, William P. M., II., 193. 
Wood Pavements, I., 143. 
Woodruff, Mrs. C. H., II., 190. 
Woodruff, L. C, II., 207. 
Woodruff, Lieut.-Gov. Timothy L., I., 

89. 
Woodward, George W., II., 191. 
Working Boys' Home, II., 125. 
Worthington, Eobert H., I., 193. 
Worthington, S. K., I., 211. 
Wright, Dr. A. E., II., 187. 
Wright, Dr. William Bull, II., 141, 189. 
Wright, Eev. Dr. William Burnet, II., 

18,9, 190. 
Wright, William H., I., 125. 
WyckofE, Dr. Cornelius C, II„ 184. 
Yates, Harry, I., 241. 
Young, Mrs. Julia Ditto, II., 189, 191. 
Young Men's Association, II., 157-163. 
Young Men's Christian Association, 

II., 87-94, 175. 
Young Women's Christian Association, 

II., 95. 
Zahm, George, II., 201, 303. 
Ziegele Brewery, II., 19. 
Ziegler, Albert, II., 167. 
Zimmerman, H. C, I., 369. 
Zion House, II., 107. 
"Zoo," The, L, 181. 
Zurcher, George, II., 190. 

ROCHESTER 

Academy of Science, organization of, 
IL, 347. 

Advertiser, The, foundation of, II., 234. 

Anderson, Martin B., President Uni- 
versity of Eochester, II., 243. 

Anthony, Susan B., heads committee 
to secure admission of women to 
Rochester University, IL, 244. 

.Vqueduct over the Erie Railroad, IL, 
237. 

Arcade, built by Reynolds, IL, 335. 

Auburn & Rochester Railroad, receives 
first freight in 1840, IL, 337. 

Banking, development of, IL, 253. 

Bank of Rochester, established in 1837, 
IL, 234. 

Barnard, Daniel D., IL, 235. 

Berith Kodesh, foundation of, IL, 241. 

Blythe, Samuel G., II. , 246. 

Bond, .lohn G., plants sugar maples, 
IL, 233. 



3ii 



Brewers, II., 254. 

Brown, Francis, first president of vil- 
lage, II., 233. 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg Rail- 
road, II., 251. 

Chamber of Commerce, II., 250. 

Charitable enterprises, II., 247. 

Child, Jonathan, elected first mayor, 
II., 236. 

Churches, those existing in 1813, II., 
233; list of, 240. 

City, incorporation of, II., 235. 

City Hall, first occupied, II., 238. 

Clothing manufacture, II., 254. 

Convention Hall, II., 239. 

Corinthian Hall, II., 237. 

Court House, II., 239. 

Cutler, James G., devises mail-chute, 
II., 253. 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
Railroad, II., 251. 

Democrat, The, II., 236. 

Douglass, Frederick, literary work of, 
II., 246. 

Eastman, George, g^ves park property, 
II., 250. 

Eastman Laboratories, II., 243. 

Education, development of, II., 241. 

Elliott, George W., supports park sys- 
tem, II., 243. 

EI wood Memorial Building, erected, 
11., 238. 

Ely, Harvey, plants sugar maples, II., 
233. 

Erie Canal, contracts for digging be- 
tween Rochester and Palmyra, 11.. 
234. 

Erie Railroad, II., 251. 

Eureka Club, II., 247 

Female Charitable Society, II., 247. 

First Baptist Church, foundation oi', 
II., 241. 

First Presbyterian Church, II., 240. 

Fish, Josiah, builds first blockhousr, 
II., 230. 

Floral trade, IL, 232. 

Flouring, early establishment of, II. 
234. 

"Flower City," sometimes applied to 
Rochester, II., 233. 

Flower nurseries, development of, II., 
255. 

Gazette, The, II., 233. 

Genesee River, supplies power to 
Rochester, II., 331. 

Genesee, Treaty of, IL, 229. 

Genesee Valley Canal, construction of, 
XL, 237. 



Genesee Valley Club, IL, 247. 

Genesee Valley Park, IL, 250. 

German-American Insurance Building, 
IL, 238. 

Germans, celebrate bicentennial of 
German colonization, IL, 338. 

Gorham, Nathaniel, II. , 229. 

Hanford, Charles, builds first block- 
house, IL, 230. 

Harrison, Benjamin, participation in 
dedication of Soldiers' Monument, 
IL, 239. 

Hemlock Lake Reservoir, connection 
with present water supply, II. , 249. 

Hemlock Lake water system, installed, 
IL, 238. 

Highland Park, IL, 350. 

Hill, David Jayne, president Univer- 
sity of Rochester, IL, 244. 

Historical Society, IL, 247. 

Holland Purchase, IL, 229. 

Holly water supply system, IL, 249. 

Home of the Friendless, II. , 247. 

Hospitals, IL, 248. 

Hotels, in 1834, IL, 336. 

Incorporation of City, IL, 235. 

"Indian Allan," IL, 228. 

Industrial School, IL, 347. 

Jerome, Leonard W., IL, 246. 

Johnson, Rossiter, IL, 246. 

Kodak Park works, IL, 253. 

Lafayette, Marquis de, visit of, IL, 237. 

Lehigh Valley Railroad, IL, 251. 

Libraries, development of, IL, 245. 

Lincoln, Abraham, speech at New 
York Central Station, IL, 238. 

Lincoln National Bank, II. , 252. 

Lyceum Theatre, IL, 238. 

Mail-chute, devised by James G. Cut- 
ler, IL, 253. 

Manufacturing, development of, II. , 
254. 

Martin, Edward S., IL, 346. 

Mathews, Vincent, IL, 335. 

Maud S., makes record at Rochester 
Driving Park, IL, 338. 

Mayors, list of, II.,'239. 

iVIonroe County, establishment, in 1821, 
IL, 334. 

Morgan, Lewis H., IL, 346. 

Morris, Robert, acquires part of pres- 
ent site, IL, 239. 

Mount Hope Reservoir, connection 
with water supply, II. , 349. 

National Bank of Commerce, IL, 252. 

Newspapers: Gazette and Telegraph, 
IL, 233; Advertiser, 234; Democrat, 
236; development of, 345. 



ROCH ESTER— UTICA 



319 



New York, Albany & Buffalo Com- 
pany, opens first telegraph ofBee, II., 
237. 

New York Central & Hudson Elver 
Eailroad, ground broken for elevated 
tracks, II., 238; connections, 251. 

Olmstead, Jeremiah, II., 228. 

Orphan Asylum, II., 248. 

Park system, II., 249. 

Penney, Joseph, president of Hamilton 
College, II., 234. 

Pennsylvania Eailroad, II., 251. 

Perkins, James Breck, career of, II., 
' 246. 

Phelps, Oliver, acquires pre-emption 
right of Massachusetts, II., 229. 

Population, in 1813, II., 233; In 1827, 
234; in 1834, 236; in 1844, 237; in 
1910, 255. 

Post Office, first established in shop of 
Abelard Eey.nolds, II., 233. 

Powers Building, erected, II., 238. 

Public service, contributions by Eoch- 
ester, II., 239. 

Eailway systems, development of, II., 
251. 

Reynolds, Abelard, builds saddlers' 
shop, II., 233; builds the arcade, 23,"i. 

Reynolds Library, II., 238. 

Reynolds, Mortimer F., endows Rey- 
nolds Library, II., 238; builds me- 
morial librarj', 243. 

Reynolds, William A., builds Corin- 
thian Hall, II., 237. 

Robertson, Charles Mulford, 11., 246. 

Eochester Academy of Science, organ- 
ized, II., 247. 

Eochester Club, II., 247. 

Eochester Driving Park, Maud !-;. 
makes record at, II., 238. 

Eochester Electric Eailway, II., 251. 

Eochester Historical Society, organ- 
ized, II., 247. 

Rochester, Nathaniel, early career of. 
II., 230; buys from Charles William- 
son 100-acre tract, 231; sells lots to 
settlers, 233; death of, 235. 

Rochester Theological Seminary, II . 
244. 

Rochester Trust & Safe Deposit Com- 
pany, II., 239, 252. 

Rochester, William B., public career 
of, II., 235. 

Rockefeller, John D., endows Roches- 
ter Theological Seminary, II., 244. 

Roman Catholic Diocese, established, 
II., 241. 

Rome & Watertown Railroad, II., 251. 

St. Luke's Church, II., 240. 



St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, 

II., 241. 
Sargent time-lock, II„ 254. 
Savings banks, II., 252. 
Schools, development of, II., 242. 
Seneca Park, II., 250. 
Senecas, II., 229. 
Seward, William H., delivers speech on 

"Irrepressible Conflict," II., 237. 
Sibley, Hiram, erects Sibley Hall, II., 

243. 
Soldiers' Monument, dedicated, IL, 238. 
Stage lines, in 1834, II., 236. 
Strong, Augustus H., president Roch- 
ester Theological Seminary, II., 244. 
Telegraph, The, II., 233. 
Telegraph otiice, first opened, II., 237. 
Tonawanda Eailroad, II., 236. 
Traders' National Bank, II., 252. 
irevor, John B., endows Eochester 

Theological Seminary, II., 244. 
United States courts, II., 255. 
Jniversity of Eochester, II., 243; ad- 
mits women, 244. 
Valuation, in 1834, II., 236; in 1908, 

255. 
Village, incorporation of, II., 233. 
Water supply system, development of, 

II., 248, 249. 
Weed, Thurlow, public career of, II., 

235; goes to Albany, 245. 
Western House of Refuge, II., 237. 
Western New York Institute for Deaf 

Mutes, II., 247. 
West Shore Railroad, II., 251. 
Whittlesey, Chancellor, house of, II., 

236. 
Wilder Block, IL, 238. 
Williamson, Charles, receives share of 

site, IL, 229; sells to Nathaniel 

Eochester, 231. 
Young Men's Christian Association, 

IL, 248. 
Young Women's Christian Association, 

IL, 248. 



UTICA 

Agricultural Implements, II., 288. 
Amusements, in 1832, IL, 268. 
Anti-Slavery Convention of 1835, IL, 

271. 
Associated Press, origin in Utica, IL, 

274. 
Astor, John Jacob, becomes partner in 

fur trade, II., 258. 
Bagg, Moses, IL, 259. 
Banking, in early days, IL, 264; in 



320 



1832, 268; extension of, 272; develop- 
ment in 1907, 283. 

Bank of Central New York, II., 273. 

Bank of Utica, II., 264. 

Bloodgood, Francis A., first treasurer, 
II., 267. 

Brady, A. N., II., 275. 

Breese, Admiral, II., 266. 

Butterfield, General Daniel, II., 278. 

Cambrian, The, 11., 283. 

Canals, to Rome and Lake Erie, II., 
264. 

Catholic Church, established, II., 263. 

Chamber of Commerce, II., 280. 

Charities, II., 275. 

Charter of 1849, II., 277; of 1870, 278; 
becomes subject to White Act, 283. 

Chenango Canal, fails to fulfill expec- 
tations, II., 273. 

Cholera, epidemic of, in 1832, II., 270. 

Churches, in 1832, II., 268; valuation 
of, 1907, 282. 

Churchill, Samuel, II., 275. 

Citizens' Trust Company, II., 284. 

City charter, granted, II., 267. 

Commercial Travelers' Association, 
II., 279. 

Conklingf, Eoscoe, park named for, II., 
285. 

Cornhill Building & Loan Association, 
IL, 284. 

County Medical Society, II., 279. 

Courts, first in new county, II., 263; 
in 1836, 268; federal, 281. 

Coventry, Alexander, II., 258. 

Currency, scarcity of, II., 260. 

Daggert, General Eufus, II., 278. 

Dairy board of trade, II., 280. 

Day, J. Francis, II., 284. 

Devereux, John C. and Nicholas, en- 
gage in banking, II., 265. 

Drop Forge Company, II., 287. 

Dwight, President, describes Utica, II.. 
259. 

Fine Yarn Company, II., 286. 

First Baptist Church, II., 261. 

Forest Hill Cemetery, II., 276. 

Fort Schuyler, II., 257. 

Fort Schuyler Club, II., 279. 

Fur trade, II., 258. 

Gas Light Company, II., 275. 

Gazette, The, II., 259. 

Germany, immigration from, II., 274. 

Globe Mills, II., 275. 

Globe Woolen Company, in 1905, II.. 
285. 

Grindlay, General James G., II., 278. 

Hart &"Crouse Company, II., 286. 

Herald-Dispatch, IL, 282. 



Hibernian Association, IL, 263. 

Holland Land Company, builds hotel, 
IL, 260. 

Homestead Aid Association, IL, 284. 

Hotels, IL, 289. 

Hunt, Montgomerj', engages in bank- 
ing, IL, 264. 

Incorporation bills, issued by village 
trustees, IL, 265. 

Independent Church, IL, 261. 

Industries, early development of, IL, 
267. 

Inman, Commodore, IL, 266. 

Insurance companj% organized, IL, 265. 

International Heater Company, IL, 
286. 

Ireland, immigrants from, IL, 263. 

Jews, buy building for synagogue, IL, 
261; German Sj'nagogue established, 
274; prefer their own cemetery, 276; 
Russia, immigration from, 281; 
Hungary, immigration from, 281. 

Johnson, Alexander B., IL, 265. 

Johnson, Bryan, IL, 258. 

Kip, James S., IL, 264. 

Kirkland, Joseph, first mayor, IL, 269. 

Knitting Mills, IL, 286. 

Literature, IL, 290. 

McQuade, General James, IL, 278. 

Manhattan Company, branch of, II. , 
264. 

Manufactures, development of, IL, 
278; in 1906, 288; in 1910, 291. 

Masonic Home, IL, 279. 

Mechanics' Association, IL, 268. 

Men's clothing, IL, 287. 

Military spirit, shown by local organ- 
izations, IL, 277. 

Mohawk, level of, IL, 269. 

Mohawk Turnpike & Bridge Company, 
IL, 260. 

Munson, Williams, memorial building, 
IL, 279. 

Munson Brothers Company, IL, 287. . 

Newspapers: Gazette, IL, 259; estab- 
lished in 1834, 270; Herald-Dispatch,' 
Observer, and Press, 282. 

New York Central Railroad, terminal 
facilities, IL, 289. 

New York Jlills, II., 264. 

Observer, The, IL, 270, 282. 

Oneida Bank, IL, 272. 

Oneida County, created, IL, 259. 

Oneida Historical Society, IL, 279. 

Parker, Jason, secures mail contract, 
IL, 259. 

Pease, General William R., IL, 278. 

Plank roads, IL, 276. 



321 



Population, in 1817, II., 266; in 1830, 

267; in 1850, 277; in 1880, 278. 
Post routes, II., 262. 
Post, The, II., 370. 
Press, The, II., 282. 
Proctor, Thomas E., president Second 

National Bankj II., 284; park created 

by, 285. 
Publishing-, in early days, II., 262. 
Railroad building, beginning of, II., 

270. 
Railroad , construction of West Shore, 

II., 280. 
Revolution, veterans of, from Utica, 

II., 258. 
Rogers, Charles B., II., 283. 
Russia, Immigration from, II., 281. 
Savage Company, II., 286. 
Savings Bank of Utica, in 1907, II., 284. 
Schools, beginnings of, II., 266; in 

1832, 268; in 1907, 282. 
Schuyler, General Philip, buys part 

of site, II., 257. 
Seneca Turnpike Company, II., 260. 
Seymour, Horatio, II., 279. 
Sherman, James S., II., 284. 
Sherman, Richard U., president of 

Water Works, II., 270. 
Skenandoa Cotton Company, II., 285. 
Smith, Peter, engages in trade, II., 258. 
Standard Harrow Company, II., 288. 
Steam Woolen Mills Company, II., 275. 
Steuben, General, II., 258. 
Streets, in 1805, II., 265; length of, 

283. 
Taylor, Rev. John, describes village 

in 1802, II., 261. 



Utica Academy, II., 266. 

Utica Aqueduct Company, II., 269. 

Utica Cemetery Association, II., 276. 

Utica City Bank, II., 273. 

Utica Eisteddford, II., 261. 

Utica Insurance Company, II., 265. 

Utica Mechanics' Association, 11., 270. 

Utica Pipe Company, II., 286. 

Utica Savings Bank, II., 265. 

Utica Steam & Mohawk Valley Cotton 
Mills, II., 285. 

Utica Steam Cotton Mills, II., 275. 

Utica Trust & Deposit Company, II., 
284. 

Utica Water Works, II., 269. 

Valuation, in 1833, II., 269; in 1907, 
282; in 1911, 284. 

Van Rensselaer, Jeremiah, president 
of village, II., 267. 

Village, legally created, II., 259. 

Wales, Immigration from, II., 261. 

Walker, Benjamin, elected to Congress, 
II., 258. 

War of 1812, share of Utica in, II., 266. 

Water power, made available, II., 264. 

Water supply, early history and devel- 
opment of, II., 269. 

West Shore Railroad, II., 280. 

Whig, The, II., 270. 

Whitestown, named for Hugh White, 
II., 257; separated from Utica, 266. 

Williams, William, engages in publish- 
ing, II., 263. 

Xargil Manufacturing Company, The, 

Young Men's Christian Association, 
II., 280. 



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